JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synergy of entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals uncovers novel combinations for prevention and treatment of hepatitis C.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the outcome of treatment in chronic HCV infection, there continues to be an unmet medical need for improved therapies in difficult-to-treat patients as well as liver graft infection. Viral entry is a promising target for antiviral therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Exosome-mediated transmission of hepatitis C virus between human hepatoma Huh7.5 cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent evidence indicates there is a role for small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, as vehicles for intercellular communication. Exosomes secreted by most cell types can mediate transfer of proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs, but their role in the transmission of infectious agents is less established. Recent studies have shown that hepatocyte-derived exosomes containing hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA can activate innate immune cells, but the role of exosomes in the transmission of HCV between hepatocytes remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes transfer HCV in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Purified exosomes isolated from HCV-infected human hepatoma Huh7.5.1 cells were shown to contain full-length viral RNA, viral protein, and particles, as determined by RT-PCR, mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Exosomes from HCV-infected cells were capable of transmitting infection to naive human hepatoma Huh7.5.1 cells and establishing a productive infection. Even with subgenomic replicons, lacking structural viral proteins, exosome-mediated transmission of HCV RNA was observed. Treatment with patient-derived IgGs showed a variable degree of neutralization of exosome-mediated infection compared with free virus. In conclusion, this study showed that hepatic exosomes can transmit productive HCV infection in vitro and are partially resistant to antibody neutralization. This discovery sheds light on neutralizing antibodies resistant to HCV transmission by exosomes as a potential immune evasion mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Functional analysis of claudin-6 and claudin-9 as entry factors for hepatitis C virus infection of human hepatocytes by using monoclonal antibodies.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relevance of claudin-6 and claudin-9 in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry remains elusive. We produced claudin-6- or claudin-9-specific monoclonal antibodies that inhibit HCV entry into nonhepatic cells expressing exogenous claudin-6 or claudin-9. These antibodies had no effect on HCV infection of hepatoma cells or primary hepatocytes. Thus, although claudin-6 and claudin-9 can serve as entry factors in cell lines, HCV infection into human hepatocytes is not dependent on claudin-6 and claudin-9.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling impairs the antiviral activity of interferon-alpha.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interferon-alpha (IFN-?) exhibits its antiviral activity through signal transducer and activator of transcription protein (STAT) signaling and the expression of IFN response genes (IRGs). Viral infection has been shown to result in activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-a host cell entry factor used by several viruses, including hepatitis C virus. However, the effect of EGFR activation for cellular antiviral responses is unknown. Here, we uncover cross-talk between EGFR and IFN-? signaling that has a therapeutic effect on IFN-?-based therapies and functional relevance for viral evasion and IFN resistance. We show that combining IFN-? with the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, potentiates the antiviral effect of each compound in a highly synergistic manner. The extent of the synergy correlated with reduced STAT3 phosphorylation in the presence of erlotinib, whereas STAT1 phosphorylation was not affected. Furthermore, reduced STAT3 phosphorylation correlated with enhanced expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in the presence of erlotinib and enhanced expression of the IRGs, radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 and myxovirus resistance protein 1. Moreover, EGFR stimulation reduced STAT1 dimerization, but not phosphorylation, indicating that EGFR cross-talk with IFN signaling acts on the STATs at the level of binding DNA. Conclusions: Our results support a model where inhibition of EGFR signaling impairs STAT3 phosphorylation, leading to enhanced IRG expression and antiviral activity. These data uncover a novel role of EGFR signaling in the antiviral activity of IFN-? and open new avenues of improving the efficacy of IFN-?-based antiviral therapies.
Related JoVE Video
HRas signal transduction promotes hepatitis C virus cell entry by triggering assembly of the host tetraspanin receptor complex.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry is dependent on coreceptor complex formation between the tetraspanin superfamily member CD81 and the tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) on the host cell membrane. The receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR acts as a cofactor for HCV entry by promoting CD81-CLDN1 complex formation via unknown mechanisms. We identify the GTPase HRas, activated downstream of EGFR signaling, as a key host signal transducer for EGFR-mediated HCV entry. Proteomic analysis revealed that HRas associates with tetraspanin CD81, CLDN1, and the previously unrecognized HCV entry cofactors integrin ?1 and Ras-related protein Rap2B in hepatocyte membranes. HRas signaling is required for lateral membrane diffusion of CD81, which enables tetraspanin receptor complex assembly. HRas was also found to be relevant for entry of other viruses, including influenza. Our data demonstrate that viruses exploit HRas signaling for cellular entry by compartmentalization of entry factors and receptor trafficking.
Related JoVE Video
A novel monoclonal anti-CD81 antibody produced by genetic immunization efficiently inhibits Hepatitis C virus cell-cell transmission.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a challenge to prevent and treat because of the rapid development of drug resistance and escape. Viral entry is required for initiation, spread, and maintenance of infection, making it an attractive target for antiviral strategies.
Related JoVE Video
EGFR and EphA2 are host factors for hepatitis C virus entry and possible targets for antiviral therapy.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease, but therapeutic options are limited and there are no prevention strategies. Viral entry is the first step of infection and requires the cooperative interaction of several host cell factors. Using a functional RNAi kinase screen, we identified epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin receptor A2 as host cofactors for HCV entry. Blocking receptor kinase activity by approved inhibitors broadly impaired infection by all major HCV genotypes and viral escape variants in cell culture and in a human liver chimeric mouse model in vivo. The identified receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediate HCV entry by regulating CD81-claudin-1 co-receptor associations and viral glycoprotein-dependent membrane fusion. These results identify RTKs as previously unknown HCV entry cofactors and show that tyrosine kinase inhibitors have substantial antiviral activity. Inhibition of RTK function may constitute a new approach for prevention and treatment of HCV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Monoclonal anti-claudin 1 antibodies prevent hepatitis C virus infection of primary human hepatocytes.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a challenge to prevent and treat because of the rapid development of drug resistance and escape. Viral entry is required for initiation, spread, and maintenance of infection, making it an attractive target for antiviral strategies. The tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been shown to be required for entry of HCV into the cell.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of hepatitis C virus infection by anti-claudin-1 antibodies is mediated by neutralization of E2-CD81-claudin-1 associations.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry-the first step of viral infection. Due to the lack of neutralizing anti-CLDN1 antibodies, the role of CLDN1 in the viral entry process is poorly understood. In this study, we produced antibodies directed against the human CLDN1 extracellular loops by genetic immunization and used these antibodies to investigate the mechanistic role of CLDN1 for HCV entry in an infectious HCV cell culture system and human hepatocytes. Antibodies specific for cell surface-expressed CLDN1 specifically inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Antibodies specific for CLDN1, scavenger receptor B1, and CD81 show an additive neutralizing capacity compared with either agent used alone. Kinetic studies with anti-CLDN1 and anti-CD81 antibodies demonstrate that HCV interactions with both entry factors occur at a similar time in the internalization process. Anti-CLDN1 antibodies inhibit the binding of envelope glycoprotein E2 to HCV permissive cell lines in the absence of detectable CLDN1-E2 interaction. Using fluorescent-labeled entry factors and fluorescence resonance energy transfer methodology, we demonstrate that anti-CLDN1 antibodies inhibit CD81-CLDN1 association. In contrast, CLDN1-CLDN1 and CD81-CD81 associations were not modulated. Taken together, our results demonstrate that antibodies targeting CLDN1 neutralize HCV infectivity by reducing E2 association with the cell surface and disrupting CD81-CLDN1 interactions. Conclusion: These results further define the function of CLDN1 in the HCV entry process and highlight new antiviral strategies targeting E2-CD81-CLDN1 interactions.
Related JoVE Video
HCV glycoprotein E2 is a novel BDCA-2 ligand and acts as an inhibitor of IFN production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The elimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in > 50% of chronically infected patients by treatment with IFN-? suggests that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), major producers of IFN-?, play an important role in the control of HCV infection. However, despite large amounts of Toll-like receptor 7-mediated IFN-?, produced by pDCs exposed to HCV-infected hepatocytes, HCV still replicates in infected liver. Here we show that HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 is a novel ligand of pDC C-type lectin immunoreceptors (CLRs), blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA-2) and DC-immunoreceptor (DCIR). HCV particles inhibit, via binding of E2 glycoprotein to CLRs, production of IFN-? and IFN-? in pDCs exposed to HCV-infected hepatocytes, and induce in pDCs a rapid phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2, in a manner similar to the crosslinking of BDCA-2 or DCIR. Blocking of BDCA-2 and DCIR with Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies preserves the capacity of pDCs to produce type I and III IFNs in the presence of HCV particles. Thus, negative interference of CLR signaling triggered by cell-free HCV particles with Toll-like receptor signaling triggered by cell-associated HCV results in the inhibition of the principal pDC function, production of IFN.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.