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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Atomically Thin Heterostructures Based on Single-Layer Tungsten Diselenide and Graphene.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. In order to engineer pristine layers and their interfaces, epitaxial growth of such heterostructures is required. We report the direct growth of crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG) grown from silicon carbide. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning tunneling microscopy confirm high-quality WSe2 monolayers, whereas transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface, and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that an additional barrier to carrier transport beyond the expected WSe2/EG band offset exists due to the interlayer gap, which is supported by theoretical local density of states (LDOS) calculations using self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF).
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Developing Antifouling Biointerfaces Based on Bioinspired Zwitterionic Dopamine through pH-Modulated Assembly.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The use of synthetic biomaterials as implantable devices typically is accompanied by considerable nonspecific adsorption of proteins, cells, and bacteria. These may eventually induce adverse pathogenic problems in clinical practice, such as thrombosis and biomaterial-associated infection. Thus, an effective surface coating for medical devices has been pursued to repel nonspecific adsorption from surfaces. In this study, we employ an adhesive dopamine molecule conjugated with zwitterionic sulfobetaine moiety (SB-DA), developed based on natural mussels, as a surface ligand for the modification of TiO2. The electrochemical study shows that the SB-DA exhibits fully reversible reduction-oxidation behavior at pH 3, but it is irreversible at pH 8. A contact angle goniometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to explore the surface hydration, chemical states, and bonding mechanism of SB-DA. The results indicate that the binding between hydroxyl groups of SB-DA and TiO2 converts from hydrogen bonds to bidentate binding upon the pH transition from pH 3 to 8. In order to examine the antifouling properties of SB-DA thin films, the modified substrates were brought into contact with bovine serum albumin and bacteria solutions. The fouling levels were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation sensor and fluorescence optical microscope. Tests showed that the sample prepared via the pH transition approach provides the best resistance to nonspecific adsorption due to the high coverage and stability of the SB-DA films. These findings support the mechanism of the pH-modulated assembly of SB-DA molecules, and for the first time we demonstrate the antifouling properties of the SB-DA to be comparable with traditional thiol-based zwitterionic self-assemblies. The success of modification with SB-DA opens an avenue for developing a biologically inspired surface chemistry and can have applications over a wide spectrum of bioapplications. The strategy of the pH transition can also be applied to other functional dopamine derivatives.
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Impact of the gut microbiota, prebiotics, and probiotics on human health and disease.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota regulates many physiological functions, ranging from energy regulation and cognitive processes to toxin neutralization and immunity against pathogens. Accordingly, alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have been shown to contribute to the development of various chronic diseases. The main objectives of this review are to present recent breakthroughs in the study of the gut microbiota and show that intestinal bacteria play a critical role in the development of different disease conditions, including obesity, fatty liver disease, and lung infection. We also highlight the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in maintaining optimal health and treating chronic inflammatory and immunity-related diseases.
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NK cells kill mycobacteria directly by releasing perforin and granulysin.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Although the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on tumor cells and intracellular bacteria have been studied extensively, it remains unclear how these cells kill extracellular bacterial pathogens. In this study, we examine how human NK cells kill Mycobacterium kansasii and M.tb. The underlying mechanism is contact dependent and requires two cytolytic proteins: perforin and granulysin. Mycobacteria induce enhanced expression of the cytolytic proteins via activation of the NKG2D/NCR cell-surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways involving ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These results suggest that NK cells use similar cellular mechanisms to kill both bacterial pathogens and target host cells. This report reveals a novel role for NK cells, perforin, and granulysin in killing mycobacteria and highlights a potential alternative defense mechanism that the immune system can use against mycobacterial infection.
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Differential effect of calcium-activated potassium and chloride channels on rat basilar artery vasomotion.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Spontaneous, rhythmical contractions, or vasomotion, can be recorded from cerebral vessels under both normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying vasomotion in the cerebral basilar artery (BA) of Wistar rats. Pressure myograph video microscopy was used to study the changes in cerebral artery vessel diameter. The main results of this study were as follows: (1) The diameters of BA and middle cerebral artery (MCA) were 314.5±15.7 ?m (n=15) and 233.3±10.1 ?m (n=12) at 10 mmHg working pressure (P<0.05), respectively. Pressure-induced vasomotion occurred in BA (22/28, 78.6%), but not in MCA (4/31, 12.9%) from 0 to 70 mmHg working pressure. As is typical for vasomotion, the contractile phase of the response was more rapid than the relaxation phase; (2) The frequency of vasomotion response and the diameter were gradually increased in BA from 0 to 70 mmHg working pressure. The amplitude of the rhythmic contractions was relatively constant once stable conditions were achieved. The frequency of contractions was variable and the highest value was 16.7±4.7 (n=13) per 10 min at 60 mmHg working pressure; (3) The pressure-induced vasomotion of the isolated BA was attenuated by nifedipine, NFA, 18?-GA, TEA or in Ca(2+)-free medium. Nifedipine, NFA, 18?-GA or Ca(2+)-free medium not only dampened vasomotion, but also kept BA in relaxation state. In contrasts, TEA kept BA in contraction state. These results suggest that the pressure-induced vasomotion of the isolated BA results from an interaction between Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) currents and K(Ca) currents. We hypothesize that vasomotion of BA depends on the depolarizing of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to activate CaCCs. Depolarization in turn activates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, synchronizing contractions of adjacent cells through influx of extracellular calcium and the flow of calcium through gap junctions. Subsequent calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive stores activates K(Ca) channels and hyperpolarizes VSMCs, which provides a negative feedback loop for regenerating the contractile cycle.
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[Reducing the incidence of needlestick injuries due to insulin pen injectors among self-users in the outpatient clinic setting].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The rising number of people practicing insulin self-injection at home has led to increasing numbers of needlestick injuries due to inadequate self-injection skills among these patients. To reduce needlestick injuries at home, patients should not recap needles and should adopt proper needle disposal practices. A random survey of 80 outpatients currently using insulin pen injectors at home conducted between February and April 2012 found that 70% self-reported suffering needlestick incidents. Data analysis indicated the principal causes of these incidents were the lack of standard operating procedures, the absence of educational training, the shortage of educational instruction sheets for patients, and the inadequate skills and tools available to patients for disposing of needles safely at home.
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Protective effect of indomethacin in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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To evaluate the renoprotection effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/2 blockade association by indomethacin (IMT) in the mice model.
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Computed tomography angiography provides limited benefit in the evaluation of patients with pelvic fractures.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been applied in imaging studies for the assessment of most abdominal and pelvic injuries in some trauma centers. However, in most institutions, CTA is not routinely performed as part of the computed tomography scan protocol. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficiency of CTA in the evaluation of patients with pelvic fractures.
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A double-negative feedback loop between MicroRNA-422a and FOXG1/Q1/E1 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth and metastasis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Growing evidence indicates that the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumor development; however, the function of miRNAs in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely undefined. In this study, we report that microRNA-422a (miR-422a) is significantly down-regulated in HCC tumor samples and cell lines compared with normal controls, and its expression level is negatively correlated with pathological grading, recurrence, and metastasis. The restoration of miR-422a expression in HCC tumor cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration in vitro. At the same time, the overexpression of miR-422a in HCC tumor cells significantly inhibits tumor growth and liver metastasis in xenograft tumor models. A mechanistic study identified three genes, forkhead box G1 (FOXG1), FOXQ1, and FOXE1, as miR-422a targets in the regulation of HCC development. We also investigated the function of the three targets themselves in HCC tumorigenesis using RNAi manipulation and demonstrated that the knockdown of these targets led to significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. More interestingly, a potential miR-422a promoter region was identified. Both the promoter activity and miR-422a expression were negatively regulated by the three targets, indicating that a double-negative feedback loop exists between miR-422a and its targets. Moreover, we explored the therapeutic potential of miR-422a in HCC treatment and found that the therapeutic delivery of miR-422a significantly inhibited tumor development in a xenograft tumor model and a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced primary HCC model. Conclusion: Our findings show the critical roles of miR-422a and its targets-FOXG1, FOXQ1, and FOXE1-in the regulation of HCC development and provide new potential candidates for HCC therapy. (Hepatology 2014).
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Natural zwitterionic organosulfurs as surface ligands for antifouling and responsive properties.
Biointerphases
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Natural sulfur-containing zwitterionic compounds, l-cysteine (Cys), l-methionine, and glutathionine (GSH), have been employed as surface ligands to prevent protein nonspecific adsorption on planar substrates. These organosulfur compounds form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates by gold-sulfur interaction. The chemical elements of SAMs were confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface wetting tests for SAMs show that films prepared from Cys and GSH exhibited super-hydrophilicity (contact angles of ? = ~5°) due to their high coverage and strong hydration via ionic solvation and formation of hydrogen bonding. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation sensor was used to quantitatively and qualitatively monitor the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from buffer onto these SAMs. It was found that the GSH film enables the resistance of BSA adsorption to the best extent at a physiological pH. Moreover, the surface charges of modified substrates were modulated by varying the pH value to control BSA adsorption. The effect of electrostatic repulsion on the antifouling behavior becomes prominent at a pH where the protein and the surface carry same charges. Consolidating the BSA adsorption measurements at different pH values, the antifouling properties of GSH-modified Au should be attributed to prevention of entropy gain and enthalpy loss, making BSA adsorption energetically unfavorable. It is believed that the surface modification with natural organosulfur ligands holds great potential in improving the biocompatibility of medical devices and in offering intelligent biointerfaces in response to environmental stimuli.
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[Emodin-induced increase in expression of ?1 subunit of BKCa channel mediates relaxation of cerebral basilar artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of emodin on expression of BKCa channel ?1 subunit in basilar artery smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) and electrophysiological characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Tail artery pressure measurement instrument was used to measure the change of SHR systolic blood pressure before and after emodin intervention. Single vascular smooth muscle cell was electrically recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to study the distribution and expression of the BKCa channel ?1 subunit. The results showed that emodin decreased blood pressure of SHR from (223 ± 16) mmHg to (127 ± 12) mmHg (P < 0.01). There was no difference of blood pressure between emodin-treated SHR and Wistar rats. Emodin significantly increased outward currents of smooth muscle cells in SHR (P < 0.05), and this effect could be reversed by specific inhibitor of BKCa channel, IbTX. Emodin also up-regulated BKCa channel ?1 subunit expression in BASMCs. These results suggest that emodin relaxes cerebral basilar artery by enhancing BKCa current via increasing ?1 subunit expression in BASMCs.
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The effect of personal protective equipment on emergency airway management by emergency physicians: a mannequin study.
Eur J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Emergency medical personnel are at risk of secondary contamination when treating victims of chemical-biological-radiological-nuclear incidents. Hence, it is crucial to train them on the appropriate management of patients involved in chemical-biological-radiological-nuclear incidents. Personal protective equipment (PPE) plays an important role in treating patients suffering from various types of poisoning. However, very few studies have examined whether the use of PPE impedes airway management in an emergency department setting. The present study evaluated the effect of PPE on physicians' performance of emergency airway management using mannequins.
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Enterovirus infection is associated with an increased risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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This study compared the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in children diagnosed with enterovirus (EV) infections with that in age- and sex-matched children without EV infection in a population-based cohort. In addition, we examined whether the direction or magnitude of the association between EV infection and type 1 diabetes differs according to atopic disease status in children.
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[Relationship among ALDH2 gene polymorphism, alcohol metabolism and acetaldehyde level in peripheral blood].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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To explore alcohol pharmacokinetics as well as acetaldehyde level in peripheral blood in human subjects with different ALDH2 genotypes after drinking.
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Hypotension does not always make computed tomography scans unfeasible in the management of blunt abdominal trauma patients.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Computed tomography (CT) scans have been used worldwide to evaluate patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). However, CT scans have traditionally been considered to be a part of a secondary survey that can only be performed after the patient's haemodynamics have stabilised. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the role of the CT scan in managing BAT patients with hypotension.
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Clinical and epidemiological characteristics in children with community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia in Taiwan: A nationwide surveillance.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of hospitalization of children. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens. The disease severity is diverse, and the diagnosis remains a challenge to clinical pediatricians. The aims of this study are to provide a nationwide surveillance of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia (CAMP) in children in Taiwan.
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Pioglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, inhibits growth and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma via blockade of the rage signaling.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Pioglitazone (PGZ), a synthetic PPAR? ligand, is known to have anti-tumor activity. However, it is unclear how it acts against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that the pathological receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the PGZ anti-tumor process. To test this notion, human primary HCC tissues and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT) from 75 consecutive cases were analyzed. The expression and clinical significance of RAGE was assessed by immunohistochemical assay through tissue microarray. After HCC cells were pretreated with different concentrations of PGZ, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell invasion, and cell cycle distribution were evaluated by multiple assays. The results showed that, the positive expression of RAGE was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in ANCT (66.7% vs. 36.0%, P?
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Cardiac allograft tolerance induced by isogeneic CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
Exp Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To evaluate the effect of isogeneic CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells on cardiac allograft tolerance in heterotopic heart transplant from Balb/c to C57BL/6 mice.
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Direct synthesis of van der Waals solids.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The stacking of two-dimensional layered materials, such as semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and semimetallic graphene, has been theorized to produce tunable electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here we demonstrate the direct growth of MoS2, WSe2, and hBN on epitaxial graphene to form large-area van der Waals heterostructures. We reveal that the properties of the underlying graphene dictate properties of the heterostructures, where strain, wrinkling, and defects on the surface of graphene act as nucleation centers for lateral growth of the overlayer. Additionally, we show that the direct synthesis of TMDs on epitaxial graphene exhibits atomically sharp interfaces. Finally, we demonstrate that direct growth of MoS2 on epitaxial graphene can lead to a 10(3) improvement in photoresponse compared to MoS2 alone.
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Concomitant genotyping revealed diverse spreading between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in central Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterium, which can lead to various infectious diseases. Various molecular typing methods are applied to the evolution and epidemiology surveys of S. aureus, mostly for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) is still an important pathogen, but their molecular typing is evaluated infrequently.
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The pig as an experimental model for mid-dermal burns research.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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This was a novel, prospective and interventional animal study designed to develop and evaluate a new infliction device for the experimental burn model. Four paired sets of contact burns measuring 36mm diameter were inflicted on the dorsum of an anesthetized pig using a stainless steel round bar heated up to 80-110°C. The bar was applied using a push-pull force gauge designed to control 1kgf mechanical force applied to the skin for a period of 20s. The left dorsum was used for macroscopic observation and the right dorsum was used for histopathological evaluation. A total of eight burns were covered with moist saline dressings and given daily treatments of xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) gel. This procedure was followed for a period of 24 days. Full-thickness biopsies were obtained for histologic analysis to determine the extent of injury. Statistical analysis showed a high correlation between the exposure temperature and histopathological assessment. The results found the depth of injury to the collagen (Seg1) correlated with the temperature (Ti) at which the burns was inflicted, Seg1=0.038Ti-2.57 (r=0.973, P<0.05). Also, the histological studies show a high correlation between the depth of collagen denaturation in wounds and the exposure temperature, Seg1=0.0268Ti-0.165 (r=0.991, P<0.05). This model is useful to assess more closely the therapeutic agents used for wound healing in experimental burn wounds.
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Cyclovirobuxinum D suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages in vitro by blocking JAK-STAT signaling pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Cyclovirobuxinum D (CVB-D), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Buxus microphylla, has been found to be effective to treat cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CVB-D on the inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.
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Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.
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Determinants of preference for home death among terminally ill patients with cancer in Taiwan: a cross-sectional survey study.
J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Studies worldwide have shown that most patients with cancer prefer to die at home. Few studies have directly explored the determinants of preference for home death in patients with cancer living in Asia, and none has been conducted in Taiwan.
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QTc prolongation as a useful prognostic factor in acute paraquat poisoning.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Acute paraquat poisoning has a high mortality rate. Several prognostic factors have been proposed to predict the mortality risk of paraquat-poisoned patients. However, these prognostic factors are complex and some require a laboratory. Corrected QT (QTc) has been used as a prognostic factor in several clinical conditions, such as acute organophosphate poisoning. In addition, the measurement can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time.
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Human hepatocellular carcinoma-infiltrating CD4?CD69?Foxp3? regulatory T cell suppresses T cell response via membrane-bound TGF-?1.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Tumors can recruit, induce, and expand regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress antitumor immune responses for survival and progression. The complicated tumor-related Treg subsets and their functional mechanisms are not fully addressed yet. We have previously identified a novel CD4?CD69?Foxp3? Treg subset in tumor-bearing mice, which suppresses CD4 T cell response via membrane-bound transforming growth factor beta 1 (mTGF-?1) and then promotes tumor progression. In hepatocellular carcinoma patients, here, we identified tumor-infiltrating human CD4?CD69? Tregs which represent ~67.2 % of tumor-infiltrating CD4 T cells that is significantly higher than conventional CD4?CD25?Foxp3? Tregs. They expressed mTGF-?1, PD-1, and CTLA-4, but not CD25 or Foxp3, and only produced a little interleukin (IL)-10 and TGF-?1. More importantly, they significantly suppressed CD4 T cell response via mTGF-?1 in vitro. Furthermore, the percentage of these CD4?CD69? Tregs in tumor tissue was significantly correlated with tumor progression, which is more pronounced at the late stage of cancer patients. Thus, we have identified a tumor-induced new population of human CD4?CD69? Tregs in cancer patients with phenotype of CD25?Foxp3?mTGF-?1?CTLA-4?PD-1?, and these Tregs can suppress antitumor immune response via mTGF-?1. Our results not only enrich the family of Treg subsets, providing new mechanistic insight to tumor-induced immune suppression in human, but also suggest a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.
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[Effect of low-intensity ultrasound on endothelin-1 and nitrogen monoxidum in uterine tissues of SD rats following abortion].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To investigate the effect of low-intensity ultrasound on the contents of endothelin (ET-1) and nitrogen monoxidum (NO) in uterine tissues of SD rats after abortion.
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Dose estimation of animal experiments at the THOR BNCT beam by NCTPlan and Xplan.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Dose estimation of animal experiments affects many subsequent derived quantities, such as RBE and CBE values. It is important to ensure the trustiness of calculated dose of the irradiated animals. However, the dose estimation was normally calculated using simplified geometries and tissue compositions, which led to rough results. This paper introduces the use of treatment planning systems NCTplan and Xplan for the dose estimation. A mouse was taken as an example and it was brought to hospital for micro-PET/CT scan. It was found that the critical organ doses of an irradiated mouse calculated by simplified model were unreliable in comparison to Xplan voxel model. The difference could reach the extent of several tenths percent. It is recommended that a treatment planning system should be introduced to future animal experiments to upgrade the data quality.
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Intra-abdominal injury is easily overlooked in the patients with concomitant unstable hemodynamics and pelvic fractures.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is usually necessary in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients with concomitant pelvic fractures. Given the critical conditions of such patients, TAE is at times performed only according to the results of a primary evaluation without computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Therefore, the evaluation of associated intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs) might be insufficient. Clinically, some patients have required post-TAE laparotomy due to further deterioration. In this study, we attempted to determine a feasible protocol for post-TAE observation.
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Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from Dendrobium tosaense.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Dendrobium tosaense is a medicinal Dendrobium species widely used in traditional medicine. This study demonstrated some structural characterizations and immunomodulatory activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides derived from the stem of D. tosaense (DTP). DTP was fractioned using DEAE-650 M anion-exchange gel filtration chromatography, producing one neutral polysaccharide fraction (DTP-N), which was investigated for its structural characteristics, using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. DTP and DTP-N consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in ratios of 1:9.1:150.7 and 1:12.2:262.5, respectively. DTP-N comprised (1 ? 4)Man as its main backbone, and its average molecular weight was 220 kDa. We also investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DTP administered orally to BALB/c mice for 3 weeks. DTP substantially boosted the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in splenocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide derived from D. tosaense and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo.
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The progress of emergency medicine in Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong: perspective from publications in Emergency Medicine Journals, 1992-2011.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The progress of emergency medicine (EM) in Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong was evaluated from the perspective of publications in EM journals.
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Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15?M of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15?M. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods.
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Pharmacokinetics of BPA in gliomas with ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier disruption as measured by microdialysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption.
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[Determination of cinobufagin and resibufogenin in liver tissue by HPLC-MS/MS].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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To develop a sensitive and accurate assay for detecting cinobufagin and resibufogenin in liver tissue using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).
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[Morphological characteristics of hyoid bone and its gender difference].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To understand and analyze the morphological characteristics of hyoid bone and its gender difference in order to find out its forensic significance.
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Analysis of the interaction between Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf).
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179), also known as ring finger protein 112 (Rnf112), is a member of the RING finger protein family and plays an important role in neuronal differentiation. To investigate novel mechanisms of Znf179 regulation and function, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Znf179-interacting proteins.
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Structurally characterized arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus as an immuno-modulator against CT26 colon cancer in BALB/c mice.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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In this study, the innate immuno-modulatory effects and anti-cancer action of arabinogalactan (AG), a derivative of a well-known orchid, Anoectochilus formosanus, were investigated. The innate immuno-modulatory effects of AG were determined in vitro using RAW 264.7 cells for microarray analysis, and in vivo using BALB/c mice administrated with AG at 5 and 15mg/kg intra-peritoneally for 3 weeks. The anti-cancer activity of AG was evaluated by CT26 colon cancer-bearing BALB/c mice. The microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the innate immunity and demonstrated that AG significantly induced the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and co-stimulatory receptors, such as IL-1?, CXCL2, and CD69. An intraperitoneal injection of AG in mice increased the spleen weight, but not the body weight. The treatment of mitogen, LPS significantly stimulated splenocyte proliferation in AG treated groups. The AG treatment also promoted splenocyte cytotoxicity against YAC-1 cells and increased the percentage of CD3(+)CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells in innate immunity test. Our experiments revealed that AG significantly decreased both tumour size and tumour weight. Besides, AG increased the percentage of DC, CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells, CD49b(+)CD3(-) NK cells among splenocytes, and cytotoxicity activity in tumour-bearing mice. In addition, the immunohistochemistry of the tumour demonstrated that the AG treatments increased the tumour-filtrating NK and cytotoxic T-cell. These results demonstrated that AG, a polysaccharide derived from a plant source, has potent innate immuno-modulatory and anti-cancer activity. AG may therefore be used for cancer immunotherapy.
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Correlations between foam posturography and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential tests in Ménières disease.
Ear Hear
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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This study adopted foam posturography coupled with inner ear test battery including audiometry, and cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP), ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential (oVEMP) and Caloric tests in patients with Ménières disease to investigate the relations between them.
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[Determination of unknown impurities in cefotiam hexetil by HPLC-MS/MS].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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To detect unknown impurities in raw drug material of cefotiam hexetil.
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The diminishing role of pelvic x-rays in the management of patients with major torso injuries.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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A pelvic x-ray (PXR) can be used as an effective screening tool to evaluate pelvic fractures and stability. However, associated intra-abdominal/retroperitoneal organ injuries and hemorrhage should also be considered and evaluated in patients with major torso injuries. An abdominal/pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scan may provide higher resolution and more information than a PXR. The role of conventional PXRs was delineated in the current study in the context of the development of the CT scan.
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Ganoderma lucidum stimulates NK cell cytotoxicity by inducing NKG2D/NCR activation and secretion of perforin and granulysin.
Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom long used in Asia as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies indicate that G. lucidum activates NK cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect has not been studied so far. To address this question, we prepared a water extract of G. lucidum and examined its effect on NK cells. We observed that G. lucidum treatment increases NK cell cytotoxicity by stimulating secretion of perforin and granulysin. The mechanism of activation involves an increased expression of NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), as well as increased phosphorylation of intracellular MAPKs. Our results indicate that G. lucidum induces NK cell cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines by activating NKG2D/NCR receptors and MAPK signaling pathways, which together culminate in exocytosis of perforin and granulysin. These observations provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to account for the reported anticancer effects of G. lucidum extracts in humans.
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A Type II Arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus for G-CSF Production in Macrophages and Leukopenia Improvement in CT26-Bearing Mice Treated with 5-Fluorouracil.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Anoectochilus formosanus is an herb well known in Asian countries. The polysaccharide isolated from A. formosanus consists of type II arabinogalactan (AGAF), with branched 3,6-Gal as the major moiety. In this study, AGAF was examined for the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and related protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The signaling pathway of G-CSF production involves AGAF and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors and pattern-recognition receptor antibodies. AGAF was evaluated to ease the leukopenia in CT26-colon-cancer-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The results of this study showed that AGAF was a stimulant for Toll-like receptor 2 and Dectin-1 and that it induced G-CSF production, through p38 and ERK MAPK, and NF- ? B pathways. In vivo examination showed that the oral administration of AGAF mitigated the side effects of leukopenia caused by 5-FU in colon-cancer-bearing mice. In conclusion, the botanic type II AGAF in this study was a potent G-CSF inducer in vivo and in vitro.
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Pelvic circumferential compression devices benefit patients with pelvic fractures who need transfers.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Patients with pelvic fracture usually require transfers to trauma centers for additional advanced treatment. Patient safety during the transfer should always be a priority. The noninvasive pelvic circumferential compression device (PCCD) can reportedly provide a tamponade effect, which reduces hemorrhage. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of PCCD in patients with pelvic fracture who required transfer to trauma centers.
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Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus: a new classification for surgical guidance.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Hepatic resection is the main treatment modality for hepatic tumors. Advances in diagnostic technique, preoperative preparation, surgical technique, and postoperative management increased the success rate. The present study aimed to evaluate hepatectomy and resection of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and the relationship between IVCTT classification and selection of surgical technique.
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Aerosol characteristics of different types of episode.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Daily and hourly average data from nine air-quality monitoring stations distributed across central Taiwan, which include ten items (i.e., PM??, PM?.?, wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, SO?, NO?, NO, and CO), were collected from 2005 to 2009. Four episode types: long-range transport with dust storms (DS), long-range transport with frontal pollution (FP), river dust (RD), and stagnant weather (SW), and one mixed type of episode were identified. Of these four episode types, the SW was the dominant type, averaging about 70%. The mean ratio of PM?.?/PM?? was the lowest during the RD episodes (0.42), while the mean ratio of PM?.?/PM?? was the highest during the SW episodes (0.64). Fine aerosol (PM?.?) and coarse aerosol (PM??-?.?) samples were collected by high-volume samplers for chemical composition analysis, from only three stations (Douliou, Lunbei, and Siansi) during the days of SW, RD, DS, and FP. The concentrations of PM?.? and three ionic species (NH??, NO??, and SO?²?) all showed significant differences among the four episode types. The highest levels of NO?? (12.1 ?g/m(3)) and SO?²? (20.5 ?g/m(3)) were found during the SW and FP episodes, respectively. A comparison on the spatial similarity of aerosol compositions among the episodes and/or non-episodes (control) was characterized by the coefficient of divergence (CD). The results showed higher CD values in PM??-?.? than in PM?.?, and the CD values between RD episodes and the other three episodes were higher than those between two types of episode for the other three episodes. The ratios of SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio), SO?²?/EC (elemental carbon), NOR (nitrogen oxidation ratio), and NO??/EC showed that sulfate formation was most rapid during the FP, while nitrate formation was most rapid during the SW.
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Analysis of the major factors affecting the visibility degradation in two stations.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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There are four types of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 microm) episodes that occur frequently in central Taiwan: long-range transport with dust storms (DS), long-range transport with frontal pollution (FP), river dust (RD), and stagnant weather (SW). During the periods of the four episodes, poor visibility usually results. Multiple linear regression was applied to visibility using eight potential influential variables (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, SO2, NO2, and NO) as independent variables. Of the eight variables, PM2.5 showed the greatest explainable percentage of about 48.6% and 58.1% for Taichung and Wuchi stations, respectively. This suggested that PM2.5 was the most important contributor to reduced visibility. Compared with other type of episodes, the aerosols tended to be offine size during the SWepisodes. This is the main reason that the poorest visibility occurred during the SWepisodes. Good correlation between visibility and secondary inorganic salts (NH4+, NO3, and SO4(2-)) were found at Taichung station (r = 0.71) and Wuchi station (r = 0.81), suggesting that secondary inorganic salts did contribute significantly to the degradation ofvisibility. The visibility degradation due to the effects ofNO3- was much higher than that due to SO4(2-) and NH4+ in the urban area, whereas the visibility degradation due to the effects of NO3 , SO42-, and NH4+ did not show significant diference in the rural area.
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Surgical management and outcome of blunt major liver injuries: Experience of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in one trauma centre.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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This retrospective study aimed to assess the clinical experience and outcome of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in the management of blunt major liver injuries.
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Pyogenic liver abscess among children in a medical center in Central Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Pediatric pyogenic liver abscess is uncommon. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics, radiologic features, pathogens, duration of hospitalization, and management of pediatric pyogenic liver abscess.
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Correlation of virulence genes to clinical manifestations and outcome in patients with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremia.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is increasingly recognized as a human pathogen responsible for invasive infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). The pathogen possesses virulence genes that resemble those found in Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We analyzed the association between these specific toxic genes, clinical presentations, and outcome in patients with SDSE infections.
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Simultaneous imaging of temporal changes of NF-?B activity and viable tumor cells in Huh7/NF-?B-tk-luc2/rfp tumor-bearing mice.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Few studies have reported that the effect of sorafenib on advanced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is taking place via the inhibition of NF-?B signal transduction. Here we constructed a human HCC Huh7 stable clone with NF-?B-responsive element to drive dual reporter genes, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) and firefly luciferase (luc2), and co-transfected with a third red fluorescent protein (rfp) gene, renamed as Huh7/NF-?B-tk-luc2/rfp cells, and combined with bioluminescent imaging (BLI) and red fluorescent protein imaging (RFPI) to monitor the effect of sorafenib on NF-?B activation and tumor inhibition. The results show that sorafenib could suppress the NF-?B-DNA binding activity, and the expression of downstream effector proteins. Notably, the relative photon fluxes obtained from RFPI and BLI, which represent the viable tumor cells and cells with NF-?B activation, decreased after sorafenib treatment by 50 to 65%, and 87.5 to >90%, respectively, suggesting that NF-?B activation is suppressed in viable HCC cells by sorafenib. Simultaneous molecular imaging of the temporal change of NF-?B activity and of viable cells in the same Huh7/NF-?B-tk-luc2/rfp tumors of the animal may reflect the real status of NF-?B activity and the viable tumor cells at the time of imaging.
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Risk factors of progressive community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children: A prospective study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Complications regarding pneumonia occur in children during hospitalization and treatment. The objective of this study is to identify the risk factors of progressive pneumonia in order to institute early appropriate therapy.
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Bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated by open reduction and fixation with unilateral locked plating.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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The management of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is challenging. A lateral locking plate offers an alternative method to traditional dual plating to avoid further stripping of soft tissue. Nevertheless, the rate of malreduction and fixation loss remains high. From 2007 to 2009, we performed open reduction and fixation with unilateral locked plating to directly reduce the fracture in 15 patients with bicondylar plateau fracture. The average follow-up duration was 16.2 months (range: 12-30 months), and the average age of the patients was 43 years (range: 19-64 years). All fractures were Orthopaedic Trauma Association type 41-C. Postoperative radiographic alignment was evaluated immediately and at 2-4 weeks, 8-12 weeks, 5-7 months, and 11-13 months. Both Oxford knee score and Hospital for Special Surgery knee score were used to evaluate functional outcomes. The average duration within which union was achieved was 4.8 months (range: 2-10 months). One patient incurred wound dehiscence; however, there was no case of deep infection. Malreduction occurred in one patient (6.7%) while fixation loss occurred in three patients (20%) with subsidence of the posteromedial fragment and varus malalignment. Despite the malreduction rate being lower in our study than in previous studies involving unilateral locked plating, a high rate of fixation loss was recorded. Per our limited experience, we believe that unilateral locked plating may have limitations in patients with selective patterns of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of technetium-99m labeled galactose derivatives as potential asialoglycoprotein receptor probes in a hepatic fibrosis mouse model.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Two galactose derivatives, a monovalent (99m)Tc-MAMA-MGal galactoside and a divalent (99m)Tc-MAMA-DGal galactoside, were synthesized and radiolabeled in high radiochemical purity (>98%). Dynamic microSPECT imaging and biodistribution study of two traces in normal and liver fibrosis mice showed that the (99m)Tc-MAMA-DGal revealed higher specific binding to asialoglycoprotein receptors in liver and then rapidly excreted via both hepatobiliary system and renal clearance. The results suggest that (99m)Tc-MAMA-DGal may be used as SPECT probes for noninvasive evaluation of asialoglycoprotein receptor-related liver dysfunction.
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Human CD14(+) CTLA-4(+) regulatory dendritic cells suppress T-cell response by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4-dependent IL-10 and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase production in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with limited therapeutic options. HCC-induced immunosuppression often leads to ineffectiveness of immuno-promoting therapies. Currently, suppressing the suppressors has become the potential strategy for cancer immunotherapy. So, figuring out the immunosuppressive mechanisms induced and employed by HCC will be helpful to the design and application of HCC immunotherapy. Here, we identified one new subset of human CD14(+) CTLA-4(+) regulatory dendritic cells (CD14(+) DCs) in HCC patients, representing ?13% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CD14(+) DCs significantly suppress T-cell response in vitro through interleukin (IL)-10 and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Unexpectedly, CD14(+) DCs expressed high levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1, and CTLA-4 was found to be essential to IL-10 and IDO production. So, we identified a novel human tumor-induced regulatory DC subset, which suppresses antitumor immune response through CTLA-4-dependent IL-10 and IDO production, thus indicating the important role of nonregulatory T-cell-derived CTLA-4 in tumor-immune escape or immunosuppression. Conclusions: These data outline one mechanism for HCC to induce systemic immunosuppression by expanding CD14(+) DCs, which may contribute to HCC progression. This adds new insight to the mechanism for HCC-induced immunosuppression and may also provide a previously unrecognized target of immunotherapy for HCC. (Hepatology 2013;).
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Living experiences of male spouses of patients with metastatic cancer in Taiwan.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Cancer is the leading cause of death in Taiwan. Spouses are generally the main caregivers of affected patients but previous studies have seldom investigated the needs of male spouses of patients with metastatic cancer. Purpose: To explore the lived experiences of such male spouses.
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The utilization of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and cardiac catheterization under Taiwans universal health insurance program.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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This study examines the utilization patterns of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and cardiac catheterization (CC) under Taiwans national health insurance program. This study used the longitudinal health insurance database with 1,000,000 people were randomly selected from the national health insurance research database. This study obtained data from these patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and comparison with the utilization of MPI or CC between 2005 and 2009. The incidence of CAD did not significantly change, while the prevalence of CAD, utilization of MPI, and the utilization of CC for the CAD patients increased annually. There were the most CAD patients in Northern Taiwan (43.5%), followed by Southern, Central, and Eastern Taiwan. The utilizations of both of MPI (12.7 per 100 CAD patients) and CC (10.6 per 100 CAD patients) were most frequent in Northern Taiwan followed by Southern, Central, and Eastern Taiwan. However, the MPI/CC ratio was 1.20 in Northern Taiwan, followed by Southern, Central, and Eastern Taiwan (0.88, 0.64, and 0.52, respectively, P = 0.0008). The use of MPI was higher than CC only in Northern Taiwan. MPI may be underutilized to serve the role of gatekeeper for CC in the other regions.
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Effects of animal liver and bile extracts on biochemical values of rat ethanol-induced fatty liver.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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The purposes of this study were to assess the improvement of fatty liver induced by ethanol with animal liver and bile extracts. This research aimed to increase the economic values of animal liver and bile extracts and used these to reduce damage of ethanol-induced fatty liver. Extracts came from animal liver and bile, including pig bile powder, pig liver extract, a mixture of pig bile powder and pig liver extract, chicken bile powder, chicken liver extract, and a mixture of chicken bile powder and chicken liver extract, and these were fed to Long-Evans rats. The results showed that rats fed ethanol for long terms could increase values of aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, ?-glutamy-transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Pig bile powder could decrease the values of aspartate transaminase, cholesterol and ?-glutamy-transferase. The significances also decreased on aspartate transaminase, ?-glutamy-transferase and aspartate transaminase, which were carried out with the pig liver extract treatment. These results suggest pig bile and liver extracts have high potential to improve rats ethanol-induced fatty liver with serum biochemical parameters.
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Impact of alloantibody strength in crossmatch negative DSA positive kidney transplantation.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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The clinical relevance of pre-transplant "low-level" donor specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) in crossmatch negative kidney transplant recipients remains unclear. To determine what level of DSA associates with antibody mediated rejection (AMR) could be the way to measure the clinical relevance of pre-transplant "low-level" donor specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) in crossmatch negative kidney transplant recipients.
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Selective inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome by targeting to promyelocytic leukemia protein in mouse and human.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The functional activities of the tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) are mostly associated with its nuclear location. In the present study, we discovered an unexpected role of PML in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In PML-deficient macrophages, the production of IL-1? was strongly impaired. The expression of pro-IL-1?, NLRP3, ASC, and procaspase-1 was not affected in Pml(-/-) macrophages. PML deficiency selectively reduced the processing of procaspase-1. We further showed that PML is required for the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome in reconstitution experiment. All PML isoforms were capable of stimulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In Pml(-/-) macrophages, the generation of reactive oxygen species and release of mitochondrial DNA were decreased. The involvement of PML in inflammasome activation constitutes an important activity of PML and reveals a new mechanism underlying the inflammasome activation. In addition, downregulation of PML by arsenic trioxide suppressed monosodium urate (MSU)-induced IL-1? production, suggesting that targeting to PML could be used to treat NLRP3 inflammasome-associated diseases.
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Inflow-weighted pulmonary perfusion: comparison between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI versus perfusion scintigraphy in complex pulmonary circulation.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Due to the different properties of the contrast agents, the lung perfusion maps as measured by 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy (PS) are not uncommonly discrepant from those measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using indicator-dilution analysis in complex pulmonary circulation. Since PS offers the pre-capillary perfusion of the first-pass transit, we hypothesized that an inflow-weighted perfusion model of DCE-MRI could simulate the result by PS.
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[Selecting methods and awaiting growth: the teaching experience of fundamental nursing practicum instructors].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A constellation of factors accounts for teaching efficacy in the fundamental nursing practicum. Teachers play a critical role in terms of designing and executing an appropriate teaching plan, choosing effective methods, and holding appropriate teaching attitudes. It is thus extremely important that clinical teachers master the core characteristics of basic nursing practice.
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Rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium clinical isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Rapid and accurate discrimination of Mycobacterium avium from other mycobacteria is essential for appropriate therapeutic management and timely intervention for infection control. However, routine clinical identification methods for M. avium are both time consuming and labor intensive. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify specific cellular protein pattern for rapid identification of M. avium isolates.
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Evaluation of dose distribution of molecular delivery after blood-brain barrier disruption by focused ultrasound with treatment planning.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be enhanced by focused ultrasound (FUS) in localized regions with applications of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose distribution of Evans blue (EB) in the targeted brain by sonication with treatment strategy. FUS exposure was applied with an ultrasound frequency of 1 MHz, a 5% duty cycle and a repetition frequency of 1 Hz. Single sonication with two doses of UCA and two sonications at the same location or an interval of 3 mm to induce BBB disruption for assessing dose distribution. The permeability of the BBB was measured quantitatively based on EB extravasation. Gadolinium deposition was monitored by contrast enhanced MR imaging for dose distribution of the focal plane. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histologic observation. No significant difference was found for EB in the focal regions between the single sonication with UCA at a dose of 300 ?L/kg and repeated sonication with UCA at a lower dose of 150 ?L/kg. There was a sharper dose distribution in the brain with repeated sonication at the same location, compared with the brain receiving two sonications at an interval of 3 mm. Compared with a single sonication with UCA at a dose of 150 ?L/kg, the histologic evaluation of the sonicated regions indicated that more erythrocytes were seen in the brain treated with single sonication at a higher dose of 300 ?L/kg or repeated sonication at a dose of 150 ?L/kg. This study demonstrated that the dose distribution of molecular delivery could be regulated by sonication with treatment planning.
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Evaluation of (131/123)I-5-iodo-2-deoxycytidine as a novel proliferation probe in a tumor mouse model.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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This study evaluated a radioiodinated deoxycytidine analog, (131)I-5-iodo-2-deoxycytidine ([(131)I]ICdR), as a novel proliferation probe and compared it with (131)I-5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine ([(131)I]IUdR) in a NG4TL4 sarcoma-bearing mouse model. As an imaging agent, the biological characteristics of [(123)I]IUdR is not satisfactory due to its metabolic instability and short biological half-life in vivo. With [(123)I]ICdR/SPECT it was possible to clearly delineate the tumor lesion at 1h post-injection (tumor-to-muscle ratio 7.74) in tumor-bearing mice. The results of biodistribution were consistent with those observed in scintigraphic imaging. This study demonstrated that [(131)I]ICdR is a more promising SPECT probe than [(131)I]IUdR for imaging proliferation.
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Arthroscopic transtibial single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon graft compared with hamstring tendon graft.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroscopic transtibial single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autologous patellar tendon and hamstring tendon grafts.
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Interleukin-18 and coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in mediating cytokine cascade leading to coronary artery lesions (CALs) in Kawasaki disease (KD). However, our research suggested that the literature regarding IL-18 and KD is limited. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between IL-18 and CALs in patients with KD.
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Citral is renoprotective for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and activating Nrf2 pathway in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is considered to be associated with oxidative stress, mononuclear leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and matrix production and/or matrix degradation, although the exact etiology and pathogenic pathways remain to be determined. Establishment of a pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategy for the disease is clinically warranted. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-?B activation. In the present study, first, we used a mouse model of FSGS with the features of glomerular epithelial hyperplasia lesions (EPHLs), a key histopathology index of progression of FSGS, peri-glomerular inflammation, and progressive glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis. When treated with citral for 28 consecutive days at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight by gavage, the FSGS mice showed greatly reduced EPHLs, glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis and peri-glomerular mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, suggesting that citral may be renoprotective for FSGS and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. Meanwhile, a macrophage model involved in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities was employed and confirmed the beneficial effects of citral on the FSGS model.
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Simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Thromboembolism presenting with malignancy is common in adults but rare in children. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy admitted to our hospital with syncope. Computed tomography revealed thromboembolism in both the lungs. Magnetic resonance imaging found thromboembolism in the inferior vena cava and a large heterogeneous mass in the pelvis. Pelvic osteosarcoma was confirmed by computed tomography-guided biopsy. Despite intensive chemotherapy and local radiation, only transient response was noted, the tumor remaining unresectable. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma in children. We also emphasize syncope as a unique feature of pulmonary thromboembolism. Accordingly, thromboembolism should be kept in mind as the first manifestation of occult malignancy, even in children.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.