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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mutual Effect of rs688 and rs5925 in Regulating Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Splicing.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Analysis of the LDLR gene based on the rs688 and rs5925 genetic polymorphisms has provided evidence suggesting that haplotypes related to rs688 and rs5925 are associated with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Both rs688 and rs5925 have been empirically identified as exon-splicing enhancers in silico, and rs688 has been shown to be a functional polymorphism that modulates LDLR exon 12 splicing efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rs688 and rs5925 and their haplotypes may alter the splicing efficiency of exons 12 and 13 both in vivo and in vitro. When the minigenes were evaluated for splicing efficiency, we found that converting rs688C to the T allele reduced exon 12 splicing efficiency. In parallel, converting rs688T to the C allele increased the efficiency of exon 12 inclusion. The apparent difference in splicing efficiency was 9.36%±2.58% between the C and T alleles. When rs688C existed in the minigene, the major and minor rs5925 alleles were also sufficient to account for the differences in splicing efficiency of LDLR involving exon 13. The apparent splicing efficiency difference was 5.43%±2.87%. Sequential mutations of rs688 and rs5925 were performed to generate four different haplotypes in the LDLR minigene system. The splicing efficiencies for the haplotypes CC, CT, TC, and TT were 79.60%±1.38%, 76.68%±0.85%, 69.02%±1.79%, and 68.54%±1.38%, respectively. The splicing efficiency of the four haplotype groups differed significantly. In vivo analysis of human leukocyte samples was also compatible with in vitro analysis, indicating a mutual effect between rs688 and rs5925 in regulating LDLR splicing efficiency.
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Fate of diffusion restricted lesions in acute intracerebral hemorrhage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Diffusion-restricted lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are detected in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we aimed to determine the fate of DWI lesions in ICH patients and whether the presence of DWI lesions is associated with functional outcome in patients with ICH.
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Longitudinal brain white matter alterations in minimal hepatic encephalopathy before and after liver transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Cerebral edema is the common pathogenic mechanism for cognitive impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Whether complete reversibility of brain edema, cognitive deficits, and their associated imaging can be achieved after liver transplantation remains an open question. To characterize white matter integrity before and after liver transplantation in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy, multiple diffusivity indices acquired via diffusion tensor imaging was applied. Twenty-eight patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included. Multiple diffusivity indices were obtained from diffusion tensor images, including mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The assessment was repeated 6-12 month after transplantation. Differences in white matter integrity between groups, as well as longitudinal changes, were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistical analysis. Correlation analyses were performed to identify first scan before transplantation and interval changes among the neuropsychiatric tests, clinical laboratory tests, and diffusion tensor imaging indices. After transplantation, decreased water diffusivity without fractional anisotropy change indicating reversible cerebral edema was found in the left anterior cingulate, claustrum, postcentral gyrus, and right corpus callosum. However, a progressive decrease in fractional anisotropy and an increase in radial diffusivity suggesting demyelination were noted in temporal lobe. Improved pre-transplantation albumin levels and interval changes were associated with better recoveries of diffusion tensor imaging indices. Improvements in interval diffusion tensor imaging indices in the right postcentral gyrus were correlated with visuospatial function score correction. In conclusion, longitudinal voxel-wise analysis of multiple diffusion tensor imaging indices demonstrated different white matter changes in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients. Transplantation improved extracellular cerebral edema and the results of associated cognition tests. However, white matter demyelination may advance in temporal lobe.
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The influence of hydrogen bonding on the nonlinear optical properties of a semiorganic material NH4B[D-(+)-C4H4O5]2·H2O: a theoretical perspective.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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In this work, a potential semiorganic nonlinear optical candidate NH4B[D-(+)-(C4H4O5)]2·H2O (NBC) has been studied using Density Functional Theory. The origin of the second harmonic generation (SHG) effect of NBC crystals for the NH4B[D-(+)-(C4H4O5)]2·H2O molecular complex is explained by employing a combination of the density of states, SHG density and molecular orbital analysis. It reveals a way in which the organic and ammonium groups affect the SHG processes in a significantly different manner in the crystals and the molecular complex. In particular, the role of hydrogen bonding interaction in influencing the electronic structure and nonlinear optical properties is explicitly identified and explained.
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Altered resting-state FMRI signals in acute stroke patients with ischemic penumbra.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Identifying the ischemic penumbra in acute stroke subjects is important for the clinical decision making process. The aim of this study was to use resting-state functional magnetic resonance singal (fMRI) to investigate the change in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of these subjects in three different subsections of acute stroke regions: the infarct core tissue, the penumbra tissue, and the normal brain tissue. Another aim of this study was to test the feasilbility of consistently detecting the penumbra region of the brain through ALFF analysis.
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Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.
Microbes Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.
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Effects of nano-ZnO on the agronomically relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The impact of nano-ZnO (nZnO) on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied with garden pea and its compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure of peas to nZnO had no impact on germination, but significantly affected root length. Chronic exposure of plant to nZnO impacted its development by decreasing the number of the first- and the second-order lateral roots, stem length, leaf surface area, and transpiration. The effect of nZnO dissolution on phytotoxicity was also examined. Results showed that Zn(2+) had negative impact on plant development. Exposure of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 to nZnO brought about morphological changes by rendering the microbial cells toward round shape and damaging the bacterial surface. Furthermore, the presence of nZnO in the rhizosphere affected root nodulation, delayed the onset of nitrogen fixation, and caused early senescence of nodules. Attachment of nanoparticles on the root surface and dissolution of Zn(2+) are important factors affecting the phytotocity of nZnO. Hence, the presence of nZnO in the environment is potentially hazardous to the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis system.
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Experiences of Indonesian Mother Managing Preschool Children's Acute Abdominal Pain in Taiwan.
J Pediatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to understand the Indonesian mothers' experiences of managing preschool children's acute abdominal pain. The descriptive qualitative research design comprises semi-structured interviews with 11 Indonesian mothers. The qualitative content analysis revealed three themes, including (1) insight of abdominal pain, (2) "inheritance of the strategies for assessment of management for abdominal pain from the family of origin", (3) "obstacles and insights related to cultural differences". The results presented that pain management was affected by family, environment, cultural background and religious beliefs. Healthcare providers should provide culturally competent pain management care for the patients of difference nationalities.
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The association of RAB18 gene polymorphism (rs3765133) with cerebellar volume in healthy adults.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Genetic factors are responsible for the development of the human brain. Certain genetic factors are known to increase the risk of common brain disorders and affect the brain structure. Therefore, even in healthy people, these factors have a role in the development of specific brain regions. Loss-of-function mutations in the RAB18 gene (RAB18) cause Warburg Micro syndrome, which is associated with reduced brain size and deformed brain structures. In this study, we hypothesized that the RAB18 variant might influence regional brain volumes in healthy people. The study participants comprised 246 normal volunteers between 21 and 59 years of age (mean age of 37.8?±?12.0 years; 115 men, 131 women). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genotypes of RAB18 rs3765133 were examined for each participant. The differences in regional brain volumes between T homozygotes and A-allele carriers were tested using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that RAB18 rs3765133 T homozygote group exhibited larger gray matter (GM) volume in the left middle temporal and inferior frontal gyrus of the cerebrum than the A-allele carriers. An opposite effect was observed in both the posterior lobes and right tonsil of the cerebellum, in which the GM volume of RAB18 rs3765133 T homozygotes was smaller than that of the A-allele carriers (all P FWE?
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The underlying chemistry of electronegative LDL's atherogenicity.
Curr Atheroscler Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) found in human plasma is highly atherogenic, and its level is elevated in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we summarize the available data regarding the elevation of the levels of electronegative LDL in the plasma of patients with various diseases. In addition, we discuss the harmful effects and underlying mechanisms of electronegative LDL in various cell types. We also highlight the known biochemical properties of electronegative LDL that may contribute to its atherogenic functions, including its lipid and protein composition, enzymatic activities, and structural features. Given the increasing recognition of electronegative LDL as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, key future goals include the development of a standard method for the detection of electronegative LDL that can be used in a large-scale population survey and the identification and testing of strategies for eliminating electronegative LDL from the blood.
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Substance flow analysis and assessment of environmental exposure potential for triclosan in mainland China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Triclosan (TCS) is a widely-used antimicrobial agent in many consumer products around the world, and China is a major producer and consumer of TCS. In this study substance flow analysis (SFA) was used to construct a static model of anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China in 2008. The systematic SFA results were used to determine possible exposure pathways and trends in environmental exposure potential through different pathways. TCS discharged in wastewater mainly flowed into surface water sediment, ocean, and soil, where it accumulates in aquatic and agricultural products that may pose a higher risk to human health than brief exposure during consumption. Only 22% of TCS discharged was removed in the built environment with the remainder discharged into the natural environment, indicating that anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China is unsustainable. Per capita TCS consumption increased 209% from 2003 to 2012, resulting in increased discharge and accumulation in the environment. If current trends continue, it will increase to 713 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2015 and 957 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2020. Accordingly, annual environmental exposure potential will increase from 388 mg capita(-1) in 2008 to 557 mg capita(-1) in 2015 and 747 mg capita(-1) in 2020, indicating an increasing trend of exposure to environmental TCS. Results of Pearson correlation analysis suggested that feasible countermeasures to reduce environmental exposure potential for triclosan would include encouraging the development of small cities, raising awareness of health risks, nurturing environmentally-friendly consumer values, and improving the environmental performance of TCS-containing products.
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Altered white matter microstructural connectivity in cluster headaches: A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Functional and structural disruptions to the pain matrix, which may involve changes in white matter (WM) pathways connecting the pain-processing system and hypothalamus, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH). However, previous studies have obtained inconclusive results regarding WM changes in CH, and WM variations between "in-bout" and "out-of-bout" periods of CH remain to be determined.
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Changes in sexual function of women with refractory interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome after intravesical therapy with a hyaluronic acid solution.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Intravesical instillation with a hyaluronic acid (HA) solution is an effective treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), but its impact on sexual functioning of patients is not known.
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Circulating free mitochondrial DNA concentration and its association with erlotinib treatment in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Changes in circulating free DNA concentrations have been correlated with chemotherapeutic effects in solid tumors. The present study was designed to determine and compare the changes in circulating free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) concentrations prior to and following erlotinib treatment, as well as the potential prognostic value of plasma mtDNA. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung who were to receive erlotinib treatment were enrolled in the present study once informed consent had been obtained. Patient plasma samples were collected immediately prior to starting erlotinib treatment, on days 15 and 29 following the initiation of erlotinib treatment and also when the patient's disease had progressed. The most common erlotinib treatment response was a partial response (PR), achieved in 26 (49.1%) of the 53 enrolled patients, followed by stable disease (SD) in 13 patients (24.5%) and progressive disease (PD) in 14 patients (26.4%). Plasma mtDNA concentrations were significantly decreased on day 15 compared with day 0 in the patients with PD (P=0.028) or in those patients without a response to erlotinib treatment (SD and PD; P=0.007). Plasma mtDNA concentrations were similar or elevated on day 15 compared with day 0 in the patients with a PR (P=0.808). The concentration of plasma mtDNA did not correlate with progression-free survival (PFS). Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status (activating mutations in 16 patients and wild-type in 14 patients) did not correlate with the concentration of plasma mtDNA (P=0.951). Plasma mtDNA levels did not correlate with the PFS of the patients when they received erlotinib treatment. The plasma mtDNA levels were decreased on day 15 in those patients who had disease progression following erlotinib treatment. These results demonstrate that plasma mtDNA is of weak clinical utility as a screening, diagnostic or prognostic tool in lung cancer patients.
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Relationship between scientific knowledge and fortune-telling.
Public Underst Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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This study takes on a relational and situated perspective to understand the relationship between scientific knowledge and fortune-telling. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of scientific facts and methods, and fortune-telling beliefs and practices. A sample of 1863 adults was drawn from a population of Taiwanese citizens using the method of probability proportional to size. The findings showed that knowledge of scientific methods was negatively associated with fortune-telling beliefs. However, knowledge of scientific facts was, by and large, positively associated with engagement in fortune-telling practices, a phenomenon known as cognitive polyphasia. This study does not imply that science communication or education have no effect on promoting scientific knowledge; rather, it hopes to encourage researchers and practitioners to use a culturally sensitive lens to rethink the role of science in society and its relationship with other forms of knowledge and belief.
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Zyflamend, a polyherbal mixture, down regulates class I and class II histone deacetylases and increases p21 levels in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Zyflamend, a mixture containing extracts of ten herbs, has shown promise in a variety of preclinical cancer models, including prostate cancer. The current experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Zyflamend on the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, a family of enzymes known to be over expressed in a variety of cancers.
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Costs and length of stay of drug-related hospital admissions in cancer patients.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Most previous studies of the incidence and economic impact of drug-related hospital admissions were not cancer specific, despite the fact that drug-related problems (DRPs) are of particular concern in oncology.
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Gender disparity in LDL-induced cardiovascular damage and the protective role of estrogens against electronegative LDL.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Increased levels of the most electronegative type of LDL, L5, have been observed in the plasma of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and can induce endothelial dysfunction. Because men have a higher predisposition to developing coronary artery disease than do premenopausal women, we hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is increased in men and promotes endothelial damage.
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Characteristics of unplanned hospital admissions due to drug-related problems in cancer patients.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Studies have examined drug-related problems (DRPs) that have led to hospital admissions in the general population. However, there is a lack of information on the characteristics of DRPs in the cancer population.
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Malondialdehyde mediates oxidized LDL-induced coronary toxicity through the Akt-FGF2 pathway via DNA methylation.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is involved in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease through a mechanism that is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the role of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important oxidative stress epitope of oxLDL, in mediating coronary endothelial cytotoxicity.
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Single-incision mesh repair versus traditional native tissue repair for pelvic organ prolapse: results of a cohort study.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To compare the efficacy and safety of the Elevate™ anterior and posterior prolapse repair system and traditional vaginal native tissue repair in the treatment of stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse.
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Disruption of brain connectivity in acute stroke patients with early impairment in consciousness.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Impairment in consciousness is common in acute stroke patients and is correlated with the clinical outcome after stroke. The underlying mechanism is not completely understood, with little known about brain activity and connectivity changes in acute stroke patients having impaired consciousness. In this study, we investigated changes in regional brain activity and brain networks of consciousness impaired stroke patients, as well as the amplitude of spontaneous low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of each time series. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) of each voxel was measured, and resting state network analysis was consequently conducted. Results from this study demonstrate that, compared to normal subjects, the intensities of ALFF and ReHo, as well as the strength of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity, were significantly decreased in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex regions among stroke patients with impaired consciousness. Furthermore, the strength of the DMN was highly correlated with differences in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores between the onset time and the scanning time. Results from this study suggest that the resting state fMRI is a feasible tool for the evaluation of acute stroke patients with an early impairment of consciousness. The detailed mechanisms, implications of these brain activities and networks exhibiting changes will require further investigation.
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Hemodynamic Factors May Play a Critical Role in Neurological Deterioration Occurring within 72 hrs after Lacunar Stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whether a perfusion defect exists in lacunar infarct and whether it is related to early neurological deterioration (END) is still under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether END in lacunar infarct is related to a perfusion defect using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and perfusion MR imaging.
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Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD.
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Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on the relationship between white matter hyperintensity and cognition in healthy people.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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White matter lesions can be easily observed on T2-weighted MR images, and are termed white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Their presence may be correlated with cognitive impairment; however, the relationship between regional WMH volume and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism in healthy populations remains unclear.
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Up-regulated FHL1 expression maybe involved in the prognosis of Hirschsprung's disease.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In a subset of patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), gastrointestinal motor dysfunction persisted long after surgical correction. Gastrointestinal motility is achieved through the coordinated activity of the enteric nervous system, interstitial cells of Cajal, and smooth muscle (SMC) cells. Inhibition of four-and-a-half LIM protein-1 (Fhl1) expression by siRNA significantly decreases pulmonary artery SMCs migration and proliferation. Furthermore when up-expressing FHL1 in atrial myocytes, K (+) current density markedly increases, therefore changing myocytes' response to an electrical stimulus. However whether FHL1 in colon SMCs (the final effector organ) influences intestinal motility in HSCR patients has not been clarified.
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Meiotic crossover control by concerted action of rad51-dmc1 in homolog template bias and robust homeostatic regulation.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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During meiosis, repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by recombination promotes pairing of homologous chromosomes and their connection by crossovers. Two DNA strand-exchange proteins, Rad51 and Dmc1, are required for meiotic recombination in many organisms. Studies in budding yeast imply that Rad51 acts to regulate Dmc1s strand exchange activity, while its own exchange activity is inhibited. However, in a dmc1 mutant, elimination of inhibitory factor, Hed1, activates Rad51s strand exchange activity and results in high levels of recombination without participation of Dmc1. Here we show that Rad51-mediated meiotic recombination is not subject to regulatory processes associated with high-fidelity chromosome segregation. These include homolog bias, a process that directs strand exchange between homologs rather than sister chromatids. Furthermore, activation of Rad51 does not effectively substitute for Dmc1s chromosome pairing activity, nor does it ensure formation of the obligate crossovers required for accurate homolog segregation. We further show that Dmc1s dominance in promoting strand exchange between homologs involves repression of Rad51s strand-exchange activity. This function of Dmc1 is independent of Hed1, but requires the meiotic kinase, Mek1. Hed1 makes a relatively minor contribution to homolog bias, but nonetheless this is important for normal morphogenesis of synaptonemal complexes and efficient crossing-over especially when DSB numbers are decreased. Super-resolution microscopy shows that Dmc1 also acts to organize discrete complexes of a Mek1 partner protein, Red1, into clusters along lateral elements of synaptonemal complexes; this activity may also contribute to homolog bias. Finally, we show that when interhomolog bias is defective, recombination is buffered by two feedback processes, one that increases the fraction of events that yields crossovers, and a second that we propose involves additional DSB formation in response to defective homolog interactions. Thus, robust crossover homeostasis is conferred by integrated regulation at initiation, strand-exchange and maturation steps of meiotic recombination.
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Biochemical and functional characterization of charge-defined subfractions of high-density lipoprotein from normal adults.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into five subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1, and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease.
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A prediction model for cognitive performance in health ageing using diffusion tensor imaging with graph theory.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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In this study, we employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to construct brain structural network and then derive the connection matrices from 96 healthy elderly subjects. The correlation analysis between these topological properties of network based on graph theory and the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) index were processed to extract the significant network characteristics. These characteristics were then integrated to estimate the models by various machine-learning algorithms to predict users cognitive performance. From the results, linear regression model and Gaussian processes model showed presented better abilities with lower mean absolute errors of 5.8120 and 6.25 to predict the cognitive performance respectively. Moreover, these extracted topological properties of brain structural network derived from DTI also could be regarded as the bio-signatures for further evaluation of brain degeneration in healthy aged and early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
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In vivo study on the effects of curcumin on the expression profiles of anti-tumour genes (VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4) in liver of rats injected with DEN.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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In this study we investigated the effects of curcumin, derived from plant Curcuma longa, on oxidative toxicity, and the possible molecular mechanism of antitumour of curcumin in liver cancer rats. Results showed that blood levels of Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glutathione S-transferase, and liver level of MD were significantly decreased after curcumin feeding. Levels of the liver malondialdehyde MDA, nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased liver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA expression levels and CyclinD1 and CDK4 proteins levels in liver cancer rats. These findings were confirmed by histopathology. It is concluded that curcumin can protect the liver from the damage caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine. Moreover, curcumin has the potential to be used in a therapy for liver cancer. The present data provide evidence to support the presence of free radicals and VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA in rat tumour cells. Studies are in progress in order to further characterize the role of VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA in liver cancer cells and in hepatic therapeutics.
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Highly electronegative LDL from patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction triggers platelet activation and aggregation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Platelet activation and aggregation underlie acute thrombosis that leads to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). L5-highly electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-is significantly elevated in patients with STEMI. Thus, we examined the role of L5 in thrombogenesis. Plasma LDL from patients with STEMI (n = 30) was chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions (L1-L5) with increasing electronegativity. In vitro, L5 enhanced adenosine diphosphate-stimulated platelet aggregation twofold more than did L1 and induced platelet-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion. L5 also increased P-selectin expression and glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa activation and decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels (n = 6, P < .01) in platelets. In vivo, injection of L5 (5 mg/kg) into C57BL/6 mice twice weekly for 6 weeks shortened tail bleeding time by 43% (n = 3; P < .01 vs L1-injected mice) and increased P-selectin expression and GPIIb/IIIa activation in platelets. Pharmacologic blockade experiments revealed that L5 signals through platelet-activating factor receptor and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 to attenuate Akt activation and trigger granule release and GPIIb/IIIa activation via protein kinase C-?. L5 but not L1 induced tissue factor and P-selectin expression in human aortic ECs (P < .01), thereby triggering platelet activation and aggregation with activated ECs. These findings indicate that elevated plasma levels of L5 may promote thrombosis that leads to STEMI.
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Pulse pressure and michigan neuropathy screening instrument are independently associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease among type 2 diabetes community residents: A community-based screening program in Taiwan.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the major manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis and plays an important role in low-extremity amputation in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic PAD in type 2 diabetic community residents. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 552 type 2 diabetic adults (232 men and 320 women) without subjective symptoms of intermittent claudication. We defined the PAD group as an ankle-brachial index (ABI) ? 0.90, and the normal group as an ABI 0.91-1.30. Their clinical characteristics, Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) scores and blood pressure were compared. Results: We discovered that 51 patients have asymptomatic PAD. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, history of stroke, longer duration of diabetes (> 10 years), unemployment or retirement, pulse pressure, systolic blood pressure, and high MNSI score (> 2) were risk factors for PAD. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, pulse pressure, high MNSI score, age, and history of stroke were independent risk factors with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, CI) of 1.032 (1.012-1.053), 2.359 (1.274-4.370), 1.050 (1.010-1.091), and 5.152 (1.985-13.368), respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of PAD increased significantly with increment in the pulse pressure and MNSI. Conclusions: In summary, the overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the type 2 diabetic adults was 9.2%. Age, history of stroke, pulse pressure and MNSI score may provide important clinical information. Primary care physicians should be aware of asymptomatic patients with high pulse pressure and MNSI scores.
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Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents.
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Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Regional Gray Matter Volumes and Cognitive Function in the Chinese Population.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is common and influences the activity-dependent secretion of BDNF, which is critical for neuronal plasticity and survival. This study investigated the genetic effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cognitive function and regional gray matter (GM) volume in a healthy Chinese population (n = 330). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM)-optimized analysis was used. There was no significant difference in the neuropsychological performances among the three BDNF genotypic groups. VBM analyses demonstrated that Met homozygotes had greater GM volumes than Val homozygotes in the left medial frontal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus, the left cerebellum, and the right middle temporal gyrus, and had larger GM volumes than Val/Met heterozygotes in the left middle temporal gyrus, the left inferior temporal gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that the presence of two Met alleles has a protective effect on regional GM volumes in the Chinese population.
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Topological similarity between the 2?m plasmid partitioning locus and the budding yeast centromere: evidence for a common evolutionary origin?
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The partitioning locus STB of the selfish plasmid, the 2?m circle, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for the propagation of this multi-copy extra-chromosomal DNA element with nearly chromosome-like stability. The functional competence of STB requires the plasmid-coded partitioning proteins Rep1 and Rep2 as well as host-coded proteins. Host factors that associate with STB in a Rep1- and Rep2-dependent manner also interact with centromeres, and play important roles in chromosome segregation. They include the cohesin complex and the centromere-specific histone H3 variant Cse4. The genetically defined point centromere of S. cerevisiae differs starkly from the much more widespread epigenetically specified regional centromeres of eukaryotes. The particularly small size of the S. cerevisiae centromere and the association of chromosome segregation factors with STB raise the possibility of an evolutionary link between these two partitioning loci. The unusual positive supercoiling harboured by the S. cerevisiae centromere and STB in vivo in their functional states, unveiled by recent experiments, bolsters the notion of their potential descent from an ancestral plasmid partitioning locus.
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The APOE ?4 allele affects complexity and functional connectivity of resting brain activity in healthy adults.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is associated with structural and functional brain changes. We have used multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis to detect changes in the complexity of resting blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals associated with aging and cognitive function. In this study, we further hypothesized that the APOE genotype may affect the complexity of spontaneous BOLD activity in younger and older adults, and such altered complexity may be associated with certain changes in functional connectivity. We conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in a cohort of 100 younger adults (aged 20-39 years; mean 27.2?±?4.3 years; male/female: 53/47) and 112 older adults (aged 60-79 years; mean 68.4?±?6.5 years; male/female: 54/58), and applied voxelwise MSE analysis to assess the main effect of APOE genotype on resting-state BOLD complexity and connectivity. Although the main effect of APOE genotype on BOLD complexity was not observed in younger group, we observed that older APOE ?4 allele carriers had significant reductions in BOLD complexity in precuneus and posterior cingulate regions, relative to noncarriers. We also observed that reduced BOLD complexity in precuneus and posterior cingulate regions was associated with increased functional connectivity to the superior and inferior frontal gyrus in the older group. These results support the compensatory recruitment hypothesis in older APOE ?4 carriers, and confer the impact of the APOE genotype on the temporal dynamics of brain activity in older adults. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Aspirin protects human coronary artery endothelial cells against atherogenic electronegative LDL via an epigenetic mechanism: a novel cytoprotective role of aspirin in acute myocardial infarction.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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L5 is the most negatively charged subfraction of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is the only subfraction of LDL capable of inducing apoptosis in cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by inhibiting fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) transcription. We examined whether plasma L5 levels are elevated in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and whether aspirin provides epigenetic protection of human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) exposed to L5.
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Effect of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on regional white matter hyperintensities and cognitive function in elderly males without dementia.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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White matter lesions, also termed White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH), on T2-weighted MR images, are common in the elderly population. Of note, their presence is often accompanied with cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Even though previous brain ischemia and WM lesion studies have been conducted and indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might protect against neuronal cell death, the interaction between regional WMH volume and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the cognitive performance of healthy elderly population remains unclear. To investigate the genetic effect of BDNF on cognitive function and regional WMH in the healthy elderly population, 90 elderly men, without dementia, with a mean age of 80.6±5.6y/o were recruited to undergo cognitive tests, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and genotyping of BDNF alleles. Compared with Met homozygotes, Val homozygotes showed significantly inferior short-term memory (STM) performance (P=.001). A tendency toward dose-dependent effects of the Val allele on WMH volume was found, and Val homozygotes showed larger WMH volume in the temporal (P=.035), the occipital (P=.006), and the global WMH volume (P=.025) than others. Significant interaction effects of BDNF genotypes with temporal WMH volume on STM performance was observed (F1,89=4.306, P=.041). Val homozygotes presented steeper negative correlation compared to Met carriers. Mediation analysis also demonstrated that WMH in temporal, limbic, and subcortical regions might mediate the relationship between BDNFs genetic effect and STM performance. Our findings supported the hypothesis that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may affect susceptibility to regional WMH volume and such genotype-by-WMH interaction effect is correlated with cognitive decline in non-demented elderly males, in which the Met allele plays a protective role.
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The influence of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations on resting-state functional connectivity.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Studies of brain functional connectivity have provided a better understanding of organization and integration of large-scale brain networks. Functional connectivity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is typically based upon the correlations of the low-frequency fluctuation of fMRI signals. Reproducible spatial maps in the brain have also been observed using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in resting-state. However, little is known about the influence of the ALFF on the functional connectivity measures. In the present study, we analyzed resting-state fMRI data on 79 healthy old individuals. Spatial independent component analysis and regions of interest (ROIs) based connectivity analysis were performed to obtain measures of functional connectivity. ALFF maps were also calculated. First, voxel-matched inter-subject correlations were computed between back-reconstructed IC and ALFF maps. For all the resting-state networks, there was a consistent correlation between ALFF variability and network strengths (within regions that had high IC strengths). Next, inter-subject variance of correlations across 160 functionally defined ROIs were correlated with the corresponding ALFF variance. The connectivity of several ROIs to other regions were more likely to correlate with its own regional ALFF. These regions were mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, insula, basal ganglia, and thalamus. These associations may suggest a functional significance of functional connectivity modulations. Alternatively, the fluctuation amplitudes may arise from physiological noises, and therefore, need to be controlled when studying resting-state functional connectivity.
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Effects of nano-TiO? on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The impact of nano-TiO? on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO? did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-TiO? exposure did impact plant development by decreasing the number of secondary lateral roots. Cultured R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 was also impacted by exposure to nano-TiO?, resulting in morphological changes to the bacterial cells. Moreover, the interaction between these two organisms was disrupted by nano-TiO? exposure, such that root nodule development and the subsequent onset of nitrogen fixation were delayed. Further, the polysaccharide composition of the walls of infected cells of nodules was altered, suggesting that the exposure induced a systemic response in host plants. Therefore, nano-TiO? contamination in the environment is potentially hazardous to the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis system.
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Clinical features and outcomes of spinal cord infarction following vertebral artery dissection: a systematic review of the literature.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare complication of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Its clinical features and outcomes have not yet been well documented.
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Alcohol, betel-nut and cigarette consumption are negatively associated with health promoting behaviors in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Oral cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death due to cancer in the south-western coastal region of Taiwan; the standardized mortality of oral cancer is higher than elsewhere in the world. According to the evidence, alcohol, betel-nut and cigarette (ABC) consumption cause oral, nasopharyngeal and related cancers. This study describes the relationships between ABC consumers and health promoting behaviors among community adults living around an area with a high prevalence of oral cancer.
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Blastocyst biopsy and vitrification are effective for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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What is the value of a new strategy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of monogenic diseases: blastocyst biopsy, cryopreservation and thawed embryo transfer?
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Rapid increase of serum neuron specific enolase level and tachyphylaxis of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicate small cell lung cancer transformation from EGFR positive lung adenocarcinoma?
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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We report the case of an 80-year-old male with relapsed EGFR exon 19 deletion lung adenocarcinoma treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), but with poor response and rapid increase of serum neuron specific enolase (NSE). Repeat biopsy identified pathological transformation to small cell lung cancers (SCLC) retaining the same EGFR mutation. This case highlights routine serological testing of NSE may benefit for the lung adenocarcinoma patients resistant to TKIs.
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Formation of covalently modified folding intermediates of simian virus 40 Vp1 in large T antigen-expressing cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The folding and pentamer assembly of the simian virus 40 (SV40) major capsid protein Vp1, which take place in the infected cytoplasm, have been shown to progress through disulfide-bonded Vp1 folding intermediates. In this report, we further demonstrate the existence of another category of Vp1 folding or assembly intermediates: the nonreducible, covalently modified mdVp1s. These species were present in COS-7 cells that expressed a recombinant SV40 Vp1, Vp1?C, through plasmid transfection. The mdVp1s persisted under cell and lysate treatment and SDS-PAGE conditions that are expected to have suppressed the formation of artifactual disulfide cross-links. As shown through a pulse-chase analysis, the mdVp1s were derived from the newly synthesized Vp1?C in the same time frame as Vp1s folding and oligomerization. The apparent covalent modifications occurred in the cytoplasm within the core region of Vp1 and depended on the coexpression of the SV40 large T antigen (LT) in the cells. Analogous covalently modified species were found with the expression of recombinant polyomavirus Vp1s and human papillomavirus L1s in COS-7 cells. Furthermore, the mdVp1s formed multiprotein complexes with LT, Hsp70, and Hsp40, and a fraction of the largest mdVp1, md4, was disulfide linked to the unmodified Vp1?C. Both mdVp1 formation and most of the multiprotein complex formation were blocked by a Vp1 folding mutation, C87A-C254A. Our observations are consistent with a role for LT in facilitating the folding process of SV40 Vp1 by stimulating certain covalent modifications of Vp1 or by recruiting certain cellular proteins.
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Altered gray matter volume in the frontal pain modulation network in patients with cluster headache.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Previous functional imaging studies in episodic cluster headache (CH) patients revealed altered brain metabolism concentrated on the central descending pain control system. However, it remains unclear whether changes in brain metabolism during the "in bout" period are due to structural changes and whether these structural changes vary between the "in bout" and "out of bout" periods. To quantify brain structural changes in CH patients, the regional gray matter volume (GMV) was compared among 49 episodic CH patients during the "in bout" period and 49 age- and sex-matched controls. Twelve patients were rescanned during the "out of bout" period to evaluate the changes, if any, between these 2 periods. Compared with healthy controls, CH patients showed significant "in bout" GMV reductions in the bilateral middle frontal, left superior, and medial frontal gyri. Compared to "out of bout" scans, the "in bout" scans revealed significant GMV increases in the left anterior cingulate, insula, and fusiform gyrus. Additionally, compared to healthy controls, the "out of bout" scans revealed a trend of GMV reduction in the left middle frontal gyrus. These affected regions primarily belong to frontal pain modulation areas, and thus these GMV changes may reflect insufficient pain-modulating capacity in the frontal areas of CH patients.
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A feasible strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for carriers with chromosomal translocation: Using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Patients with chromosomal translocation are highly vulnerable to produce unbalanced gametes that result in recurrent miscarriages, affected offspring, or infertility. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with blastomere biopsy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to select normal/balanced embryos for transfer. However, FISH is inherent with some technical difficulties such as cell fixation and signal reading. Here we introduce a strategy of PGD using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for reproductive problems of patients with chromosomal translocation.
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Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption.
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Interleukin-1 beta C-511T polymorphism modulates functional connectivity of anterior midcingulate cortex in non-demented elderly Han males.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Recent resting fMRI studies have suggested that the functional connectivity of the brains large-scale networks is associated with the cognitive decline of aging and is modulated by genetic factors. Our previous study found a significant association between interleukin-1 (IL-1 beta) C-511T polymorphism and working memory performance among elderly people. This study investigates the effects of IL-1 beta C-511T polymorphism on the functional connectivity of the cognitive division of the cingulate cortex [i.e., the anterior midcingulate (aMCC)] in non-demented Han elderly people and tests the hypothesis that T/T carriers are associated with lowered FC. Non-demented elderly males (n = 95) received resting MRI scanning, genotyping, and cognitive evaluation using the cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI) and the Wechsler digit span task test. The functional connectivity map in each subject was derived based on positive correlations of low-frequency fMRI fluctuations with a seed in the aMCC according to structural definition. Between-group difference was compared by random effect analysis. Compared to the C/C or C/T carriers, the T/T carriers had a significantly worse CASI performance, especially in the abstraction scores. For the functional connectivity analysis, the T/T carriers exhibited significantly lower functional connectivity with several prefrontal areas and the left putamen. The cortico-striatal connection between the aMCC and left putamen was correlated with the CASI abstraction and attention scores. The results were consistent with our hypothesis and supported that the brains functional connectivity in elderly people may be modulated by genetic polymorphism associated with local inflammation processes.
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A prospective study of transobturator tape as treatment for stress urinary incontinence after transvaginal mesh repair.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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The transobturator suburethral sling is a common surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). In patients with incontinence after trocar-guided transvaginal mesh repair (Prolift), data on outcome remain limited. In the present study, we hypothesized that transobturator tape in such cases is assumed to be as effective as surgery alone.
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Effect of Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism on age-related gray matter volume changes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene is a major regulator of neural plasticity and cellular resilience. Recently, the Bcl-2 rs956572 single nucleotide polymorphism was proposed to be a functional allelic variant that modulates cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. Our cross-sectional study investigated the genetic effect of this Bcl-2 polymorphism on age-related decreases in gray matter (GM) volume across the adult lifespan. Our sample comprised 330 healthy volunteers (191 male, 139 female) with a mean age of 56.2±22.0 years (range: 21-92). Magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping of the Bcl-2 rs956572 were performed for each participant. The differences in regional GM volumes between G homozygotes and A-allele carriers were tested using optimized voxel-based morphometry. The association between the Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism and age was a predictor of regional GM volumes in the right cerebellum, bilateral lingual gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. We found that the volume of these five regions decreased with increasing age (all P<.001). Moreover, the downward slope was steeper among the Bcl-2 rs956572 A-allele carriers than in the G-homozygous participants. Our data provide convergent evidence for the genetic effect of the Bcl-2 functional allelic variant in brain aging. The rs956572 G-allele, which is associated with significantly higher Bcl-2 protein expression and diminished cellular sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis, conferred a protective effect against age-related changes in brain GM volume, particularly in the cerebellum.
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Association of renal biomarkers with 3-month and 1-year outcomes among critically ill acute stroke patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The comparative relationships of widely recognized biomarkers of renal injury with short-term and long-term outcomes among critically ill acute stroke patients are unknown. We evaluated the impact of baseline albuminuria [urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ? 30 mg/g] or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) on stroke patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
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Gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenia patients with tardive dyskinesia: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The pathophysiological mechanism of TD remains unknown. All previous studies, using the region-of-interest method, focused on basal ganglion areas, were with inconsistent results. This whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study investigate the grey matter abnormality of TD and its correlates with clinical ratings.
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Electronegative low-density lipoprotein increases C-reactive protein expression in vascular endothelial cells through the LOX-1 receptor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1.
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Comparison of arterial spin labeling and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in patients with acute stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reliably quantify perfusion deficit as compared to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI.
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Main caregivers experiences of managing pain for children with neuroblastoma in Taiwan.
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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Neuroblastoma is a common malignant tumor among children. Seventy percent of children with neuroblastoma have metastatic disease when the diagnosis is established. The aim of this study was to understand the main caregivers lived experiences in managing pain for children with neuroblastoma. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Twelve main caregivers of children with neuroblastoma were interviewed. Two themes evolved: experiences of pain and coping with pain. Three subthemes were found under the theme "experience of pain": pain assessment based on language expressions and behavioral observations, tendency of misdiagnosing tumor metastasis-related pain, and unique manifestations of pain at various phases. Four subthemes evolved under the theme "coping with pain": utilization of pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities for pain management, learning to confront pain, seeking mental and emotional support, and adjustment of family lifestyle. The results provide a description regarding the expression of pain in children with neuroblastoma and the pain management modalities used by the main caregivers. The findings serve as a reference for health care providers in Taiwan as they manage pain for children with neuroblastoma and seek to understand the needs of the main caregivers.
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Real-time PCR analysis of the intestinal microbiotas in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus can beneficially affect the host by producing acetic acid and lactic acid, which lower pH and thereby inhibit the growth of pathogens or allow the probiotic bacteria to compete with pathogens for epithelial adhesion sites and nutrients. The transmural migration of enteric organisms into the peritoneal cavity can cause peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that the composition of the intestinal microbiota with regard to Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterium species differed between PD patients and healthy controls. The aim of the study was to investigate these differences by real-time PCR analysis of fecal samples. From 1 August 2009 to 31 March 2010, a total of 29 nondiabetic PD patients and 41 healthy controls from China Medical University Hospital were recruited after giving their informed consent. Fecal samples were collected from the PD patients and their age-matched counterparts in the morning using a standardized procedure. DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by real-time PCR. All bifidobacteria, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, B. longum, B. bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paracasei, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were less frequently detected in the patient samples. Dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) may impair intestinal barrier function and increase host vulnerability to pathogen invasion. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings before clinical trials with probiotic supplementation in PD patients.
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Mechanical energy and power flow analysis of wheelchair use with different camber settings.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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It has been suggested that minimisation of energy cost is one of the primary determinants of wheelchair designs. Wheel camber is one important parameter related to wheelchair design and its angle may affect usability during manual propulsion. However, there is little available literature addressing the effect of wheel camber on the mechanical energy or power flow involved in manual wheelchair propulsion. Twelve normal subjects (mean age, 22.3 years; SD, 1.6 years) participated in this study. A video-tracking system and an instrumented wheel were used to collect 3D kinematic and kinetic data. Wheel camber of 0° and 15° was chosen to examine the difference between mechanical power and power flow of the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion. The work calculated from power flow and the discrepancy between the mechanical work and power flow work of upper extremity had significantly greater values with increased camber. The upper arm had a larger active muscle power compared with that in the forearm and hand segments. While propelling the increased camber, the magnitude of both the proximal and distal joint power and proximal muscle power was increased in all three segments. While the propelling wheel with camber not only needs a greater energy cost but also there is greater energy loss.
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Secondary metabolites from the roots of Neolitsea daibuensis and their anti-inflammatory activity.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots of Neolitsea daibuensis afforded three new ?-carboline alkaloids, daibucarbolines A-C (1-3), three new sesquiterpenoids, daibulactones A and B (4 and 5) and daibuoxide (6), and 20 known compounds. The structures of 1-6 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Daibucarboline A (1), isolinderalactone (7), 7-O-methylnaringenin (8), and prunetin (9) exhibited moderate iNOS inhibitory activity, with IC?? values of 18.41, 0.30, 19.55, and 10.50 ?M, respectively.
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Gender-specific differences in susceptibility to low-dose methadone-associated QTc prolongation in patients with heroin dependence.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Methadone is associated with QTc prolongation and sudden death in susceptible patients. We sought to investigate whether there is a gender-based difference in susceptibility to methadone-associated QTc prolongation in heroin-dependent patients receiving a low-dose treatment regimen.
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Zyflamend reduces the expression of androgen receptor in a model of castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancy, and tumor cells eventually transform to castrate resistance through multiple pathways including activation of the androgen receptor via insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) signaling involving phospho-AKT (pAKT). In this study, a mixture of herbal extracts, Zyflamend®, was used as a treatment in a model of castrate-resistant prostate cancer using CWR22Rv1 cells. Zyflamend reduced androgen receptor and IGF-1R expression along with a reduction of IGF-1-mediated proliferation of CWR22Rv1 cells. IGF-1 induced downstream AKT phosphorylation; however, the induction of pAKT was not associated with androgen receptor expression. Further, constitutively active form of AKT had no effect on nuclear expression of androgen receptor, indicating that upregulation of pAKT did not promote androgen receptor expression or nuclear translocation in castrate-resistant CWR22Rv1 cells. Conversely, Zyflamend reduced androgen receptor expression following IGF-1 stimulation and in cells overexpressing pAKT. These results demonstrated that Zyflamend inhibited IGF-1-stimulated cell growth, IGF-1R expression, and androgen receptor expression and its nuclear localization, but these effects were not dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/pAKT signaling. In conclusion, Zyflamend decreased cell proliferation and inhibited IGF-1R and androgen receptor expression in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/pAKT independent manner.
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Human papillomavirus in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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There are limited data on the prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). We sought to clarify this issue in a series of 450 VAIN cases with a confirmed diagnosis between 1990 and 2006. HPV genotyping was performed using paraffin-embedded specimens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Multiple HPV types were validated by E6 type-specific PCR and direct sequencing. The HPV genotypes of the vaginal and cervical neoplasms were compared for those with incident VAIN and a history of previous/concomitant cervical neoplasms. Ki-67 was performed for supporting diagnosis of VAIN. Of these 450 VAIN cases (median age, 59 years; range, 19-93), two with missing paraffin blocks and 54 with poor DNA quality were excluded. HPV was detected in 273/394 (69.3%) VAIN, and multiple infections were found in 17.9% of HPV-positive samples. The leading types were HPV16 (35.5%), HPV58 (9.9%), HPV52 (9.9%), HPV39 (8.4%), HPV33 (7.3%) and HPV53 (7.0%). Among the 156 cases with a history of previous cervical neoplasia, 29.0% had concordant HPV genotypes, while synchronous VAIN samples (n = 49) were more likely to harbor concordant genotypes (58.7%) with the concomitant cervical neoplasm (p = 0.0003). Whether those HPV types in the incident VAIN lesions had existed in the vaginal epithelium at the time of the previous cervical neoplasia or a new acquisition needs to be clarified in prospective follow-up studies.
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Effect of Bcl-2 rs956572 SNP on regional gray matter volumes and cognitive function in elderly males without dementia.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The Bcl-2 gene is a major regulator of neural plasticity and cellular resilience. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Bcl-2 gene, Bcl-2 rs956572, significantly modulates the expression of Bcl-2 protein and cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. This study investigated the association between the Bcl-2 rs956572 SNP and brain structural abnormalities in non-demented elders, and to test the relationship between neuropsychological performance and regional gray matter (GM) volumes. Our sample comprised 97 non-demented elderly men with a mean age of 80.6 ± 5.6 years (range, 65 to 92 years). Cognitive test results, magnetic resonance imaging, and genotyping of Bcl-2 rs956572 were examined for each subject. The differences in regional GM volumes between G homozygotes and A-allele carriers were tested using optimized voxel-based morphometry. Subjects with G homozygotes exhibited significantly worse performance in the language domain of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI; p = 0.009). They also showed significantly smaller GM volumes in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (BA 21), but larger GM volumes in the left precuneus (BA 31), right lingual gyrus (BA 18), and left superior occipital gyrus (BA 19) relative to A-allele carriers (p < 0.001). A trend toward a positive correlation between right MTG GM volumes and the language domain of CASI was also evident (r = 0.181; p = 0.081). The findings suggest that Bcl-2 rs956572 SNP may modulate cognitive function and regional GM volume in non-demented elderly men, and that this polymorphism may affect language performance through its effect on the right MTG.
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Erlotinib has better efficacy than gefitinib in adenocarcinoma patients without EGFR-activating mutations, but similar efficacy in patients with EGFR-activating mutations.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are an effective treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, whose tumor EGFR mutation status was known. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who began receiving gefitinib or erlotinib treatment from January 2005 to December 2010, and whose tumor EGFR mutation status had been determined, were included. Clinical data, type of treatment response and survival time data were collected. Of the 224 patients enrolled, 124 received gefitinib treatment and 100 received erlotinib treatment. Of these patients, 146 individuals had tumors with EGFR-activating mutations (exon 19 deletions and/point mutation of L858R in exon 21) and 78 did not. There was no difference in treatment response whether or not the patients had tumors with EGFR-activating mutations at the time they received gefitinib or erlotinib treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) of the gefitinib and erlotinib groups was 7.6 and 7.9 months, respectively (p=0.4731). PFS was significantly longer for patients without EGFR-activating mutations who received erlotinib treatment (n=48; median, 4.5 months) than for those who received gefitinib treatment (n=30; median, 2.3 months), with a hazard ratio of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35-0.96; p=0.0339). Patients whose tumors had EGFR-activating mutations displayed no difference in PFS with either gefitinib (n=94; median, 10.5 months) or erlotinib treatment (n=52; median, 10.4 months). In conclusion, PFS showed no difference with either agent in patients whose tumors had EGFR-activating mutations, but was significantly longer in patients whose tumors did not have EGFR-activating mutations when receiving erlotinib treatment.
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Iron-catalyzed oxidation of Trp residues in low-density lipoprotein.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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The mechanisms of oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are not well defined, but epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that iron-catalyzed processes may contribute to atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that iron-catalyzed oxidations of LDLs in vitro produce diagnostic biomarkers of oxidation of the apolipoprotein that could be applied to studies in vivo. LDLs were oxidized in the presence of Fe2+, EDTA, and ascorbic acid for up to 40 h. Following delipidation and trypsin digestion, the peptides were separated by HPLC, with four peaks detected at 365 nm, whereas none were observed in peptides from unoxidized LDLs. The peptides were identified by MALDI-QTOF mass spectrometry as IVQILP(W+4) EQNEQVK, IYSL(W+4)EHSTK, FEGLQE(W+4)EGK, and YH(W+4)EHTGLTLR, with (W+4) rather than the W residues of the unoxidized protein. The mass gains (+4 increase in m/z in tryptophan, W) and absorbance at 365 nm indicate kynurenines, which were trypsin-releasable peptides that are on the surface of LDL particles. All four peptides thus characterized share the sequence of WE. The preferential oxidation of W residues in WE sequences suggest contributions from the C-proximate glutamate residues in chelation of the iron species, thereby influencing site selectivities of oxidation. These kynurenine-containing peptides might serve as biomarkers of iron-mediated oxidations in vivo.
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Anti-inflammatory endiandric acid analogues from the roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii led to the isolation of six new endiandric acid analogues: tsangibeilin A (1), tsangibeilin B (2), endiandramide A (3), endiandric acid K (4), endiandric acid L (5), and endiandramide B (6). Also isolated were two new lignans, beilschminol A (7) and tsangin C (8), and six known compounds. The structures of 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3 and 6 exhibited potent iNOS inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 9.59 and 16.40 ?M, respectively.
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Histone H3-variant Cse4-induced positive DNA supercoiling in the yeast plasmid has implications for a plasmid origin of a chromosome centromere.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2-?m plasmid is a multicopy selfish genome that resides in the nucleus. The genetic organization of the plasmid is optimized for stable, high-copy propagation in host-cell populations. The plasmids partitioning system poaches host factors, including the centromere-specific histone H3-variant Cse4 and the cohesin complex, enabling replicated plasmid copies to segregate equally in a chromosome-coupled fashion. We have characterized the in vivo chromatin topology of the plasmid partitioning locus STB in its Cse4-associated and Cse4-nonassociated states. We find that the occupancy of Cse4 at STB induces positive DNA supercoiling, with a linking difference (?Lk) contribution estimated between +1 and +2 units. One plausible explanation for this contrary topology is the presence of a specialized Cse4-containing nucleosome with a right-handed DNA writhe at a functional STB, contrasted by a standard histone H3-containing nucleosome with a left-handed DNA writhe at a nonfunctional STB. The similarities between STB and centromere in their nucleosome signature and DNA topology would be consistent with the potential origin of the unusual point centromere of budding yeast chromosomes from the partitioning locus of an ancestral plasmid.
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SEMA3A rs7804122 polymorphism is associated with Hirschsprung disease in the Northeastern region of China.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by an absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the nerve plexuses of the lower colon. Our previous results showed increased semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) expression may be the risk factor for HSCR pathology in a subset of patients. Therefore, the association between polymorphisms in SEMA3A and the risk of HSCR was examined.
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An acpXL mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli lacks 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in its lipid A and is developmentally delayed during symbiotic infection of the determinate nodulating host plant Phaseolus vulgaris.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Rhizobium leguminosarum is a Gram-negative bacterium that forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with compatible leguminous plants via intracellular invasion and establishes a persistent infection within host membrane-derived subcellular compartments. Notably, an unusual very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) is found in the lipid A of R. leguminosarum as well as in the lipid A of the medically relevant pathogens Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Bartonella henselae, and Legionella pneumophila, which are also able to persist within intracellular host-derived membranes. These bacterial symbionts and pathogens each contain a homologous gene region necessary for the synthesis and transfer of the VLCFA to the lipid A. Within this region lies a gene that encodes the specialized acyl carrier protein AcpXL, on which the VLCFA is built. This study describes the biochemical and infection phenotypes of an acpXL mutant which lacks the VLCFA. The mutation was created in R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strain 8002, which forms symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris, a determinate nodulating legume. Structural analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that the mutant lipid A lacked the VLCFA. Compared to the parent strain, the mutant was more sensitive to the detergents deoxycholate and dodecyl sulfate and the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B, suggesting a compromise to membrane stability. In addition, the mutant was more sensitive to higher salt concentrations. Passage through the plant restored salt tolerance. Electron microscopic examination showed that the mutant was developmentally delayed during symbiotic infection of the host plant Phaseolus vulgaris and produced abnormal symbiosome structures.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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