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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Risk and protective factors in maternal-fetal attachment development.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Prenatal attachment can be described as the parents' emotions, perceptions and behaviors that are related to the fetus. This relationship has been described as the most basic form of the human intimacy and represents the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents typically acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. The quality of the relationship between an infant and his or her parent is an important factor influencing the child's later development, both cognitive and emotional. There is evidence - even though yet unclear - that demographic, perinatal and psychological variables may correlate with attachment. In this perspective, it is essential to recognize the factors influencing attachment of parents towards their fetus and to planning psychosocial interventions in antepartum units or in obstetric clinics, in order to preserve a positive physical and emotional development of the infant and to provide family-centered prenatal care. Particular attention should be paid to women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy, since this condition involves a high distress that often results in feelings of anxiety and depression, that can hinder an adequate mother-fetus attachment.
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IUGR and infections.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) is usually defined as impaired growth and development of the fetus and/or its organs during gestation. Infants are defined small for gestational age (SGA), following IUGR, when the birth weight is below the 10th percentile. Pre-natal congenital infections caused by T. gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Treponema are associated with, and account for, approximately 5 to 15% of IUGR. On the other hand, SGA preterm infants are at increased risk of post-natal infection compared to their age-matched appropriately grown controls, in particular nosocomial infection, irrespective of the responsible pathogen. One possible mechanism is the retarded development in the immune system which has been described in association with IUGR. Indeed, SGA infants have a disproportionately small thymus and low leukocyte, lymphocyte and macrophage counts. However, immune therapies, including prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulins and GM-CSF have not proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of sepsis, and further research is required.
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Which is the optimal algorithm for the prevention of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis?
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The incidence of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcus (GBS EOS) sepsis has declined during the last decade since the implementation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis endorsed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. All the CDC guidelines versions provide recommendations for neonatal management. The neonatal algorithm of CDC has not been universally accepted and hence different algorithms have been suggested. Since all approaches to disease prevention are still imperfect, an optimal algorithm for GBS EOS prevention is still lacking; the development of improved diagnostic methods of distinguishing at-risk infants may contribute to improve the clinician's approach.
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Emerging and re-emerging virus infections in neonates and young pediatric patients.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The epidemiology of virus infections has changed dramatically in Europe in recent years due to ecologic, anthropologic and biologic factors such as: i) climate modifications, ii) global exchange of goods and international travel, iii) increased immigration flux from Africa, South America, the Middle East and Asia, iv) reduction of cultivated areas, and v) emergence and re-emergence of human viruses from zoonotic reservoirs. In addition, recent technical advancements have allowed the identification of previously unrecognized autochthonous viral species. Thus, at present, the technical and cultural challenge is to recognize infections caused by viruses not normally circulating in our geographical region (both as imported cases or potential local outbreaks), sustained by recently discovered autochthonous viruses or due to recognized viruses which are no longer widespread in Western Europe due to past vaccination campaigns.
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Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn.
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Genomic alterations in human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells call for stringent quality control before any possible therapeutic approach.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The umbilical cord (UC) is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). UC-MSCs display very similar in vitro characteristics to bone marrow-MSCs and could represent a valuable alternative for cell-based therapies. However, it is still unclear whether UC-MSCs are prone or not to the acquisition of genomic imbalances during in vitro expansion.
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Viral outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units: what we do not know.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Nosocomial infection is among the most important causes of morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, increased hospital costs, and mortality in neonates, particularly those born preterm. The vast majority of scientific articles dealing with nosocomial infections address bacterial or fungal infections, and viral agents are often disregarded. This analysis reviews the medical literature in an effort to establish the incidence, types of pathogens, and clinical features of noncongenital neonatal viral infections.
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New possibilities of prevention of infection in the newborn.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Strategies of proven effectiveness in reducing the incidence of infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) include hand hygiene practices and prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections. In recent years, new strategies have been developed to prevent infections in NICU including prevention of neonatal sepsis with lactoferrin, the use of heparin for the prevention of CRBSIs, the judicious use of antibiotics and chemoprophylaxis, prevention of invasive fungal infections with fluconazole, the use of specific anti-staphylococcal immunoglobulins, and the early identification of infants at higher risk of infection with the use of specific markers (mannose-binding lectin). This review will focus on these new strategies and on their role in clinical practice in order to further reduce the incidence of infection in NICU.
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Nutritional needs of premature infants.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Many innovation in neonatology have raised survival rates in the two past decades, but despite progress in neonatal intensive care, nutrition and growth of preterm infants are still critical points for neonatologists around the world and extrauterine growth restriction remains a common problem. Since growth is recognized as a major problem, in 2010, the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition published recommendations on enteral nutrition for preterm infants. The aim of this review is to revise nutritional needs of premature infants, taking into consideration the recommendations of ESPGHAN and the recent international literature.
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Emerging viral infections in neonatal intensive care unit.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Nosocomial infections are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates and mostly in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The total number of neonates who develop nosocomial infections per admission varies from 6.2 to 30%. The role of nosocomial virus infections is generally neglected in the actual epidemiologic scenario mostly due to the lack of data in the medical literature. Based on a worldwide database of health care-associated outbreaks (http://www.outbreak-database.com) we performed an analysis of the incidence, type of pathogens and clinical features of neonatal viral outbreaks especially those reported in NICUs. We also describe, as an example of emerging virus in NICU, a Norovirus outbreak along with clinical presentation that varies from mild to moderate clinical symptoms like vomiting, gastric remainder, diarrhoea, abdominal distension or severe presentation like necrotizing enterocolitis. and measures implemented for terminating the outbreak. In conclusion, our study analyses the viral origins of nosocomial infections in NICU and underline that the role of viral agents in neonatal nosocomial infections needs to be further investigated even in diseases traditionally considered of bacterial origin like necrotizing enterocolitis.
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Altered surfactant homeostasis and recurrent respiratory failure secondary to TTF-1 nuclear targeting defect.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Mutations of genes affecting surfactant homeostasis, such as SFTPB, SFTPC and ABCA3, lead to diffuse lung disease in neonates and children. Haploinsufficiency of NKX2.1, the gene encoding the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)--critical for lung, thyroid and central nervous system morphogenesis and function--causes a rare form of progressive respiratory failure designated brain-lung-thyroid syndrome. Molecular mechanisms involved in this syndrome are heterogeneous and poorly explored. We report a novel TTF-1 molecular defect causing recurrent respiratory failure episodes in an infant.
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Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn refractory to inhaled nitric oxide-treated with milrinone: a case report.
Turk. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Current therapy of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) consists of optimal ventilation, hemodynamic support and selective vasodilatation with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We present herein a case of PPHN non-responsive to iNO but treated successfully with a combination of iNO and intravenous milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor. This case suggests that the drug may be a useful adjunctive treatment in the management of PPHN.
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BNP concentrations and cardiovascular adaptation in preterm and fullterm newborn infants.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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To evaluate and compare cardiovascular adaptation of 36 preterm and 34 fullterm newborns, we analyzed BNP concentration and echocardiographic parameters at day 3 of life and at day 28 (+/-2). On day 3 BNP concentrations (pg/ml) resulted higher in PDA preterm group (n=11; 125, IQR 56.1-301) than preterm without PDA (n=25; 25.5 IQR 10.9-49; p<0.001) than fullterms (n=34; 55.1 IQR 23.6-82.7; p=0.013). No difference resulted in all groups at 28days (respectively: 12.7 IQR 4.9-23.8; 15.6 IQR 10-22; 8.9 IQR 5.6-20.6). Because of the newborns growth, all echocardiographic parameters increased with linear relationship with body weight. On day 3 BNP concentration and echocardiographic parameters were not correlated besides LA/AO in preterms with PDA (p=0.0015). On day 28, BNP was significantly correlated with mVTI (p=0.019), M (p=0.007) and LA (p=0.005) in fullterms and only with LA (p=0.007) in preterms. In conclusion, BNP concentrations and echocardiographic measures confirm that preterm, and fullterm newborns conduct themselves in a similar manner during the transition from foetal to post-natal circulation, reaching low levels at a month of life. The presence of PDA during first days of life has no significant impact in this adaptation. LA is the echocardiographic parameter mostly related to BNP concentration in the newborns.
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A novel LAMA3 mutation in a newborn with junctional epidermolysis bullosa herlitz type.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The case of a male neonate of 41 weeks gestation who developed blistering of the skin immediately after birth is described. His parents were consanguineous Tunisians. Electron microscopy of a cutaneous biopsy showed skin cleavage within the lamina lucida and immunoepitope mapping revealed a complete absence of laminin 332 expression. These findings referred to the diagnosis of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) Herlitz type. The neonate died at 3 months of age due to sepsis. Molecular analysis of laminin 332 chain genes LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 disclosed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in LAMA3 (p.Y955X). Clinical and laboratory analyses are essential for the diagnosis of JEB subtypes, and molecular analysis screening is crucial to manage a new pregnancy in families with suspected cases of JEB.
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Two-year follow-up of the pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressive drugs in a neonate who underwent heart transplantation.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2009
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The pharmacokinetic properties of immunosuppressive drugs are quite different in newborns than in adults and few studies describe the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in pediatric heart transplant recipients. We report on the two-year follow up of a neonate who underwent heart transplantation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome on day of life 9. Two different immunosuppressive regimens were used: cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisone in the early postoperative period, followed by the routine tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil combination plus prednisone from post-transplant day 22. Our findings demonstrate marked variability in immunosuppressive pharmacokinetic profiles early post-transplant. Frequent monitoring of drug levels is required to ensure that they remain within the therapeutic range. After the first 2-3 months post-transplant, changes in immunosuppressive drug levels are less marked and correlate more with the administered dosage.
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Prevention of early onset group B streptococcal disease: controversial issues.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2009
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Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis is currently the most effective preventive strategy against the neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal infection. The principal controversies on strategies for intrapartum antibiotic administration, possible adverse effects, management of newborn and possible future preventive strategies reported in the literature are considered.
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Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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The new form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by lung immaturity with disrupted alveolar and capillary development after extremely premature birth, but the mechanism of impaired lung vascular formation is still not completely understood. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that reduced numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells at birth are associated with the development of BPD.
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Prognostic significance of the interaction between abnormal umbilical and middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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To evaluate the prognostic significance of the interaction between umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler measurements in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.