We analyzed the outcomes of patients who survived disease-free for 1-year or more following second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for relapsed acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes between 1980 and 2009. A total of 1285 patients received a second allogeneic transplant following disease relapse; among these 325 survived relapse-free at 1-year after the second HCT. The median time from first to second HCT was 17 and 24 months for children and adults, respectively. A myeloablative preparative regimen was used in the second transplant in 62% of children and 45% of adult patients. The overall 10-year conditional survival rates after second transplantation in this cohort of patients who had survived disease-free for at least one year were 55% in children and 39% in adults. Relapse was the leading cause of mortality (77% and 54% of deaths in children and adults, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only disease status prior to second HCT was significantly associated with higher risk for overall mortality (HR 1.71 for patients with disease not in complete remission prior to second HCT, P<0.01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 43% and 75% of children and adults following second transplant. Chronic GVHD was the leading cause of non-relapse mortality followed by organ failure and infection. The cumulative incidence of developing at least one of the studied late effects at 10-years after second HCT was 63% in children and 55% in adults. The most frequent late effects in children were growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence 22%) and cataracts (20%), and in adults were cataracts (20%) and avascular necrosis (13%). Among patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who receive a second allogeneic HCT for relapse and survive disease-free for at least 1-year, many can be expected to survive long term. However, they continue to be at risk for relapse and non-relapse morbidity and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to minimize relapse risk and long-term transplant morbidity in this population.
We examined risk of second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) using reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NMC). RIC/NMC recipients with leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 2833) and lymphoma (n = 1436) between 1995 and 2006 were included. In addition, RIC/NMC recipients 40 to 60 years of age (n = 2138) were compared with patients of the same age receiving myeloablative conditioning (MAC, n = 6428). The cumulative incidence of solid cancers was 3.35% at 10 years. There was no increase in overall cancer risk compared with the general population (leukemia/MDS: standardized incidence ratio [SIR] .99, P = 1.00; lymphoma: SIR .92, P = .75). However, risks were significantly increased in leukemia/MDS patients for cancers of lip (SIR 14.28), tonsil (SIR 8.66), oropharynx (SIR 46.70), bone (SIR 23.53), soft tissue (SIR 12.92), and vulva (SIR 18.55) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.04). Lymphoma patients had significantly higher risks of oropharyngeal cancer (SIR 67.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.52). Among RIC/NMC recipients, age >50 years was the only independent risk factor for solid cancers (hazard ratio [HR] 3.02, P < .001). Among patients ages 40 to 60 years, when adjusted for other factors, there was no difference in cancer risks between RIC/NMC and MAC in leukemia/MDS patients (HR .98, P = .905). In lymphoma patients, risks were lower after RIC/NMC (HR .51, P = .047). In conclusion, the overall risks of second solid cancers in RIC/NMC recipients are similar to the general population, although there is an increased risk of cancer at some sites. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to realize the complete risks of solid cancers after RIC/NMC AHCT.
Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, facilitate-targeted treatment, and reduce health care costs. Thus, there is great hope that biomarkers will be integrated in all clinical decisions in the near future. A decade ago, the biomarker field was launched with great enthusiasm because MS revealed that blood contains a rich library of candidate biomarkers. However, biomarker research has not yet delivered on its promise due to several limitations: (i) improper sample handling and tracking as well as limited sample availability in the pediatric population, (ii) omission of appropriate controls in original study designs, (iii) lability and low abundance of interesting biomarkers in blood, and (iv) the inability to mechanistically tie biomarker presence to disease biology. These limitations as well as successful strategies to overcome them are discussed in this review. Several advances in biomarker discovery and validation have been made in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current most effective tumor immunotherapy, and these could serve as examples for other conditions. This review provides fresh optimism that biomarkers clinically relevant in pediatrics are closer to being realized based on: (i) a uniform protocol for low-volume blood collection and preservation, (ii) inclusion of well-controlled independent cohorts, (iii) novel technologies and instrumentation with low analytical sensitivity, and (iv) integrated animal models for exploring potential biomarkers and targeted therapies.
The objective of this study is to systematically review the literature on worldwide numbers of leukodystrophy patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as well as the safety and efficacy of the procedure in this patient population.
The metabolic peptide hormone nesfatin-1 has been linked to the reproductive axis in fishes. The purpose of this study was to determine how energy availability after spawning affects plasma levels of nesfatin-1, the metabolic peptide hormone ghrelin, and sex steroid hormones in rematuring female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To limit reproductive maturation, a group of female trout was food-restricted after spawning and compared with a control group that was fed a standard broodstock ration. The experiment was conducted twice, once using two-year-old trout (second-time spawners) and once using three-year-old trout (third-time spawners). During monthly sampling, blood was collected from all fish, and a subset of fish from each treatment was sacrificed for pituitaries. Pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone-beta (fsh-?) mRNA expression was analyzed with q-RT-PCR; plasma hormone levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay (17?-estradiol and ghrelin) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (11-keto-testosterone and nesfatin-1). Although plasma nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly in the months immediately after spawning within both feeding treatments, plasma nesfatin-1 did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Similarly, plasma ghrelin levels did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Food restriction arrested ovarian development by 15-20 weeks after spawning, shown by significantly lower plasma E2 levels among restricted-ration fish. Pituitary fsh-? mRNA levels were higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish starting at 20 weeks, but did not differ significantly between treatment groups until 30 weeks after spawning. Within both treatment groups, plasma 11-KT was elevated immediately after spawning and rapidly decreased to and persisted at low levels; starting between 20 and 25 weeks after spawning, plasma 11-KT was higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish. The results from these experiments do not provide support for plasma nesfatin-1 as a signal for the initiation of reproductive development in rematuring female rainbow trout.
Background.?Fungal surveillance cultures (FSCs) have been proposed as predictors for development of invasive fungal disease (IFD) and identifiers of the causative organism, although data supporting these are limited and predate universal initiation of antifungal prophylaxis. We aimed to define the epidemiology of fungal colonization and investigate the utility of FSCs for predicting IFD in recipients of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods.?FSCs performed from 2007 to 2011 on HSCT patients and laboratory and clinical data were reviewed, and incidence of IFD was determined. Descriptive analyses of culture results were performed to determine the yield of FSCs and their utility. A Web-based survey of national pediatric HSCT providers was undertaken to evaluate current practice and the relevance of our results. Results.?Five thousand six hundred eighteen FSCs from nares, throat, and stool from 360 patients were processed. Of these, 14.8% were positive: 30.3% from stool, 13.2% from throat, and 0.9% from nares; 64.4% of patients had ?1 positive FSCs. Thirty (8.3%) patients had IFD. IFD occurred in 7.9% and 10.1% of patients with positive and negative FSCs, respectively (P = .25). Antifungal coverage was changed in 69 patients (29.9%) after positive FSC; 8.6% developed IFD (n = 2 of 6 pathogen concordance with FSC) compared with 6.7% (P = .59) who had no treatment change (n = 3 of 11 concordance). The response rate to the survey was 70.8%; 40% of institutions reported performing routine FSC. Twenty-five percent of providers would not change management based on FSC results; overall rating of usefulness of FSCs was low. Conclusions.?Although FSCs are commonly performed for pediatric HSCT patients, they have limited utility for predicting IFD.
We investigated the short-term and 1-year clinical outcomes of 129 children who received intensive cardiopulmonary support during hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Intensive cardiopulmonary support was defined as receiving at least one of the following interventions: continuous positive pressure ventilation, dopamine infusion greater than or equal to 10 mcg/kg/minute, or the use of any other vasoactive infusion. Duration of intensive cardiopulmonary support, survival to hospital discharge, and predictors of these outcome variables were compared with 387 hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients who did not receive intensive support during the same period. We also report the 1-year survival; presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease; and renal, cardiac, and pulmonary function for all patients.
Morbidity is increased in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation when drug-drug interactions lead to unexpected outcomes. These interactions occur as a result of exposure to complicated medical regimens with drugs with narrow therapeutic windows and high toxicity profiles. In this report, we review the available evidence and possible mechanisms of the most clinically relevant drug interactions, including those involving inhibitors and inducers of the P450 isoenzyme system. We identify key interactions that should be familiar to any physician caring for patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We discuss drug metabolism in children and in the elderly and examine how age-related differences in metabolism make complicate drug regimens in these populations. A better understanding of these interactions and the responsible mechanisms will promote efficient delivery of the safest medical regimens to patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Liver dysfunction is common after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and liver biopsy may be necessary to diagnosis the cause of liver dysfunction and institute therapy. We report our liver biopsy experience in 356 consecutive patients. During the study period, 16 (4.5%) patients underwent 18 biopsies, all after allogeneic HSCT. The median time from HSCT to biopsy was 205.5 days. All patients had transaminase elevation and 67% had hyperbilirubinemia. The most commonly used method of biopsy was the imaging-guided percutaneous approach, performed in 12 of 18 cases. Five biopsies were done transjugularly and 1 was performed during laparotomy. In all the cases a histopathologic diagnosis was made. The most common diagnosis was graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) followed by iron overload. In 12 cases, management was modified based on biopsy results. Complications occurred after 5 biopsies, 4 of which were performed transjugularly. The most common complication was hemorrhage. Two patients required transfer to the intensive care unit for related complications. No complications were observed after percutaneous biopsies. In 2 cases a second procedure was required to manage the complication. We conclude that while liver biopsy yields a high-rate of diagnoses, it is accompanied by high rates of complications, particularly when the transjugular approach is used.
Children may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency following HSCT because of lack of sun exposure, the recommended use of sunscreen, dietary insufficiency, malabsorption, and the use of certain medications. We prospectively assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D deficiency in 67 patients transplanted at our institution. 25-OH vitamin D levels were checked during 3 separate 4-week periods in the spring, autumn, and winter. Subjects were <2 years following transplant and/or being treated for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Levels less than 20 ng/mL were considered deficient, and those less than 30 ng/mL were considered insufficient. The mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 22.8 ng/mL (range: 7-46.2). A total of 80.6% (confidence interval [CI] 69.1%-89.3%) of patients had a level less than the lower limit of the institutional normal range. The deficiency rate was 37.3% (CI 25.8%-50%). The mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 77.5 (SD = 80.5). There was no correlation between 25-OH vitamin D and PTH levels. We evaluated potential risk factors for 25-OH vitamin D deficiency including age, season of testing, sun exposure, sunscreen use, use of steroid or calcineurin inhibitor, race, and dairy intake. In multivariate logistic regression, only older age was found to be a risk factor for deficiency (P = .004). Patients with deficient levels were treated with 50,000 IU of ergocalciferol once weekly for 6 weeks. A postrepletion 25-OH level was available for 22 patients. The majority of repleted patients had a normal posttreatment level (63.6%). The postsupplementation level corrected into the insufficient range for 31.8% of patients and 4.6% remained deficient. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are common following HSCT. Further investigation into potential risk factors and the appropriate supplementation for these patients is warranted.
Pravachol and other statins have immune modulatory effects and have been shown to decrease the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans (BrOb) in lung transplant recipients. It may also be useful in the treatment or prevention of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) associated bronchiolitis obliterans. However, the safety of pravachol has not been shown in pediatric patients with BrOb after HSCT. We report on the safety and tolerability in 5 pediatric HSCT patients with established BrOb. All participants tolerated the drug without difficulty and there were no pravachol-associated adverse effects. Changes in creatine kinase (CK) and transaminases were minimal in 4 patients. One patient experienced increased CK and alanine aminotransferase, and a decrease in platelet count in the setting of severe systemic illness. No other patient had a clinically relevant change in white blood cell count, platelet count, or hemoglobin. Pravachol was well tolerated and safe in this group of patients, and merits further study in this patient population.
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) interfaced with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources and a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of dasatinib, imatinib and nilotinib in mouse plasma samples. The retention profiles of all analytes on several silica stationary phases under HILIC conditions were explored. The influences of experimental factors such as the compositions of mobile phases on the chromatographic performance and the ionization efficiency of all analytes in positive ion mode were investigated. The applicability of the proposed HILIC/MS/MS approach following a protein precipitation procedure for the quantitative determination of dasatinib, imatinib and nilotinib at low nano-mole levels was examined with respect to assay specificity and linearity. The analytical results obtained by various HILIC/MS/MS approaches were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC/MS/MS) methods in terms of assay sample throughputs, sensitivity and accuracy. Furthermore, the potential of matrix ionization suppression on the proposed HILIC/MS/MS systems was investigated using the post-column infusion technique.
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation that is associated with a diminished quality of life. The oral cavity is frequently affected, with a wide variety of signs and symptoms that can result in significant short- and long-term complications ranging from mucosal sensitivity and limited oral intake to secondary malignancy and early death. This article provides a comprehensive approach to the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with oral cGVHD, with particular attention to differential diagnosis, control of symptoms, and prevention of and screening for secondary complications. The clinical considerations and recommendations presented are intended to be practical and relevant for all clinicians involved in the care of patients with oral cGVHD, with the ultimate goal of improving care and outcomes.
With improvements in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), there is a growing population of SAA survivors after HCT. However, there is a paucity of information regarding late effects that occur after HCT in SAA survivors. This study describes the malignant and nonmalignant late effects in survivors with SAA after HCT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 1718 patients post-HCT for acquired SAA between 1995 and 2006 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The prevalence and cumulative incidence estimates of late effects are reported for 1-year HCT survivors with SAA. Of the HCT recipients, 1176 (68.5%) and 542 (31.5%) patients underwent a matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) HCT, respectively. The median age at the time of HCT was 20 years. The median interval from diagnosis to transplantation was 3 months for MSD HCT and 14 months for URD HCT. The median follow-up was 70 months and 67 months for MSD and URD HCT survivors, respectively. Overall survival at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years for the entire cohort was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74-78), 73% (95% CI: 71-75), and 70% (95% CI: 68-72). Among 1-year survivors of MSD HCT, 6% had 1 late effect and 1% had multiple late effects. For 1-year survivors of URD HCT, 13% had 1 late effect and 2% had multiple late effects. Among survivors of MSD HCT, the cumulative incidence estimates of developing late effects were all <3% and did not increase over time. In contrast, for recipients of URD HCT, the cumulative incidence of developing several late effects exceeded 3% by 5 years: gonadal dysfunction 10.5% (95% CI: 7.3-14.3), growth disturbance 7.2% (95% CI: 4.4-10.7), avascular necrosis 6.3% (95% CI: 3.6-9.7), hypothyroidism 5.5% (95% CI: 2.8-9.0), and cataracts 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9-8.0). Our results indicated that all patients undergoing HCT for SAA remain at risk for late effects, must be counseled about, and should be monitored for late effects for the remainder of their lives.
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