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An Evaluation of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Among Youth.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Research across the past 4 decades has supported a cross-sectional association between adult cigarette smoking and lower fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and emerging research suggests higher FVC may predict cessation. Among youth, findings are limited to a few cross-sectional studies with somewhat mixed results. Here we evaluated the FVC-smoking association among youth both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.
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Parity, lactation, and breast cancer subtypes in African American women: results from the AMBER Consortium.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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African American (AA) women have a disproportionately high incidence of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer, a subtype with a largely unexplained etiology. Because childbearing patterns also differ by race/ethnicity, with higher parity and a lower prevalence of lactation in AA women, we investigated the relation of parity and lactation to risk of specific breast cancer subtypes.
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Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in african american and European american women.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.
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Variants of estrogen-related genes and breast cancer risk in European and African American women.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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It has been observed previously that compared with women of European ancestry (EA), those of African ancestry (AA) are more likely to develop estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, although the mechanisms have not been elucidated. We tested the associations between breast cancer risk and a targeted set of 20 genes known to be involved in estrogen synthesis, metabolism, and response and potential gene-environment interactions using data and samples from 1307 EA (658 cases) and 1365 AA (621 cases) participants from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). Multivariable logistic regression found evidence of associations with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene in EA women (rs1801132, odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% CI=1.20-1.80, P=0.0002; rs2046210, OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.47, P=0.02; and rs3020314, OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.19-1.70, P=0.00009), but not in AA women. The only other gene associated with breast cancer risk was CYP1A2 in AA women (rs2470893, OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00-2.02, P=0.05), but not in EA women. When stratified by ER status, ESR1 rs1801132, rs2046210, and rs3020314 showed stronger associations in ER-positive than in ER-negative breast cancer in only EA women. Associations with the ESR1 SNPs in EA women also appeared to be stronger with longer endogenous estrogen exposure or hormonal replacement therapy use. Our results indicate that there may be differential genetic influences on breast cancer risk in EA compared with AA women and that these differences may be modified by tumor subtype and estrogen exposures. Future studies with a larger sample size may determine the full contribution of estrogen-related genes to racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer.
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Circulating miR-148b and miR-133a as biomarkers for breast cancer detection.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Circulating microRNAs have drawn a great deal of attention as promising novel biomarkers for breast cancer. However, to date, the results are mixed. Here, we performed a three-stage microRNA analysis using plasma samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls, with efforts taken to address several pitfalls in detection techniques and study design observed in previous studies. In the discovery phase with 122 Caucasian study subjects, we identified 43 microRNAs differentially expressed between breast cancer cases and healthy controls. When those microRNAs were compared with published data from other studies, we identified three microRNAs, including miR-148b, miR-133a and miR-409-3p, whose plasma levels were significantly higher in breast cancer cases than healthy controls and were also significant in previous independent studies. In the validation phase with 50 breast cancer cases and 50 healthy controls, we validated the associations with breast cancer detection for miR-148b and miR-133a (P = 1.5×10-6 and 1.3×10-10, respectively). In the in-vitro study phase, we found that both miR-148b and miR-133a were secreted from breast cancer cell lines, showing their secretory potential and possible tumor origin. Thus, our data suggest that both miR-148b and miR-133a have potential use as biomarkers for breast cancer detection.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade.
Kristen S Purrington, Seth Slettedahl, Manjeet K Bolla, Kyriaki Michailidou, Kamila Czene, Heli Nevanlinna, Stig E Bojesen, Irene L Andrulis, Angela Cox, Per Hall, Jane Carpenter, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Christopher A Haiman, Peter A Fasching, Arto Mannermaa, Robert Winqvist, Hermann Brenner, Annika Lindblom, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Javier Benitez, Anthony Swerdlow, Vessela Kristensen, Pascal Guénel, Alfons Meindl, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Rainer Fagerholm, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Xianshu Wang, Curtis Olswold, Janet E Olson, Anna Marie Mulligan, Julia A Knight, Sandrine Tchatchou, Malcolm W R Reed, Simon S Cross, Jianjun Liu, Jingmei Li, Keith Humphreys, Christine Clarke, Rodney Scott, , Florentia Fostira, George Fountzilas, Irene Konstantopoulou, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Arif B Ekici, Arndt Hartmann, Matthias W Beckmann, Jaana M Hartikainen, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vesa Kataja, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Katri Pylkäs, Saila Kauppila, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Christa Stegmaier, Volker Arndt, Sara Margolin, Rosemary Balleine, José Ignacio Arias Perez, M Pilar Zamora, Primitiva Menéndez, Alan Ashworth, Michael Jones, Nick Orr, Patrick Arveux, Pierre Kerbrat, Thérèse Truong, Peter Bugert, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, France Labrèche, Mark S Goldberg, Martine Dumont, Argyrios Ziogas, Eunjung Lee, Gillian S Dite, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Jirong Long, Martha Shrubsole, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Filomena Ficarazzi, Monica Barile, Paolo Peterlongo, Katarzyna Durda, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, Carolien H M van Deurzen, John W M Martens, Mieke Kriege, Jonine D Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Andreas Schneeweiss, William J Tapper, Susan M Gerty, Lorraine Durcan, Catriona McLean, Roger L Milne, Laura Baglietto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Laura J Van't Veer, Sten Cornelissen, Asta Försti, Diana Torres, Thomas Rüdiger, Anja Rudolph, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Stefan Nickels, Caroline Weltens, Giuseppe Floris, Matthieu Moisse, Joe Dennis, Qin Wang, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Judith Brown, Jacques Simard, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, John L Hopper, Natalia Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Wei Zheng, Paolo Radice, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Peter Devillee, Hiltrud Brauch, Maartje Hooning, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Elinor Sawyer, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederick Marmee, Diana M Eccles, Graham G Giles, Julian Peto, Marjanka Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Ute Hamann, Jenny Chang-Claude, Diether Lambrechts, Paul D P Pharoah, Douglas Easton, V Shane Pankratz, Susan Slager, Celine M Vachon, Fergus J Couch.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.33, P = 4.2 × 10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P = 8.7 × 10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, P = 7.9 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low-grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high-grade breast cancer risk (P = 2.1 × 10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
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Dietary supplement use among participants of a databank and biorepository at a comprehensive cancer centre.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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We assessed the prevalence, patterns and predictors of dietary supplement use among participants of the databank and biorepository (DBBR) at a comprehensive cancer centre in western New York.
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A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10(-6)) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ?65-70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry.
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Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.
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Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described.
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Non-initiation and early discontinuation of adjuvant trastuzumab in women with localized HER2-positive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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One year of trastuzumab therapy is recommended for women with HER2-positive breast cancer ?1.0 cm in size to increase survival and is considered for women with tumors 0.5-0.9 cm in size. We analyzed compliance with trastuzumab among women with HER2-positive breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Of 1145 recruited patients with breast cancer, 152 were HER2-positive (13.2 %), of whom 126 had tumors ?1.0 cm; 110/126 (87.3 %) of these initiated trastuzumab. Non-receipt was associated with older age, better prognosis tumors, and with non-receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 110 who initiated treatment, 18 (15 %) did not complete treatment, 15 (83 %) of them because of cardiotoxicity. Of 20 women with tumors 0.5-0.9 cm, 5 (25 %) initiated trastuzumab. Compliance with trastuzumab was very high among those with HER2-positive breast cancer, as was the completion of the recommended therapy.
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Associations between estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and timing of reproductive events differ between African American and European American women.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The effects of reproductive factors on breast cancer risk seem to differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Menarche and first live birth (FLB) tend to occur at younger ages in African Americans (AA) than European Americans (EA), and could play a role in breast cancer disparities. In the Women's Circle of Health Study, a case-control study of breast cancer in EA and AA women, in-person interviews were conducted to collect epidemiologic data, including reproductive histories. Data on ER status, abstracted from pathology reports, were available for 814 AA and 538 EA breast cancer cases, and were analyzed with 1015 AA and 715 EA controls, to evaluate associations between subgroups and age at menarche, age at FLB, and the interval between those ages. Among AA women, later age at menarche (?14 years) was associated with reduced risk of both ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer, with ORs strongest for ER(-) disease [OR = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.88]; associations were weaker and nonsignificant for EA women. There were no significant associations with age at FLB, but AA women with a FLB within 15 years of menarche had increased risk of ER(-) disease (OR = 2.26; 95% CI, 1.29-3.95), with no significant associations among EAs. In our data, earlier age at menarche and shorter intervals until FLB are associated with ER(-) breast cancer in AA women; differential distributions by race of these and other reproductive risk factors could contribute to the higher prevalence of ER(-) breast cancer in AA women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1115-20. ©2014 AACR.
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Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.
Maya Ghoussaini, Stacey L Edwards, Kyriaki Michailidou, Silje Nord, Richard Cowper-Sal Lari, Kinjal Desai, Siddhartha Kar, Kristine M Hillman, Susanne Kaufmann, Dylan M Glubb, Jonathan Beesley, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Ed Dicks, Qi Guo, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Daniel Klevebring, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Diether Lambrechts, Bernard Thienpont, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Emily Hallberg, Celine Vachon, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Lorna Gibson, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Florence Menegaux, Marie Sanchez, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Javier Benitez, M Pilar Zamora, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Qiuyin Cai, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Daphne S C Lee, Tien Y Wong, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Carolien H M van Deurzen, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Helen Tsimiklis, Miroslav K Kapuscinski, Chen-Yang Shen, Pei-Ei Wu, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Shou-Tung Chen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Borresen-Dale, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Catriona McLean, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed Buhari, Yik Ying Teo, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Koto, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Sara Volorio, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Sonja Helbig, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Ute Hamann, Diana Torres, Wei Zheng, Jirong Long, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Shahana Ahmed, Mel Maranian, Catherine S Healey, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Nuria Alvarez, Daniel Herrero, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Ines de Santiago, Jason Carroll, Carlos Caldas, Melissa A Brown, Mathieu Lupien, Vessela N Kristensen, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Juliet D French, Douglas F Easton, Alison M Dunning, .
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
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Postpartum breast involution reveals regression of secretory lobules mediated by tissue-remodeling.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A postpartum diagnosis of breast cancer is an independent predictor of metastases, however the reason is unknown. In rodents, the window of postpartum mammary gland involution promotes tumor progression, suggesting a role for breast involution in the poor prognosis of human postpartum breast cancers. Rodent mammary gland involution is characterized by the programmed elimination of the secretory lobules laid down in preparation for lactation. This tissue involution process involves massive epithelial cell death, stromal remodeling, and immune cell infiltration with similarities to microenvironments present during wound healing and tumor progression. Here, we characterize breast tissue from premenopausal women with known reproductive histories to determine the extent, duration and cellular mechanisms of postpartum lobular involution in women.
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Role of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in the surgical management of early-stage breast cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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To examine the role of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) on time to surgery and rates of reoperation and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) using a population-based study of New Jersey breast cancer patients.
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Genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes are associated with outcomes following treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Variable survival outcomes are seen following treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This study examined whether outcomes for aggressive B-cell NHL are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes, which can alter drug metabolism and immune responses. Genotypes for 53 SNPs in 29 genes were determined for 337 patients given anthracycline-based therapies. Their associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression; associations with hematologic toxicity were estimated by logistic regression. To validate the findings, the top three SNPs were tested in an independent cohort of 572 DLBCL patients. The top SNPs associated with PFS in the discovery cohort were the rare homozygotes for MPO rs2243828 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-3.06, P = 0.013), AKR1C3 rs10508293 (HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.28-3.41, P = 0.0032) and NCF4 rs1883112 (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.02, P = 0.06). The association of the NCF4 SNP with PFS was replicated in the validation dataset (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44-1.01, P = 0.05) and the meta-analysis was significant (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.89, P < 0.01). The association of the MPO SNP was attenuated in the validation dataset, while the meta-analysis remained significant (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.12-2.41). These two SNPs showed similar trends with OS in the meta-analysis (for NCF4, HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.02, P = 0.07 and for MPO, HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.36-3.12, P < 0.01). In addition, patients with the rare homozygote of the NCF4 SNP had an increased risk of hematologic toxicity. We concluded that genetic variations in NCF4 may contribute to treatment outcomes for patients with aggressive NHL.
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Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.
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Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFN?2, and TNF?, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNF? levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFN?2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.
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MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk.
Sofia Khan, Dario Greco, Kyriaki Michailidou, Roger L Milne, Taru A Muranen, Tuomas Heikkinen, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Jianjun Liu, Per Hall, Astrid Irwanto, Keith Humphreys, Jingmei Li, Kamila Czene, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rebecca Hein, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Olivia Fletcher, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Lorna Gibson, Zoe Aitken, John L Hopper, Helen Tsimiklis, Minh Bui, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, Melissa C Southey, Carmel Apicella, Jennifer Stone, Quinten Waisfisz, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Muriel A Adank, Rob B van der Luijt, Alfons Meindl, Rita K Schmutzler, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Peter Lichtner, Clare Turnbull, Nazneen Rahman, Stephen J Chanock, David J Hunter, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J V A N't Veer, Frans B Hogervorst, Peter A Fasching, Michael G Schrauder, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Javier Benitez, Pilar M Zamora, Jose I A Perez, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Celine Vachon, Janet E Olson, Diether Lambrechts, Matthieu Moisse, Robert Paridaens, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Claire Mulot, Frederick Marme, Barbara Burwinkel, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Sandrine Tchatchou, Anna Marie Mulligan, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Hoda Anton-Culver, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Lissowska, Louise Brinton, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Vessela N Kristensen, , Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Monica Barile, Paolo Mariani, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Agnes Jager, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Graham G Giles, Catriona McLean, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Michael Jones, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Arto Mannermaa, Ute Hamann, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Carl Blomqvist, Kristiina Aittomäki, Douglas F Easton, Heli Nevanlinna.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
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Bone health history in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI) users before breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001). Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.
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Genome-wide association study identifies 25 known breast cancer susceptibility loci as risk factors for triple negative breast cancer.
Kristen S Purrington, Susan Slager, Diana Eccles, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Peter A Fasching, Penelope Miron, Jane Carpenter, Jenny Chang-Claude, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Vessela Kristensen, Hoda Anton-Culver, Paul Goodfellow, William J Tapper, Sajjad Rafiq, Susan M Gerty, Lorraine Durcan, Irene Konstantopoulou, Florentia Fostira, Athanassios Vratimos, Paraskevi Apostolou, Irene Konstanta, Vassiliki Kotoula, Sotiris Lakis, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Dimosthenis Skarlos, Dimitrios Pectasides, George Fountzilas, Matthias W Beckmann, Alexander Hein, Matthias Ruebner, Arif B Ekici, Arndt Hartmann, Ruediger Schulz-Wendtland, Stefan P Renner, Wolfgang Janni, Brigitte Rack, Christoph Scholz, Julia Neugebauer, Ulrich Andergassen, Michael P Lux, Lothar Haeberle, Christine Clarke, Nirmala Pathmanathan, Anja Rudolph, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Stefan Nickels, Janet E Olson, James N Ingle, Curtis Olswold, Seth Slettedahl, Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, S Keith Anderson, Daniel W Visscher, Victoria L Cafourek, Hugues Sicotte, Naresh Prodduturi, Elisabete Weiderpass, Leslie Bernstein, Argyrios Ziogas, Jennifer Ivanovich, Graham G Giles, Laura Baglietto, Melissa Southey, Veli-Matti Kosma, Hans-Peter Fischer, , Malcom W R Reed, Simon S Cross, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha Shrubsole, Qiuyin Cai, Xiao-Ou Shu, Mary Daly, Joellen Weaver, Eric Ross, Jennifer Klemp, Priyanka Sharma, Diana Torres, Thomas Rüdiger, Heidrun Wölfing, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Asta Försti, Thaer Khoury, Shicha Kumar, Robert Pilarski, Charles L Shapiro, Dario Greco, Päivi Heikkilä, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Astrid Irwanto, Jianjun Liu, Vernon Shane Pankratz, Xianshu Wang, Gianluca Severi, Arto Mannermaa, Douglas Easton, Per Hall, Hiltrud Brauch, Angela Cox, Wei Zheng, Andrew K Godwin, Ute Hamann, Christine Ambrosone, Amanda Ewart Toland, Heli Nevanlinna, Celine M Vachon, Fergus J Couch.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Triple negative (TN) breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with a unique set of epidemiologic and genetic risk factors. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TN breast cancer (stage 1: 1,529 TN cases, 3,399 controls; stage 2: 2,148 cases, 1,309 controls) to identify loci that influence TN breast cancer risk. Variants in the 19p13.1 and PTHLH loci showed genome-wide significant associations (p<5x10(-8)) in stage 1 and 2 combined. Results also suggested a substantial enrichment of significantly associated variants among the SNPs analyzed in stage 2. Variants from 25 of 74 known breast cancer susceptibility loci were also associated with risk of TN breast cancer (p<0.05). Associations with TN breast cancer were confirmed for ten loci (LGR6, MDM4, CASP8, 2q35, 2p24.1, TERT-rs10069690, ESR1, TOX3, 19p13.1, RALY), and we identified associations with TN breast cancer for 15 additional breast cancer loci (p<0.05: PEX14, 2q24.1, 2q31.1, ADAM29, EBF1, TCF7L2, 11q13.1, 11q24.3, 12p13.1, PTHLH, NTN4, 12q24, BRCA2, RAD51L1-rs2588809, MKL1). Further, two SNPs independent of previously reported signals in ESR1 (rs12525163 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, p=4.9x10(-4)) and 19p13.1 (rs1864112 OR=0.84, p=1.8x10(-9)) were associated with TN breast cancer. A polygenic risk score (PRS) for TN breast cancer based on known breast cancer risk variants showed a 4-fold difference in risk between the highest and lowest PRS quintiles (OR=4.03, 95% CI 3.46-4.70, p=4.8x10(-69)). This translates to an absolute risk for TN breast cancer ranging from 0.8% to 3.4%, suggesting that genetic variation may be used for TN breast cancer risk prediction.
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Pilot intervention outcomes of an educational program for biospecimen research participation.
J Cancer Educ
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Biospecimen banking programs are critically dependent on participation of diverse population members. The purpose of this study was to test a pilot intervention to enhance recruitment to a biospecimen bank among racially diverse community members. A mixed methods, community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation was used to develop and pilot an intervention to educate and recruit participants to a biospecimen bank. Pre- and post-assessments of knowledge about research, perceived costs and benefits of participation (expected utility), and emotional states associated with research participation (affective associations) as well as post-intervention participation in biobanking were examined to determine intervention effectiveness. The pilot intervention educated 148 community members; 107 (73 %) donated blood and 77 (52 %) completed a 36-page lifestyle questionnaire. Thirty-two percent of participants were African American and 11 % were Native American. Participating in the educational program significantly reduced negative affect associated with research involving collection of genetic material or completion of a survey. Improved knowledge and understanding of biobanking and research through a CBPR approach are likely to increase participation rates in biobanking for diverse community members. Accurate information and improved knowledge can reduce individual anxiety and concerns that serve as barriers to research participation.
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Community-based partnership to identify keys to biospecimen research participation.
J Cancer Educ
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Reported barriers to participation in biospecimen banking include unwillingness to undergo blood-draw procedures and concerns about confidentiality breaches, privacy, and discrimination. The study identified key factors and influential perspectives to address these barriers and inform methods to improve recruitment and research participation among racially diverse community. A mixed-methods, community-based participatory research orientation was used to collect formative findings to develop a pilot intervention. Methods included nine key informant interviews, three focus groups (n?=?26), and 64 community surveys. Findings showed: (1) increased concern of exploitation by pharmaceutical company sponsor; (2) varied perceptions about monetary compensation for research participation; and (3) willingness to participate in a biospecimen banking study by more than 30% of the people in the community survey. Research participation and biospecimen donation may be influenced by who is sponsoring a study. Monetary incentives for study participation may be more important for African American than White participants.
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Genetic variants in microRNAs and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an integral part of the post-transcriptional machinery of gene expression and have been implicated in the carcinogenic cascade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs and risk of breast cancer have been evaluated in populations of European or Asian ancestry, but not among women of African ancestry. Here we examined 145 SNPs in six miRNA processing genes and in 78 miRNAs which target genes known to be important in breast cancer among 906 African American (AA) and 653 European American (EA) cases and controls enrolled in the Womens Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies of most SNPs (87 %) differed significantly by race. We found a number of SNPs in miRNAs and processing genes in association with breast cancer overall or stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Several associations were significantly different by race, with none of the associations being significant in both races. Using a polygenic risk score to combine the effects of multiple SNPs, we found significant associations with the score in each subgroup analysis. For ER-positive cancer, each unit increment of the risk score was associated with a 51 % increased risk in AAs (OR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.30-1.74, p = 3.3 × 10(-8)) and a 73 % increased risk in EAs (OR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.45-2.06, p = 1.4 × 10(-9)). These data show, for the first time, that miRNA-related genetic variations may underlie the etiology of breast cancer in both populations of African and European ancestries. Future studies are needed to validate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms.
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A collaborative study of the etiology of breast cancer subtypes in African American women: the AMBER consortium.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with at least five intrinsic subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Tumors that express the estrogen receptor (ER+) have better outcomes than ER- tumors, due in part to the success of hormonal therapies that target ER+ tumors. The incidence of ER- breast cancer, and the subset of ER- cancers that are basal-like, is about twice as high among African American (AA) women as among US women of European descent (EA). This disparity appears to explain, in part, the disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer that occurs in AA women. Epidemiologic research on breast cancer in AA women lags behind research in EA women. Here, we review differences in the etiology of breast cancer subtypes among AA women and describe a new consortium of ongoing studies of breast cancer in AA women.
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Parity and breastfeeding among African-American women: differential effects on breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status in the Womens Circle of Health Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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It has long been held that parity reduces risk of breast cancer. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of parity, as well as breastfeeding, may vary according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. We evaluated these associations in a case-control study among African-American women in New York City and New Jersey.
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Body size in early life and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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There is growing evidence that body size in early life influences lifetime breast cancer risk, but little is known for African American (AA) women.
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Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.
Ching-Ti Liu, Keri L Monda, Kira C Taylor, Leslie Lange, Ellen W Demerath, Walter Palmas, Mary K Wojczynski, Jaclyn C Ellis, Mara Z Vitolins, Simin Liu, George J Papanicolaou, Marguerite R Irvin, Luting Xue, Paula J Griffin, Michael A Nalls, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jiankang Liu, Guo Li, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Brian E Henderson, Robert C Millikan, Christine B Ambrosone, Sara S Strom, Xiuqing Guo, Jeanette S Andrews, Yan V Sun, Thomas H Mosley, Lisa R Yanek, Daniel Shriner, Talin Haritunians, Jerome I Rotter, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Megan Smith, Lynn Rosenberg, Josyf Mychaleckyj, Uma Nayak, Ida Spruill, W Timothy Garvey, Curtis Pettaway, Sarah Nyante, Elisa V Bandera, Angela F Britton, Alan B Zonderman, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jingzhong Ding, Kurt Lohman, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Wei Zhao, Patricia A Peyser, Sharon L R Kardia, Edmond Kabagambe, Ulrich Broeckel, Guanjie Chen, Jie Zhou, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Marian L Neuhouser, Evadnie Rampersaud, Bruce Psaty, Charles Kooperberg, JoAnn E Manson, Lewis H Kuller, Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Karen C Johnson, Lara Sucheston, José M Ordovás, Julie R Palmer, Christopher A Haiman, Barbara McKnight, Barbara V Howard, Diane M Becker, Lawrence F Bielak, Yongmei Liu, Matthew A Allison, Struan F A Grant, Gregory L Burke, Sanjay R Patel, Pamela J Schreiner, Ingrid B Borecki, Michele K Evans, Herman Taylor, Michèle M Sale, Virginia Howard, Christopher S Carlson, Charles N Rotimi, Mary Cushman, Tamara B Harris, Alexander P Reiner, L Adrienne Cupples, Kari E North, Caroline S Fox.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept that there are fat distribution loci that are independent of generalized adiposity.
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Association of prediagnostic physical activity with survival following breast cancer diagnosis: influence of TP53 mutation status.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Physical activity both before and after breast cancer diagnosis has been associated with improved survival. However, it is not clear whether this association differs by molecular features of the tumor or by recency of the physical activity to the time of diagnosis.
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Associations of dietary folate, Vitamins B6 and B12 and methionine intake with risk of breast cancer among African American and European American women.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages and to develop poor prognosis tumors. However, these racial differences are largely unexplained. Folate and other methyl-group nutrients may be related to breast carcinogenesis, but few studies have examined these associations in AA populations. We examined the associations of dietary intake of these nutrients with breast cancer risk overall, by menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status among 1,582 AA (749 cases) and 1,434 EA (744 cases) women using data from a case-control study, the Womens Circle of Health Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of each nutrient and breast cancer risk. In AA women, inverse associations were observed for natural food folate intake among premenopausal women (fourth vs. first quartile: OR?=?0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-1.00; p for trend?=?0.06) and for ER-positive tumors (fourth vs. first quartile: OR?=?0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; p for trend?=?0.03), whereas in EA women, a positive association was observed for intake of synthetic folate (fourth vs. first quartile: OR?=?1.53, 95% CI, 1.06-2.21; p for trend?=?0.03). Our findings suggest that natural food folate intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk and that this association may vary by race, menopausal status or ER status. The finding of an increased risk observed among EA women with the highest intake of synthetic folate from fortified foods warrants further investigation.
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Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women.
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Cytokine and cytokine receptor genes of adaptive immune response are differentially associated with breast cancer risk in American women of African and European ancestry.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Disparities in breast cancer biology are evident between American women of African ancestry (AA) and European ancestry (EA), and may be due, in part, to differences in immune function. To assess the potential role of constitutional host immunity on breast carcinogenesis, we tested associations between breast cancer risk and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 cytokine-related genes of the adaptive immune system using 650 EA (n=335 cases) and 864 AA (n=458 cases) women from the Womens Circle of Health Study (WCHS). With additional participant accrual to the WCHS, promising SNPs from the initial analysis were evaluated in a larger sample size (1307 EAs and 1365 AAs). Multivariate logistic regression found SNPs in genes important for T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity (IFNGR2 rs1059293, IL15RA rs2296135, LTA rs1041981), Th2 immunity (IL4R rs1801275), and T regulatory cell-mediated immunosuppression (TGFB1 rs1800469), associated with breast cancer risk, mainly among AAs. The combined effect of these five SNPs was highly significant among AAs (P-trend=0.0005). When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status, LTA rs1041981 was associated with ER positive breast cancers among EAs and marginally among AAs. Among AA women only, IL15 rs10833 and IL15RA rs2296135 were associated with ER positive tumors, and IL12RB1 rs375947, IL15 rs10833 and TGFB1 rs1800469 were associated with ER negative tumors. Our study systematically identified genetic variants in the adaptive immune response pathway associated with breast cancer risk, which appears to differ by ancestry groups, menopausal status and ER status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Racial disparities in red meat and poultry intake and breast cancer risk.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Research on the role of red meat and poultry consumption in breast carcinogenesis is inconclusive, but the evidence in African-American (AA) women is lacking. The association between consuming meat and breast cancer risk was examined in the Womens Circle of Health Study involving 803 AA cases, 889 AA controls, 755 Caucasian cases, and 701 Caucasian controls.
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Serum phospholipid fatty acids, genetic variation in myeloperoxidase, and prostate cancer risk in heavy smokers: a gene-nutrient interaction in the carotene and retinol efficacy trial.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The authors investigated associations of serum phospholipid n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and trans-fatty acids with prostate cancer risk, and whether myeloperoxidase G-463A (rs2333227) modified the associations in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) (Seattle, Washington; Irvine, California; New Haven, Connecticut; San Francisco, California; Baltimore, Maryland; and Portland, Oregon, 1985-2003). Prerandomization sera were assayed for fatty acids among 641 men with incident prostate cancer (368 nonaggressive and 273 aggressive (stage III/IV or Gleason score ?7)) and 1,398 controls. Overall, dihomo-?-linolenic (quartiles 4 vs. 1: odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.95; P(trend) = 0.024) and docosatetraenoic (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.02; P(trend) = 0.011) acids were inversely associated with nonaggressive and aggressive prostate cancer risks, respectively. Among men with MPO GG, the genotype upregulating oxidative stress, quartiles 4 versus 1 eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acids were suggestively associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.92; P(trend) = 0.07). However, the association was the inverse among men with MPO GA/AA genotypes (P(interaction) = 0.011). Interactions were also observed for docosapentaenoic acid, total n-3 PUFAs, and arachidonic acid. MPO GA/AA vs. GG was associated with a 2-fold increase in aggressive prostate cancer risk among men with low (quartile 1) n-3 PUFAs. This study adds important evidence linking oxidative stress with prostate carcinogenesis.
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A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry.
Keri L Monda, Gary K Chen, Kira C Taylor, Cameron Palmer, Todd L Edwards, Leslie A Lange, Maggie C Y Ng, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Matthew A Allison, Lawrence F Bielak, Guanjie Chen, Mariaelisa Graff, Marguerite R Irvin, Suhn K Rhie, Guo Li, Yongmei Liu, Youfang Liu, Yingchang Lu, Michael A Nalls, Yan V Sun, Mary K Wojczynski, Lisa R Yanek, Melinda C Aldrich, Adeyinka Ademola, Christopher I Amos, Elisa V Bandera, Cathryn H Bock, Angela Britton, Ulrich Broeckel, Quiyin Cai, Neil E Caporaso, Chris S Carlson, John Carpten, Graham Casey, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Yii-Der I Chen, Charleston W K Chiang, Gerhard A Coetzee, Ellen Demerath, Sandra L Deming-Halverson, Ryan W Driver, Patricia Dubbert, Mary F Feitosa, Ye Feng, Barry I Freedman, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Omri Gottesman, Xiuqing Guo, Talin Haritunians, Tamara Harris, Curtis C Harris, Anselm J M Hennis, Dena G Hernandez, Lorna H McNeill, Timothy D Howard, Barbara V Howard, Virginia J Howard, Karen C Johnson, Sun J Kang, Brendan J Keating, Suzanne Kolb, Lewis H Kuller, Abdullah Kutlar, Carl D Langefeld, Guillaume Lettre, Kurt Lohman, Vaneet Lotay, Helen Lyon, JoAnn E Manson, William Maixner, Yan A Meng, Kristine R Monroe, Imran Morhason-Bello, Adam B Murphy, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Rajiv Nadukuru, Katherine L Nathanson, Uma Nayak, Amidou N'Diaye, Barbara Nemesure, Suh-Yuh Wu, M Cristina Leske, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Marian Neuhouser, Sarah Nyante, Heather Ochs-Balcom, Adesola Ogunniyi, Temidayo O Ogundiran, Oladosu Ojengbede, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Julie R Palmer, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Nicholette D Palmer, Michael F Press, Evandine Rampersaud, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Babatunde Salako, Eric E Schadt, Ann G Schwartz, Daniel A Shriner, David Siscovick, Shad B Smith, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Margaret R Spitz, Lara Sucheston, Herman Taylor, Bamidele O Tayo, Margaret A Tucker, David J Van Den Berg, Digna R Velez Edwards, Zhaoming Wang, John K Wiencke, Thomas W Winkler, John S Witte, Margaret Wrensch, Xifeng Wu, James J Yang, Albert M Levin, Taylor R Young, Neil A Zakai, Mary Cushman, Krista A Zanetti, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, Yonglan Zheng, Jie Zhou, Regina G Ziegler, Joseph M Zmuda, Jyotika K Fernandes, Gary S Gilkeson, Diane L Kamen, Kelly J Hunt, Ida J Spruill, Christine B Ambrosone, Stefan Ambs, Donna K Arnett, Larry Atwood, Diane M Becker, Sonja I Berndt, Leslie Bernstein, William J Blot, Ingrid B Borecki, Erwin P Bottinger, Donald W Bowden, Gregory Burke, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Jingzhong Ding, David Duggan, Michele K Evans, Caroline Fox, W Timothy Garvey, Jonathan P Bradfield, Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant, Ann Hsing, Lisa Chu, Jennifer J Hu, Dezheng Huo, Sue A Ingles, Esther M John, Joanne M Jordan, Edmond K Kabagambe, Sharon L R Kardia, Rick A Kittles, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Simin Liu, Barbara McKnight, Robert C Millikan, Thomas H Mosley, Badri Padhukasahasram, L Keoki Williams, Sanjay R Patel, Ulrike Peters, Curtis A Pettaway, Patricia A Peyser, Bruce M Psaty, Susan Redline, Charles N Rotimi, Benjamin A Rybicki, Michèle M Sale, Pamela J Schreiner, Lisa B Signorello, Andrew B Singleton, Janet L Stanford, Sara S Strom, Michael J Thun, Mara Vitolins, Wei Zheng, Jason H Moore, Scott M Williams, Shamika Ketkar, Xiaofeng Zhu, Alan B Zonderman, , Charles Kooperberg, George J Papanicolaou, Brian E Henderson, Alex P Reiner, Joel N Hirschhorn, Ruth J F Loos, Kari E North, Christopher A Haiman.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10(-11)) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10(-10)). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10(-8)). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10(-7)), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations.
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Case-only analyses of the associations between polymorphisms in the metastasis-modifying genes BRMS1 and SIPA1 and breast tumor characteristics, lymph node metastasis, and survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Lymph node metastases and tumor characteristics predict breast cancer prognosis but correlate imperfectly with likelihood of metastatic relapse. Discovery of genetic polymorphisms affecting metastasis may improve identification of patients requiring aggressive adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence. We investigated associations between several variants in the BRMS1 and SIPA1 metastasis-modifying genes and lymph node metastases, tumor subtype and grade, recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival. This cross-sectional and prospective prognostic analysis included 859 patients who received surgery for incident breast cancer at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, participated in the DataBank and BioRepository shared resource, and had DNA, clinical, and pathology data available for analysis. Genotyping for BRMS1 (rs11537993, rs3116068, and rs1052566) and SIPA1 (rs75894763, rs746429, rs3741378, and rs2306364) polymorphisms was performed using Sequenom(®) iPLEX Gold and Taqman(®) real-time PCR assays. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. BRMS1 rs1052566 heterozygous individuals were more likely to have node-positive tumors (OR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.13-2.23), although there was no dose-response relationship, and those with at least one variant allele were less likely to have the luminal B subtype (AG + AA: OR = 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.98). BRMS1 rs3116068 was associated with increased likelihood of having the luminal B and the HER2-enriched tumor subtype (P trend = 0.03). Two SIPA1 SNPs, rs746429 and rs2306364, were associated with decreased risk of triple-negative tumors (P trend = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). Presence of 8 or more risk alleles was associated with an increased likelihood of having a node-positive tumor (OR = 2.14, 95 % CI 1.18-3.36, P trend = 0.002). There were no significant associations with survival. Polymorphisms in metastasis-associated genes may be related to tumor characteristics and lymph node metastasis, but not survival. Future evaluation of metastasis-modifying gene variants is necessary to better understand the biology of metastasis.
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Genetic variation in multiple biologic pathways, flavonoid intake, and breast cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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We previously reported an inverse association between flavonoid intake and breast cancer incidence, which has been confirmed by others, but no studies have considered simultaneously potential interactions of flavonoids with multiple genetic polymorphisms involved in biologically relevant pathways (oxidative stress, carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and one-carbon metabolism).
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Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects.
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Racial disparities in posttraumatic stress after diagnosis of localized breast cancer: the BQUAL study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Little is known about the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over time among women diagnosed with breast cancer. This study examines changes in PTSD symptoms in the first 6 months after diagnosis and assesses racial/ethnic differences in PTSD symptomatology over time.
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Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a womans pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (< 65 years) or Medicare rolls (? 65 years). Women were queried on their lifetime pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend < 0.001), longer duration (p trend < 0.01), and larger proportion of affected pregnancies (p trend < 0.0001) among women with ? 3 pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (< 5 years). Findings did not differ by menopausal status or breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.
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Rethinking sources of representative controls for the conduct of case-control studies in minority populations.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Recruitment of controls remains a challenge in case-control studies and particularly in studies involving minority populations.
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Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.
Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Fergus J Couch, Sara Lindstrom, Kyriaki Michailidou, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mark N Brook, Nick Orr, Suhn Kyong Rhie, Elio Riboli, Heather S Feigelson, Loic Le Marchand, Julie E Buring, Diana Eccles, Penelope Miron, Peter A Fasching, Hiltrud Brauch, Jenny Chang-Claude, Jane Carpenter, Andrew K Godwin, Heli Nevanlinna, Graham G Giles, Angela Cox, John L Hopper, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Ed Dicks, Will J Howat, Nils Schoof, Stig E Bojesen, Diether Lambrechts, Annegien Broeks, Irene L Andrulis, Pascal Guénel, Barbara Burwinkel, Elinor J Sawyer, Antoinette Hollestelle, Olivia Fletcher, Robert Winqvist, Hermann Brenner, Arto Mannermaa, Ute Hamann, Alfons Meindl, Annika Lindblom, Wei Zheng, Peter Devillee, Mark S Goldberg, Jan Lubiński, Vessela Kristensen, Anthony Swerdlow, Hoda Anton-Culver, Thilo Dörk, Kenneth Muir, Keitaro Matsuo, Anna H Wu, Paolo Radice, Soo Hwang Teo, Xiao-Ou Shu, William Blot, Daehee Kang, Mikael Hartman, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Chen-Yang Shen, Melissa C Southey, Daniel J Park, Fleur Hammet, Jennifer Stone, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Rutgers, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Julian Peto, Michael G Schrauder, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Helen Warren, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Federick Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Pierre Kerbrat, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Peter Lichtner, Magdalena Lochmann, Christina Justenhoven, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Dario Greco, Tuomas Heikkinen, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Natalia N Antonenkova, Sara Margolin, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Rosemary Balleine, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Patrick Neven, Anne-Sophie Dieudonné, Karin Leunen, Anja Rudolph, Stefan Nickels, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernard Peissel, Loris Bernard, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Kristen Stevens, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Catriona McLean, Gerhard A Coetzee, Ye Feng, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Natalia V Bogdanova, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Cheng Har Yip, Nur Aishah Mohd Taib, Ching-Yu Cheng, Martha Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Robertus A E M Tollenaar, Caroline M Seynaeve, Mieke Kriege, Maartje J Hooning, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Lisa Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Mitul Shah, Hui Miao, Ching Wan Chan, Kee Seng Chia, Anna Jakubowska, Katarzyna Jaworska, Katarzyna Durda, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Alan Ashworth, Michael Jones, Daniel C Tessier, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Christine B Ambrosone, Elisa V Bandera, Esther M John, Gary K Chen, Jennifer J Hu, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Leslie Bernstein, Michael F Press, Regina G Ziegler, Robert M Millikan, Sandra L Deming-Halverson, Sarah Nyante, Sue A Ingles, Quinten Waisfisz, Helen Tsimiklis, Enes Makalic, Daniel Schmidt, Minh Bui, Lorna Gibson, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Rita K Schmutzler, Rebecca Hein, Norbert Dahmen, Lars Beckmann, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Kamila Czene, Astrid Irwanto, Jianjun Liu, Clare Turnbull, Nazneen Rahman, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Curtis Olswold, Susan Slager, Robert Pilarski, Foluso Ademuyiwa, Irene Konstantopoulou, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Dennis J Slamon, Claudia Rauh, Michael P Lux, Sebastian M Jud, Thomas Brüning, Joellen Weaver, Priyanka Sharma, Harsh Pathak, Will Tapper, Sue Gerty, Lorraine Durcan, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rosario Tumino, Petra H Peeters, Rudolf Kaaks, Daniele Campa, Federico Canzian, Elisabete Weiderpass, Mattias Johansson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Ruth Travis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Laurence N Kolonel, Constance Chen, Andy Beck, Susan E Hankinson, Christine D Berg, Robert N Hoover, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine D Figueroa, Daniel I Chasman, Mia M Gaudet, W Ryan Diver, Walter C Willett, David J Hunter, Jacques Simard, Javier Benitez, Alison M Dunning, Mark E Sherman, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Stephen J Chanock, Per Hall, Paul D P Pharoah, Celine Vachon, Douglas F Easton, Christopher A Haiman, Peter Kraft.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.
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A genome-wide scan for breast cancer risk haplotypes among African American women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.
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Time-trends in survival in young women with breast cancer in a SEER population-based study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Mortality improvements in young women with breast cancer (BC) may be attributable to treatment advances; screening likely plays a less significant role as mammography is not recommended <40. We examined time-trends in outcome in a cohort of young women. Our goal was to determine the contributions of treatment and screening to mortality improvements and evaluate whether differential outcomes by ER status exist. Using SEER, patients (73,447) were divided into three categories by diagnosis year (1990-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004) and also categorized as <40 or 40-50 years. Multivariate analysis was done to investigate the association of survival with time period for both age groups by ER status. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality in women 40-50 with ER positive BC declined over time. With 1990-1994 as referent, the HR in 1995-1999 was 0.77 (0.69-0.86) and 0.65 (0.59-0.71) in 2000-2004 (p < 0.001). Women <40 with ER positive BC also had improvements over time. In ER negative patients, the degree of improvements over time was less than that seen in ER positive women. We report a survival disparity over time in young women by ER status. Patients with ER negative disease have not had the degree of improvements over time as seen in ER positive disease. Therefore, mortality improvements in young women with ER positive BC may be attributed to treatment advances with endocrine agents.
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Pretreatment levels of circulating Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and their ratios, are associated with ER-negative and triple negative breast cancers.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Immune signatures in breast tumors differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between ER phenotypes and circulating levels of cytokines that co-ordinate cell-mediated [T-helper type 1 (Th1)] and humoral [T-helper type 2 (Th2)] immunity. We conducted a case-case comparison of 523 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer to evaluate associations between 27 circulating cytokines, measured using Luminex XMap technology, and breast cancer phenotypes [ER(-) vs. ER(+); triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) vs. luminal A (LumA)]. Ratios of Th1 to Th2 cytokines were also evaluated. Levels of interleukin (IL)-5, a Th-2 cytokine, were higher in ER(-) than in ER(+) tumors. The highest tertile of IL-5 was more strongly associated with ER(-) (OR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.40-3.90) and TNBCs (OR = 2.78, 95 % CI 1.53-5.06) compared to ER(+) and LumA cancers, respectively, particularly among premenopausal women (OR = 4.17, 95 % CI 1.86-9.34, ER(-) vs. ER(+); OR = 5.60, 95 % CI 2.09-15.01, TNBC vs. LumA). Elevated Th1 cytokines were also detected in women with ER(-) and TNBCs, with women in the highest tertile of interferon ?2 (OR = 2.39, 95 % CI 1.31-4.35) or tumor necrosis factor-? (OR = 2.27, 95 % CI 1.21-4.26) being twice as likely to have TNBC versus LumA cancer. When cytokine ratios were examined, women with the highest ratios of Th1 cytokines to IL-5 levels were least likely to have ER(-) or TNBCs compared to ER(+) or LumA cancers, respectively. The strongest associations were in premenopausal women, who were up to 80 % less likely to have TNBC than LumA cancers (IL-12p40/IL-5, OR = 0.19, 95 % CI 0.07-0.56). These findings indicate that immune function is associated with ER(-) and TNBC and may be most relevant among younger women, who are likely to be diagnosed with these aggressive phenotypes.
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Supplement use during an intergroup clinical trial for breast cancer (S0221).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The use of supplements during chemotherapy is controversial, partly due to the potential effect of antioxidants on reduced efficacy of chemotherapy-related cytotoxicity. We examined supplement use among breast cancer patients registered to a clinical trial (SWOG 0221) before diagnosis and during treatment. Patients (n = 1,467) completed questionnaires regarding multivitamin and supplement use at trial registration (baseline) to capture use before diagnosis. Of these patients, 1,249 completed a 6-month followup questionnaire to capture use during treatment. We examined the use of vitamins C, D, E, B6, B12, folic acid, and calcium at these timepoints, as well as physician recommendations regarding supplement use. The use of vitamins C, E, folic acid, and calcium decreased during treatment, while the use of vitamin B6 increased. Five hundred seventy four patients (51 %) received no physician recommendations regarding supplement use. Among the remaining 49, 10 % were advised not to take multivitamins and/or supplements, 7 % were advised to use only multivitamins, and 32 % received recommendations to use multivitamins and/or supplements. Among patients who took vitamin C before diagnosis, those who were advised not to take supplements were >5 times more likely not to use of vitamin C during treatment than those not advised to stop use (OR = 5.27, 95 % CI 1.13-24.6). Previous non-users who were advised to take a multivitamin were nearly 5 times more likely to use multivitamins during treatment compared to those who received no recommendation (OR = 4.66, 95 % CI 2.10-10.3). In this clinical trial for high-risk breast cancer, supplement use generally decreased during treatment. Upon followup from the clinical trial, findings regarding supplement use and survival outcomes will better inform physician recommendations for patients on adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Functional variants at the 11q13 risk locus for breast cancer regulate cyclin D1 expression through long-range enhancers.
Juliet D French, Maya Ghoussaini, Stacey L Edwards, Kerstin B Meyer, Kyriaki Michailidou, Shahana Ahmed, Sofia Khan, Mel J Maranian, Martin O'Reilly, Kristine M Hillman, Joshua A Betts, Thomas Carroll, Peter J Bailey, Ed Dicks, Jonathan Beesley, Jonathan Tyrer, Ana-Teresa Maia, Andrew Beck, Nicholas W Knoblauch, Constance Chen, Peter Kraft, Daniel Barnes, Anna González-Neira, M Rosario Alonso, Daniel Herrero, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Don Conroy, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Senno Verhoef, Sten Cornelissen, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Peter A Fasching, Christian R Loehberg, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Zoe Aitken, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Florence Menegaux, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, M Pilar Zamora, José Ignacio Arias Perez, Javier Benitez, Hoda Anton-Culver, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Christoph Engel, Hiltrud Brauch, Ute Hamann, Christina Justenhoven, , Kirsimari Aaltonen, Päivi Heikkilä, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Aiko Sueta, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Thilo Dörk, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Diether Lambrechts, Stéphanie Peeters, Ann Smeets, Giuseppe Floris, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Stefan Nickels, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Domenico Sardella, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Vernon S Pankratz, Adam Lee, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Char-Hong Ng, Eranga Nishanthie Vithana, Vessela Kristensen, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Peter Devilee, Caroline Seynaeve, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Kamila Czene, Daniel Klevebring, Nils Schoof, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Madeleine Tilanus-Linthorst, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Angela Cox, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Paul D P Pharoah, Catherine S Healey, Mitul Shah, Karen A Pooley, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Dong-Young Noh, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Jen-Hwei Sng, Xueling Sim, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, James McKay, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Andrew K Godwin, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Shou-Tung Chen, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Bruce A J Ponder, Heli Nevanlinna, Melissa A Brown, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Douglas F Easton, Alison M Dunning.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Analysis of 4,405 variants in 89,050 European subjects from 41 case-control studies identified three independent association signals for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors at 11q13. The strongest signal maps to a transcriptional enhancer element in which the G allele of the best candidate causative variant rs554219 increases risk of breast cancer, reduces both binding of ELK4 transcription factor and luciferase activity in reporter assays, and may be associated with low cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors. Another candidate variant, rs78540526, lies in the same enhancer element. Risk association signal 2, rs75915166, creates a GATA3 binding site within a silencer element. Chromatin conformation studies demonstrate that these enhancer and silencer elements interact with each other and with their likely target gene, CCND1.
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Innate immunity pathways and breast cancer Risk in African American and European-American women in the Womens Circle of Health Study (WCHS).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Womens Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.
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Assessment of the Prognostic Value of Two Common Variants of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Ovarian Cancer Patients Treated with Cisplatin and Paclitaxel: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Purpose: BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations appear to enhance the platinum-sensitivity, but little is known about the prognostic relevance of polymorphisms in BRCA1/BRCA2 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study evaluated whether common variants of BRCA1/BRCA2 are associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced stage sporadic EOC. Experimental Design: The allelic frequency of BRCA1 (2612C?>?T, P871L-rs799917) and BRCA2 (114A?>?C, N372H-rs144848) were determined in normal blood DNA from women in Gynecologic Oncology Group protocol #172 phase III trial with optimally resected stage III EOC treated with intraperitoneal or intravenous cisplatin and paclitaxel (C?+?P). Associations between polymorphisms and PFS or OS were assessed. Results: Two hundred and thirty-two women were included for analyses. African Americans (AA) had different distributions for the two polymorphisms from Caucasians and others. For non-AA patients, the genotype for BRCA1 P871L was distributed as 38% for CC, 49% for CT, and 13% for TT. Median PFS was estimated to be 31, 21, and 21?months, respectively. After adjusting for cell type, residual disease, and chemotherapy regimen, CT/TT genotypes were associated with a 1.40-fold increased risk of disease progression [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.00-1.95, p?=?0.049]. After removing seven patients with known BRCA1 germline mutations, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.36 (95% CI?=?0.97-1.91, p?=?0.073). The association between BRCA1 P871L and OS was not significant (HR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?0.88-1.76, p?=?0.212). Genotype distribution of BRCA2 N372H among non-AA patients was 50, 44, and 6% for AA, AC, and CC, respectively and there is no evidence that this BRCA2 polymorphism was related to PFS or OS. Conclusion: Polymorphisms in BRCA1 P871L or in BRCA2 N372H were not associated with either PFS or OS in women with optimally resected, stage III EOC treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel.
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Dietary intakes of total and specific lignans are associated with clinical breast tumor characteristics.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Dietary lignans may affect breast cancer by modifying tumor characteristics likely to affect prognosis. We investigated usual dietary intakes of total and specific lignans with tumor characteristics in 683 women with breast cancer and 611 healthy women without breast cancer enrolled in the Data Bank and BioRepository at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Clinicopathologic data were abstracted from the RPCI breast cancer database. Dietary lignan intakes were calculated from FFQ. OR and 95% CI were estimated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders and stratified by menopausal status. Women in the highest compared to the lowest tertile of total lignan intakes had a 40-50% lower odds of breast cancer regardless of menopausal status and substantially reduced odds of an invasive tumor, especially among premenopausal women [OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.26-0.86)]. Lignan intakes were inversely associated with odds of grade 3 tumors among premenopausal women. Lignan intakes were inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER) negative (ER(-)) breast cancer among premenopausal women [OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.03-0.44)] and particularly triple negative tumors [ER(-), progesterone receptor negative, HER2 negative; OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.04-0.62)]. There were significant differences in the contribution to these effects by specific lignans, especially matairesinol and lariciresinol. In summary, in this case-control study of dietary lignan intakes and breast cancer, we found that higher lignan intakes were associated with lower risks of breast cancer with more favorable prognostic characteristics. Future investigations are warranted to explore the strong associations observed with ER(-) cancer in premenopausal women.
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Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and survival following breast cancer diagnosis.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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While there is accumulating evidence that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) decreases breast cancer risk, little is known about the impact of NSAIDs on survival after breast cancer diagnosis.
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Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-?(2) genes in breast tumors and dietary intake of nutrients important in one-carbon metabolism.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-?(2) genes in archived tumor tissues from incident, primary breast cancer cases in a population-based case-control study. Real-time methylation-specific PCR was performed on 803 paraffin-embedded samples; usual dietary intake was queried from a food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for likelihood of promoter methylation for high compared to low intake of those 1-carbon nutrients. Overall, in case-case comparisons, dietary intakes of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine were not associated with likelihood of promoter methylation of E- cadherin, p16, and RAR-?(2) for all cases combined or within strata defined by menopausal status and estrogen receptor status in this study. This finding, however, does not exclude the possibility that intake of such nutrients might have the ability to modulate promoter methylation in normal or premalignant (dysplastic) breast tissue.
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Common variants in ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 genes and clinical outcomes among women with advanced stage ovarian cancer treated with platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family are major determinants of chemoresistance in tumor cells. This study examined associations between functional variants in ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 genes and clinical outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer (EOC/PPC) following platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy.
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Fine-mapping of breast cancer susceptibility loci characterizes genetic risk in African Americans.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 19 common genetic variants that are associated with breast cancer risk. Testing of the index signals found through GWAS and fine-mapping of each locus in diverse populations will be necessary for characterizing the role of these risk regions in contributing to inherited susceptibility. In this large study of breast cancer in African-American women (3016 cases and 2745 controls), we tested the 19 known risk variants identified by GWAS and replicated associations (P < 0.05) with only 4 variants. Through fine-mapping, we identified markers in four regions that better capture the association with breast cancer risk in African Americans as defined by the index signal (2q35, 5q11, 10q26 and 19p13). We also identified statistically significant associations with markers in four separate regions (8q24, 10q22, 11q13 and 16q12) that are independent of the index signals and may represent putative novel risk variants. In aggregate, the more informative markers found in the study enhance the association of these risk regions with breast cancer in African Americans [per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, P = 2.8 × 10(-24) versus OR = 1.04, P = 6.1 × 10(-5)]. In this detailed analysis of the known breast cancer risk loci, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk that better characterize their association with breast cancer in women of African ancestry.
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Parity and lactation in relation to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer in African American women.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast tumors occur more commonly in women of African ancestry. Recent research indicates that the effects of reproductive factors may differ by hormone receptor status. We assessed the relation of parity and lactation to incidence of ER(-)/PR(-) and ER(+)/PR(+) breast cancer in a cohort of African American women.
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Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Triple-negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiologic factors that promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome-wide association studies display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by the status of estrogen and progesterone receptors. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple-negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.1), and rs8100241 (19p13.1), significantly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple-negative breast cancer.
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Genetic variation in myeloperoxidase modifies the association of serum ?-tocopherol with aggressive prostate cancer among current smokers.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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We investigated associations of serum ?- and ?-tocopherols and their effect modification by polymorphisms in oxidative stress regulatory enzymes in relation to prostate cancer risk. In a nested case-control study in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, prerandomized serum ?- and ?-tocopherol were assayed among 684 men with incident prostate cancer [375 nonaggressive and 284 aggressive cancer (stage III/IV or Gleason score ?7)] and 1441 controls. Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-16Val (rs4880), glutathione peroxidase 1 Pro200Leu (rs1050450), catalase -262 C > T (rs1001179), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) G-463A (rs2333227) were genotyped. A multivariate-adjusted inverse association of serum ?-tocopherol with total prostate cancer risk was observed in current smokers (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40-0.96, 4th vs. 1st quartiles). High (?median) compared to low serum concentrations of ?- and ?-tocopherol were inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer in current smokers (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.32-0.78 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.43-0.95, respectively). The association was stronger among those with MPO G/A+A/A genotypes. Among current smokers with low serum ?-tocopherol concentrations, MPO G/A+A/A, the genotypes downregulating oxidative stress, were associated with an increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.22-3.46). Conversely, current smokers with these genotypes who had high ?-tocopherol concentrations had a reduced risk for aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.80; P-interaction = 0.001). In conclusion, among current smokers, both high serum ?- and ?-tocopherol concentrations were associated with reduced risks of aggressive prostate cancer. The ?-tocopherol-associated risks are modified by polymorphism in MPO G-463A.
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Body mass and DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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The mechanism of the observed association between body mass, particularly centralized body fat, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk is not well understood.
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Repeat polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism genes and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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The etiology of prostate cancer remains elusive, although steroid hormones probably play a role. Considering the carcinogenic potential of estrogen metabolites as well as altered intraprostatic estrogen biosynthesis during the development of prostate cancer, we investigated associations between repeat polymorphisms of three key estrogen-related genes (CYP11A1, CYP19A1, UGT1A1) and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), designed to test finasteride versus placebo as a chemoprevention agent. Using data and specimens from 1154 cases and 1351 controls who were frequency matched on age, family history of prostate cancer and PCPT treatment arm, we used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) separately in the placebo and finasteride arms. Among men in the placebo arm, CYP19A1 7/8 genotype carriers had a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer compared with those with the 7/7 genotype (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.16-2.5), regardless of Gleason grade. This genotype was also associated with elevated serum estrogen levels. For the (TA)(n) repeat polymorphism in UGT1A1, the heterozygous short (<7 repeats)/long (?7 repeats) genotype was significantly associated with the risk of low-grade prostate cancer (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05-1.70) compared with the short/short genotype. No significant association was found with CYP11A1. These associations were not observed among men in the finasteride arm. The results indicate that repeat polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism may influence risk of prostate cancer but that their effects may be modified by factors altering hormone metabolism, such as finasteride treatment.
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Genetic predictors of taxane-induced neurotoxicity in a SWOG phase III intergroup adjuvant breast cancer treatment trial (S0221).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Taxanes have resulted in improved survival for breast cancer patients, but often cause neurological toxicities. Identification of biomarkers related to toxicities could be important for dictating treatment regimen. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fanconi Anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway in relation to grade 3/4 neurotoxicities in patients (n = 888) from SWOG0221, a phase III adjuvant trial for breast cancer of 4 dose/schedules of cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin (A), and paclitaxel (T). In a separate cohort, we measured the correlation of significant FANCD2 SNPs with corresponding gene expression. For FANCD2, permutation testing revealed that 4 (out of 20) SNPs were significantly associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of toxicity. Two FANCD2 haplotypes were also associated with neurological toxicity, with odds ratios (OR) in the overall population of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 2.5) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2, 2.4). Although numbers were small, an African-American-specific haplotype was associated with an almost 3-fold increase in risk of neurologic toxicity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.9). Expression analyses revealed that significant FANCD2 SNPs were associated with FANCD2 expression levels (P = 0.03). There were no associations between SNPs in BRCA1 and neurotoxicities. In this trial of CA+T for breast cancer, SNPs in FANCD2, but not in BRCA1, were associated with a 70-80% increase in the odds of grade 3/4 neurological toxicities and increased expression of the gene. If replicated, women with these genotypes should be closely monitored for toxicities and could be targeted for preventive measures or alternative therapeutic approaches.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and association with breast cancer risk in the web study.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways repair damaged DNA, and polymorphisms in these genes might affect breast cancer susceptibility. We evaluated associations between seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in four DNA repair genes (ERCC4 rs1799801, XPC rs2227998, rs2228001, rs2228000, OGG1 rs1052133 and XRCC1 rs25487 and rs25486) and breast cancer risk, examining modification by smoking and alcohol consumption, using data from the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study. Women aged 35-79 years with incident breast cancer (n = 1170) and age- and race-matched controls (n = 2115) were enrolled. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No significant associations were observed in premenopausal women. Among postmenopausal women, rs25487 and rs25486 (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.51 and OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.01-1.49, respectively, for combined heterozygous and homozygous variant compared with reference) were associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Postmenopausal women carrying the variant allele of the synonymous XPC polymorphism (rs2227998) were also at borderline significantly increased risk (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.52, heterozygous variant compared with reference; OR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.01-1.48, for combined heterozygous and homozygous variant compared with reference). There was no evidence of genotype-smoking and genotype-alcohol consumption interactions for pre- and postmenopausal women. These results indicate that some of the variants in BER and NER genes may influence risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
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Common genetic variants are associated with accelerated bone mineral density loss after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Bone mineral density (BMD) loss commonly occurs after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Hypothesizing that genetic variants may influence post-HCT BMD loss, we conducted a prospective study to examine the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in bone metabolism pathways and acute BMD loss after HCT.
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A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
Christopher A Haiman, Gary K Chen, Celine M Vachon, Federico Canzian, Alison Dunning, Robert C Millikan, Xianshu Wang, Foluso Ademuyiwa, Shahana Ahmed, Christine B Ambrosone, Laura Baglietto, Rosemary Balleine, Elisa V Bandera, Matthias W Beckmann, Christine D Berg, Leslie Bernstein, Carl Blomqvist, William J Blot, Hiltrud Brauch, Julie E Buring, Lisa A Carey, Jane E Carpenter, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen J Chanock, Daniel I Chasman, Christine L Clarke, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Sandra L Deming, Robert B Diasio, Athanasios M Dimopoulos, W Ryan Driver, Thomas Dünnebier, Lorraine Durcan, Diana Eccles, Christopher K Edlund, Arif B Ekici, Peter A Fasching, Heather S Feigelson, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Florentia Fostira, Asta Försti, George Fountzilas, Susan M Gerty, , Graham G Giles, Andrew K Godwin, Paul Goodfellow, Nikki Graham, Dario Greco, Ute Hamann, Susan E Hankinson, Arndt Hartmann, Rebecca Hein, Judith Heinz, Andrea Holbrook, Robert N Hoover, Jennifer J Hu, David J Hunter, Sue A Ingles, Astrid Irwanto, Jennifer Ivanovich, Esther M John, Nicola Johnson, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Rudolf Kaaks, Yon-Dschun Ko, Laurence N Kolonel, Irene Konstantopoulou, Veli-Matti Kosma, Swati Kulkarni, Diether Lambrechts, Adam M Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Timothy Lesnick, Jianjun Liu, Sara Lindstrom, Arto Mannermaa, Sara Margolin, Nicholas G Martin, Penelope Miron, Grant W Montgomery, Heli Nevanlinna, Stephan Nickels, Sarah Nyante, Curtis Olswold, Julie Palmer, Harsh Pathak, Dimitrios Pectasides, Charles M Perou, Julian Peto, Paul D P Pharoah, Loreall C Pooler, Michael F Press, Katri Pylkäs, Timothy R Rebbeck, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Lynn Rosenberg, Eric Ross, Thomas Rüdiger, Isabel dos Santos Silva, Elinor Sawyer, Marjanka K Schmidt, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Fredrick Schumacher, Gianluca Severi, Xin Sheng, Lisa B Signorello, Hans-Peter Sinn, Kristen N Stevens, Melissa C Southey, William J Tapper, Ian Tomlinson, Frans B L Hogervorst, Els Wauters, Joellen Weaver, Hans Wildiers, Robert Winqvist, David Van Den Berg, Peggy Wan, Lucy Y Xia, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Wei Zheng, Regina G Ziegler, Afshan Siddiq, Susan L Slager, Daniel O Stram, Douglas Easton, Peter Kraft, Brian E Henderson, Fergus J Couch.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P?=?3.4×10(-12) and 2p14-rs4315565, P?=?1.2×10(-8)). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P?=?1.7×10(-4) for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.
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Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.
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Serum lycopene concentration and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Lycopene has been promoted for prostate cancer prevention, despite the inconsistency of scientific evidence.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and breast cancer risk: differences by molecular subtype.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, though findings have been inconsistent. This inconsistency may result from differences in etiology for breast tumors of different subtypes. We examined the association between NSAID use and breast cancer characterized by molecular subtypes in a population-based case-control study in Western New York. Cases (n = 1,170) were women with incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 2,115) were randomly selected from NY Department of Motor Vehicles records (<65 years) or Medicare rolls (? 65 years). Participants answered questions regarding their use of aspirin and ibuprofen in the year prior to interview and their use of aspirin throughout their adult life. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Recent and lifetime aspirin use was associated with reduced risk, with no differences by subtype. Recent use of ibuprofen was significantly associated with increased risk of ER+/PR+(OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.62), HER2- (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.53), and p53- breast cancers (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57), as well as luminal A or B breast cancers. These findings support the hypothesis of heterogeneous etiologies of breast cancer subtypes and that aspirin and ibuprofen vary in their effects.
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Single nucleotide polypmorphisms in ERCC1 are associated with disease progression, and survival in patients with advanced stage ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma; a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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This study evaluated common polymorphisms in excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) involved in repair of platinum-induced DNA damage in advanced-stage, epithelial ovarian/peritoneal/tubal cancer (EOC/PPC/FTC) patients treated with intravenous carboplatin- and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.