JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Overexpression of HOXA13 as a Potential Marker for Diagnosis and Poor Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HOXA13 is a member of homeobox genes that encode transcription factors regulating embryonic development and cell fate. Abnormal HOXA13 expression was reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its correlation with tumor angiogenesis and prognosis still remain unclear. This study was aimed to uncover the expression, diagnostic and prognostic significance of HOXA13 in HCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect HOXA13 expression in HCC and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from 90 patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum HOXA13 in 90 HCC patients and 20 healthy volunteers. Receiver operating characteristics was analyzed to calculate diagnostic accuracy of serum HOXA13, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and their combination. Immunoreactivity of HOXA13 was detected in 72.2% of HCC, and 12.2% of adjacent non-cancerous samples. HOXA13 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, microvascular invasion, pathological grade, tumor capsula status, AFP level, tumor-node-metastasis stage and positively correlated with VEGF (p < 0.001) and microvessel density (p < 0.001). The combination of serum HOXA13 and AFP had a markedly higher area under the curve than HOXA13 alone. HOXA13 expression was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that patients with HOXA13-expressing tumors had a significantly shorter OS (p = 0.030) and DFS (p = 0.005) than those with HOXA13-negative tumors. Thus, HOXA13 expression possibly plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, progression and prognosis of HCC. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum HOXA13 may serve as a biomarker for early HCC diagnosing and predicting outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic Significance of the Mucin Component in Stage III Rectal Carcinoma Patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although mucinous adenocarcinoma has been recognized for a long time, whether it is associated with a poorer prognosis in colorectal cancer patients is still controversial. Many studies put emphasis on mucinous adenocarcinoma containing mucin component ?50%. Only a few studies have analyzed cases with a mucin component <50%.
Related JoVE Video
[Spatial variation characteristics of surface soil water content, bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity on Karst slopes].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surface soil water-physical properties play a decisive role in the dynamics of deep soil water. Knowledge of their spatial variation is helpful in understanding the processes of rainfall infiltration and runoff generation, which will contribute to the reasonable utilization of soil water resources in mountainous areas. Based on a grid sampling scheme (10 m x 10 m) and geostatistical methods, this paper aimed to study the spatial variability of surface (0-10 cm) soil water content, soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity on a typical shrub slope (90 m x 120 m, projected length) in Karst area of northwest Guangxi, southwest China. The results showed that the surface soil water content, bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity had different spatial dependence and spatial structure. Sample variogram of the soil water content was fitted well by Gaussian models with the nugget effect, while soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity were fitted well by exponential models with the nugget effect. Variability of soil water content showed strong spatial dependence, while the soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity showed moderate spatial dependence. The spatial ranges of the soil water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity were small, while that of the soil bulk density was much bigger. In general, the soil water content increased with the increase of altitude while it was opposite for the soil bulk densi- ty. However, the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity had a random distribution of large amounts of small patches, showing high spatial heterogeneity. Soil water content negatively (P < 0.01) correlated with the bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity, while there was no significant correlation between the soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity.
Related JoVE Video
The composition and transmission of microbiome in hard tick, Ixodes persulcatus, during blood meal.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tick Ixodes persulcatus is the predominant tick species in Northeastern China, and it is a major vector in transmission of tick-borne diseases. By 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing, we investigated the microbiome of I. persulcatus and assessed the variation of the microbiome before and after blood feeding. The prolonged blood meal dramatically altered the composition of the microbiome but did not influence the bacterial diversity. Overall, 373 and 289 bacterial genera were assigned to unfed and fed ticks, respectively. To investigate microbes that were potentially transmitted to vertebrate hosts during a blood meal, we examined the microbiome in rat blood after tick bites. Our data showed that 237 bacterial genera were suspected to be pathogens of vertebrates because they were commonly detected in unfed ticks, fed ticks, and rat blood samples after tick bites. Additionally, the prevalence survey on Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Yersinia pestis was performed. We found that B. garinii and B. afzelii are the predominant genospecies of the Lyme disease spirochete in I. persulcatus ticks. This is the first time that the microbial composition in this tick species and in rat blood transmitted via tick bites has been reported. These data may ultimately assist in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by I. persulcatus ticks.
Related JoVE Video
RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient pullulan production by bioconversion using Aureobasidium pullulans as the whole-cell catalyst.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, pullulan production was achieved by whole-cell bioconversion with Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the seed medium for incubating cells with high capability of pullulan bioconversion. Three medium components, namely, yeast extract, MgSO4·7H2O, and glucose were identified by Plackett-Berman design as significant factors affecting the cells' pullulan bioconversion capability. A three-level Box-Behnken design was then employed to determine the optimal levels of the three components. A mathematical model was developed to show the influence of each medium component and its effects on the cells' pullulan bioconversion capability. The model predicted a maximum pullulan bioconversion capability of 32.28 mg/g/h at the optimal yeast extract, MgSO4·7H2O, and glucose concentrations of 3.57, 0.18, and 63.97 g/l, respectively. The validation experiments showed that the cells' pullulan bioconversion capability was improved by 23.1 % when the optimal medium was used, as compared with that obtained with the basic medium. Subsequently, the gene expression and activities of the key enzymes involved in pullulan biosynthesis were evaluated. When the optimal medium was employed, the transcriptional levels of pgm1 and fks were up-regulated by 2.5- and 1.2-fold, respectively, and the ?-phosphoglucose mutase and glucosyltransferase activities were increased by 17 and 19 %, respectively, when compared with those achieved using the basic medium. These results indicated that pullulan bioconversion using A. pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 as the whole-cell catalyst is an attractive approach for efficient pullulan production and can be applied for the production of other polysaccharides.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of the anterior aspect of sacral nerve root tunnel on iliosacral screw placement on the standard lateral image of sacrum].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To introduce the location and course of S1, S2 sacral nerve root tunnel and to clarify the significance of the anterior aspect of sacral nerve root tunnel on placement of iliosacral screw on the standard lateral sacral view.
Related JoVE Video
Scrotal sparganosis mimicking scrotal teratoma in an infant: a case report and literature review.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sparganosis is an infection with a parasitic tapeworm larva that occurs by eating infected foods or drinking contaminated water. The larvae can migrate to a tissue or muscle in the chest, abdominal wall, extremities, eyes, brain, urinary tract, pleura, pericardium, spinal canal, or scrotum. Herein, we report a 5-month old infant with scrotal sparganosis who was initially suspected to have a scrotal inflammatory mass with a history of applying raw frog meat into the umbilicus. Preoperative ultrasound examinations and computed tomography (CT) scanning misdiagnosed the mass as a scrotal teratoma. The scrotal mass was surgically removed, and the histopathology proved it to be scrotal sparganosis. This case displays the youngest patient ever reported with scrotal sparganosis, and the first description of CT characteristics of scrotal sparganosis. A detailed medical history is necessary for patients with scrotal masses suspected of sparganosis. In addition, ultrasound and CT examinations are helpful to rule out other causes of a scrotal mass.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of RINT1 predicts seizure occurrence and outcomes in patients with low-grade gliomas.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) experience epileptic seizures as an initial symptom. However, the mechanism of LGG-related epilepsy is poorly understood. Genetic changes in brain tumors influence epileptic seizures, but few biomarkers have been associated with LGG-related seizures. We investigated the association between LGG-related epilepsy and tumor-specific molecular changes.
Related JoVE Video
Pathological characteristics of liver allografts from donation after brain death followed by cardiac death in pigs.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD) is a unique practice in China. The aim of this study was to define the pathologic characteristics of DBCD liver allografts in a porcine model. Fifteen male pigs (25-30 kg) were allocated randomly into donation after brain death (DBD), donation after circulatory death (DCD) and DBCD groups. Brain death was induced by augmenting intracranial pressure. Circulatory death was induced by withdrawal of life support in DBCD group and by venous injection of 40 mL 10% potassium chloride in DCD group. The donor livers were perfused in situ and kept in cold storage for 4 h. Liver tissue and common bile duct samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL testing and electron microscopic examination. Spot necrosis was found in hepatic parenchyma of DBD and DBCD groups, while a large area of necrosis was shown in DCD group. The apoptosis rate of hepatocytes in DBD [(0.56±0.30)%] and DBCD [(0.50 ± 0.11)%] groups was much lower than that in DCD group [(3.78±0.33)%] (P<0.05). And there was no significant difference between DBD group and DBCD group (P>0.05)). The structures of bile duct were intact in both DBD and DBCD groups, while the biliary epithelium was totally damaged in DCD group. Under electron microscope, the DBD hepatocytes were characterized by intact cell membrane, well-organized endoplasmic reticulum, mild mitochondria edema and abundant glycogens. Broken cell membrane, mild inflammatory cell infiltration and sinusoidal epithelium edema, as well as reduced glycogen volume, were found in the DBCD hepatocytes. The DCD hepatocytes had more profound cell organelle injury and much less glycogen storage. In conclusion, the preservation injury of DBCD liver allografts is much less severe than that of un-controlled DCD, but more severe than that of DBD liver allografts under electron microscope, which might reflect post-transplant liver function to some extent.
Related JoVE Video
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling dichotomously modulates inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in rat inner retina.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the inner retina, ganglion cells (RGCs) integrate and process excitatory signal from bipolar cells (BCs) and inhibitory signal from amacrine cells (ACs). Using multiple labeling immunohistochemistry, we first revealed the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) at the terminals of ACs and BCs in rat retina. By patch-clamp techniques, we then showed how the activation of this receptor dichotomously regulated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), mediated by GABAA receptors and glycine receptors, and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), mediated by AMPA receptors, of RGCs in rat retinal slices. WIN55212-2 (WIN), a CB1R agonist, reduced the mIPSC frequency due to an inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels no matter whether AMPA receptors were blocked. In contrast, WIN reduced the mEPSC frequency by suppressing T-type Ca(2+) channels only when inhibitory inputs to RGCs were present, which could be in part due to less T-type Ca(2+) channels of cone BCs, presynaptic to RGCs, being in an inactivation state under such condition. This unique feature of CB1R-mediated retrograde regulation provides a novel mechanism for modulating excitatory synaptic transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, depolarization of RGCs suppressed mIPSCs of these cells, an effect that was eliminated by the CB1R antagonist SR141716, suggesting that endocannabinoid is indeed released from RGCs.
Related JoVE Video
Aberrant estrogen receptor alpha expression correlates with hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis and its mechanisms.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metastasis one of the obstacles before poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is improved. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays an important role in the development and progression of HCC. However, the molecular mechanism of ERalpha in mediating HCC metastasis is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to detect aberrant ERalpha expression in HCC and elucidate its possible mechanisms in HCC metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Intracellular fate of spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanoparticle conjugates are a class of bionanomaterials that are extremely potent in many biomedical applications. Their unique ability to enter multiple mammalian cell types as single-entity agents arises from their novel three-dimensional architecture, which consists of a dense shell of highly oriented oligonucleotides chemically attached typically to a gold nanoparticle core. This architecture allows SNAs to engage certain cell surface receptors to facilitate entry. Here, we report studies aimed at determining the intracellular fate of SNAs and the trafficking events that occur inside C166 mouse endothelial cells after cellular entry. We show that SNAs traffic through the endocytic pathway into late endosomes and reside there for up to 24 h after incubation. Disassembly of oligonucleotides from the nanoparticle core is observed 16 h after cellular entry, most likely due to degradation by enzymes such as DNase II localized in late endosomes. Our observations point to these events being likely independent of core composition and treatment conditions, and they do not seem to be particularly dependent upon oligonucleotide sequence. Significantly and surprisingly, the SNAs do not enter the lysosomes under the conditions studied. To independently track the fate of the particle core and the fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides that comprise its shell, we synthesized a novel class of quantum dot SNAs to determine that as the SNA structures are broken down over the 24 h time course of the experiment, the oligonucleotide fragments are recycled out of the cell while the nanoparticle core is not. This mechanistic insight points to the importance of designing and synthesizing next-generation SNAs that can bypass the degradation bottleneck imposed by their residency in late endosomes, and it also suggests that such structures might be extremely useful for endosomal signaling pathways by engaging receptors that are localized within the endosome.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemic and virulence characteristic of Shigella spp. with extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shigellae have become increasingly resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) worldwide and pose a great challenge to anti-infection treatment options. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance, cephalosporin resistance mechanisms, virulence characteristic and genotype of ESC-resistant Shigella.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoparticles meet electrospinning: recent advances and future prospects.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanofibres can be fabricated by various methods and perhaps electrospinning is the most facile route. In past years, electrospinning has been used as a synthesis technique and the fibres have been prepared from a variety of starting materials and show various properties. Recently, incorporating functional nanoparticles (NPs) with electrospun fibres has emerged as one of most exciting research topics in the field of electrospinning. When NPs are incorporated, on the one hand the NPs endow the electrospun fibres/mats novel or better performance, on the other hand the electrospun fibres/mats could preserve the NPs from corrosion and/or oxidation, especially for NPs with anisotropic structures. More importantly, electrospinning shows potential applications in self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks for generating new functions, and has some obvious advantages that are not available by other self-assembly methods, i.e., the obtained free-standing hybrid mats are usually flexible and with large area, which is favourable for their commercial applications. In this critical review, we will focus on the fabrication and applications of NPs-electrospun fibre composites and give an overview on this emerging field combining nanoparticles and electrospinning. Firstly, two main strategies for producing NPs-electrospun fibres will be discussed, i.e., one is preparing the NPs-electrospun fibres after electrospinning process that is usually combined with other post-processing methods, and the other is fabricating the composite nanofibres during the electrospinning process. In particular, the NPs in the latter method will be classified and introduced to show the assembling effect of electrospinning on NPs with different anisotropic structures. The subsequent section describes the applications of these NPs-electrospun fibre mats and nanocomposites, and finally a conclusion and perspectives of the future research in this emerging field is given.
Related JoVE Video
Shape-selective deposition and assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the large-area assembly of anisotropic gold nanoparticles into lithographically defined templates with control over their angular position using a capillary force-based approach. We elucidate the role of the geometry of the templates in the assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles consisting of different shapes and sizes. These insights allow us to design templates that immobilize individual triangular nanoprisms and concave nanocubes in a shape-selective manner and filter undesired impurity particles from a mixture of triangular prisms and other polyhedra. Furthermore, by studying the assembly of two particles in the same template, we elucidate the importance of interparticle forces in this method. These advances allow for the construction of face-to-face and edge-to-edge nanocube dimers as well as triangular nanoprism bowtie antennas. As an example of the fundamental studies enabled by this assembly method, we investigate the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of face-to-face concave cube dimers both experimentally and computationally and reveal a strong polarization dependence of the local field enhancement.
Related JoVE Video
A nanomotor involves a metastable, left-handed DNA duplex.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A newly designed metastable left-handed DNA architecture has been successfully used to power a DNA nanomotor by strand displacement without a toehold.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic insights into the serine protease gene family and expression profile analysis in the planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most destructive rice plant pests in Asia. N. lugens causes extensive damage to rice by sucking rice phloem sap, which results in hopper burn (complete death of the rice plants). Despite its importance, little is known about the digestion, development and defense mechanisms of this hemimetabolous insect pest. In this study, we aim to identify the serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes, which form a large family in eukaryotes, due to the potential for multiple physiological roles. Having a fully sequenced genome for N. lugens allows us to perform in-depth analysis of the gene structures, reveal the evolutionary relationships and predict the physiological functions of SP genes.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-566 activates EGFR signaling and its inhibition sensitizes glioblastoma cells to nimotuzumab.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified in 40% of human glioblastomas. However, most glioblastoma patients respond poorly to anti-EGFR therapy. MicroRNAs can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, and have been shown to play an important role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis. Whether microRNAs can impact the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibitors in glioblastoma is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Brown planthopper nudivirus DNA integrated in its host genome.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice crops in Asia. Nudivirus-like sequences were identified during the whole-genome sequencing of BPH. PCR examination showed that the virus sequences were present in all of the 22 BPH populations collected from East, Southeast, and South Asia. Thirty-two of the 33 nudivirus core genes were identified, including 20 homologues of baculovirus core genes. In addition, several gene clusters that were arranged collinearly with those of other nudiviruses were found in the partial virus genome. In a phylogenetic tree constructed using the supermatrix method, the original virus was grouped with other nudiviruses and was closely related to polydnavirus. Taken together, these data indicated that the virus sequences belong to a new member of the family Nudiviridae. More specifically, the virus sequences were integrated into the chromosome of its insect host during coevolution. This study is the first report of a large double-stranded circular DNA virus genome in a sap-sucking hemipteran insect.
Related JoVE Video
Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus orf81 is a late gene involved in budded virus production.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) orf81 (ha81) is a core gene that is highly conserved in all lepidopteran baculoviruses. Its homolog in the group I baculoviruses, ac93, has been shown to be essential for the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids, but its role in the group II HearNPV life cycle remains unknown. In this study, an ha81 mutant bacmid was constructed by homologous recombination to investigate the role of HA81 in the viral life cycle. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that viral DNA replication was unaffected in the absence of ha81. However, the budded virus production of the ha81-null virus was completely blocked. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed that ha81 is required for the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus. Analysis of the time course of transcription and expression revealed that ha81 is a late gene. An immunofluorescence analysis showed that the protein mainly localizes in the cytoplasm. To understand whether the transcription of other genes is affected by the deletion of ha81, the transcription of several well-characterized viral genes was investigated in the ha81-knockout HearNPV mutant. No obvious changes were observed at the transcription level, except for the odv-e25 gene downstream from ha81. In conclusion, these data indicate that ha81 is a late gene that is critical for budded virus production but is involved in neither viral DNA replication nor gene transcription.
Related JoVE Video
Application of magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
World J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction and is caused by static or dynamic repeated compression of the spinal cord resulting from degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and some biological injuries to the cervical spine. The T2 signal change on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most commonly associated with neurological deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy show altered microstructure and biochemistry that reflect patient-specific pathogenesis and can be used to predict neurological outcome and response to intervention. Functional MRI can help to assess the neurological functional recovery after decompression surgery for CSM.
Related JoVE Video
Perinodular ductular reaction/epithelial cell adhesion molecule loss in small hepatic nodules.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate if loss of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is associated with microinvasion in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in the presence of chronic hepatitis B.
Related JoVE Video
Transthoracic vs transhiatal surgery for cancer of the esophagogastric junction: a meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the efficacy and safety of the transthoracic and transhiatal approaches for cancer of the esophagogastric junction.
Related JoVE Video
RNA interference of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, increases susceptibility to insecticides.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for numerous biological reactions catalysed by microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Knockdown of CPR in several insects leads to developmental defects and increased susceptibility to insecticides. However, information about the role of CPR in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is still unavailable.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative pain in treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax with limited two-port thoracoscopy.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate effects of the limited two-port video assisted thoracic surgery on treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax.
Related JoVE Video
Capillary force-driven, large-area alignment of multi-segmented nanowires.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the large-area alignment of multi-segmented nanowires in nanoscale trenches facilitated by capillary forces. Electrochemically synthesized nanowires between 120 and 250 nm in length are aligned and then etched selectively to remove one segment, resulting in arrays of nanowires with precisely controlled gaps varying between 2 and 30 nm. Crucial to this alignment process is the dispersibility of the nanowires in solution which is achieved by chemically modifying them with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. We found that, even without the formation of an ordered crystalline phase at the droplet edges, the nanowires can be aligned in high yield. To illustrate the versatility of this approach as a nanofabrication technique, the aligned nanowires were used for the fabrication of arrays of gapped graphene nanoribbons and SERS substrates.
Related JoVE Video
DNA nanocages swallow gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form AuNP@DNA cage core-shell structures.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA offers excellent programming properties to nanomaterials syntheses. Host-guest interaction between DNA nanostructures and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is of particular interest because the resulting complexes would possess both programming properties intrinsic to DNA and physical properties associated with inorganic NPs, such as plasmonic and magnetic features. Here, we report a class of core-shell complexes (AuNP@DNA cages): hard gold NPs (AuNPs) are encapsulated in geometrically well-defined soft DNA nanocages. The AuNP guest can be further controllably released from the host (DNA nanocages), pointing to potential applications in surface engineering of inorganic NPs and cargo delivery of DNA nanocages.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of mass transfer and light intensity on substrate biological degradation by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria within an annular fiber-illuminating biofilm reactor.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, effects of mass transfer and light intensity on performance of substrate biodegradation by cell-immobilized photosynthetic bacteria were investigated within an annular fiber-illuminating bioreactor (AFIBR). In AFIBR, stable biofilm of photosynthetic bacteria was generated on the surface of side-glowing optical fiber to provide sufficient light supply and uniform light distribution in cell-immobilized zone for continuous substrate biodegradation during hydrogen production process. To optimize operation parameters for substrate degradation, a two-dimensional mass transfer model based on experimental data to describe coupled processes of substrate transfer and biodegradation in biofilm with substrate diffusion and convection in bulk flow region was proposed. Investigations on influences of substrate concentration, flow rate and light intensity were carried out. It was showed that the optimum operational parameters for the substrate degradation in the AFIBR are: 10g/l substrate concentration, 100ml/h flow rate and 3.1W/m(2) light intensity.
Related JoVE Video
Detecting deep divergence in seventeen populations of tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout) in China by COI mtDNA and cross-breeding.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout, Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a dominant chewing insect endemic in most tea-growing areas in China. Recently some E. obliqua populations have been found to be resistant to the nucleopolyhedrovirus (EoNPV), a host-specific virus that has so far been found only in E. obliqua. Although the resistant populations are morphologically indistinguishable from susceptible populations, we conducted a nationwide collection and examined the genetic divergence in the COI region of the mtDNA in E. obliqua. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA in 17 populations revealed two divergent clades with genetic distance greater than 3.7% between clades and less than 0.7% within clades. Therefore, we suggest that E. obliqua falls into two distinct groups. Further inheritance analyses using reciprocal single-pair mating showed an abnormal F? generation with an unbalanced sex ratio and the inability to produce fertile eggs (or any eggs) through F1 self-crossing. These data revealed a potential cryptic species complex with deep divergence and reproductive isolation within E. obliqua. Uneven distribution of the groups suggests a possible geographic effect on the divergence. Future investigations will be conducted to examine whether EoNPV selection or other factors prompted the evolution of resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Asymptotic analysis of SPTA-based algorithms for no-wait flow shop scheduling problem with release dates.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We address the scheduling problem for a no-wait flow shop to optimize total completion time with release dates. With the tool of asymptotic analysis, we prove that the objective values of two SPTA-based algorithms converge to the optimal value for sufficiently large-sized problems. To further enhance the performance of the SPTA-based algorithms, an improvement scheme based on local search is provided for moderate scale problems. New lower bound is presented for evaluating the asymptotic optimality of the algorithms. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analysis of Trichoderma brevicompactum under different culture conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichoderma brevicompactum is the Trichoderma species producing simple trichothecenes-trichodermin, a potential antifungal antibiotic and a protein synthesis inhibitor. However, the biosynthetic pathway of trichodermin in Trichoderma is not completely clarified. Therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to better understand the mechanism of the trichodermin biosynthesis and provide a blueprint for further study of T. brevicompactum.
Related JoVE Video
Graphene oxide doped conducting polymer nanocomposite film for electrode-tissue interface.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One of the most significant components for implantable bioelectronic devices is the interface between the microelectrodes and the tissue or cells for disease diagnosis or treatment. To make the devices work efficiently and safely in vivo, the electrode-tissue interface should not only be confined in micro scale, but also possesses excellent electrochemical characteristic, stability and biocompatibility. Considering the enhancement of many composite materials by combining graphene oxide (GO) for its multiple advantages, we dope graphene oxide into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forming a composite film by electrochemical deposition for electrode site modification. As a consequence, not only the enlargement of efficient surface area, but also the development of impedance, charge storage capacity and charge injection limit contribute to the excellent electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the stability and biocompatibility are confirmed by numerously repeated usage test and cell proliferation and attachment examination, respectively. As electrode-tissue interface, this biomaterial opens a new gate for tissue engineering and implantable electrophysiological devices.
Related JoVE Video
Approaching the Limit: Can One DNA Strand Assemble into Defined Nanostructures?
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article reports a simple, symmetrical DNA building block (motif): a bulged DNA duplex consisting of two short, identical strands. Multiple copies of the same motif can interact with each other through T junctions. The resulting superstructures include predesigned 1D and 2D arrays that have been visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Related JoVE Video
[Echinococcus multilocularis infection leads to increased expression of proliferation and anti-apoptosis factors in liver cells in BALB/c mice].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effects of Echinococcus multilocularis on host liver cell proliferation in vivo using a BALB/c mouse alveolar hydatid infection model.
Related JoVE Video
Is Dor fundoplication optimum after laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia? A meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the outcome of acid reflux prevention by Dor fundoplication after laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) for achalasia.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of IDH1/2 mutation with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis in anaplastic gliomas: a report of 203 patients from China.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation is one of the most exciting new advances in these years. It has been reported that IDH gene frequently altered in grade II and grade III gliomas. We aimed to identify the mutation frequency of IDH genes in Chinese anaplastic glioma patients, the association of IDH gene mutation with other clinical and molecular pathological features and the prognostic value of it.
Related JoVE Video
Association between RAD51 gene polymorphism (-135G/C) and susceptibility of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Study results on the association between RAD51 gene -135G/C polymorphism and risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the association. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang databases to collect all relevant studies until January 2013. Meta-analysis was carried out using fixed/random model by Review Manager 5.1 and STATA10.0. A total of 10 eligible studies with 2,656 patients and 3,725 controls were included in meta-analysis. Significant association was detected between -135G/C polymorphism and increased MDS risk (CC?+?GC vs. GG: OR?=?1.46, 95 % CI?=?1.11-1.92; CC vs. GC?+?GG: OR?=?2.45, 95 % CI?=?1.23-4.89), while no association was observed for acute leukemia. Subgroup analysis by subtypes of acute leukemia and ethnicity showed no significant results either. Our meta-analysis indicated that the -135G/C polymorphism might be associated with increased susceptibility of MDS. However, lack of evidence supported association of this polymorphism with acute leukemia. Additional well-designed studies with larger samples are required to verify our results.
Related JoVE Video
Using DNA to Design Plasmonic Metamaterials with Tunable Optical Properties.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epsilon-near-zero behavior and an optically metallic response are predicted using electrodynamics simulations in superlattices comprising silver nanoparticles. Programmable DNA-mediated assembly is used to synthesize both silver and binary silver-gold nanoparticle superlattices, which are characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental mapping.
Related JoVE Video
[Treatment of refractory lateral epicondylitis with modified Nirschl surgical technique].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical effects of modified Nirschl surgical techniique in treating refractory lateral epicondylitis.
Related JoVE Video
[Polymorphisms of (CAG)n and(GGN)n repeats of androgen receptor gene among ethnic Hui and Han Chinese from Ningxia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the distribution of (CAG)n and (GGN)n repeats polymorphisms of androgen receptor (AR) gene between Hui and Han ethnic Chinese from Ningxia.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic Value of a Nine-Gene Signature in Glioma Patients Based on mRNA Expression Profiling.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and a significant cause of cancer-related mortality. A 9-gene signature was identified as a novel prognostic model reflecting survival situation obviously in gliomas.
Related JoVE Video
NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and cancer risk: update on current evidence.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of studies have investigated the association between NBS1 Glu185Gln (rs1805794, E185Q) polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results remained controversial. Previous meta-analysis found a borderline significant impact of this polymorphism on cancer risk; however, the result might be relatively unreliable due to absence of numerous newly published studies. Thus, we conducted an updated meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases until April 9, 2013. The odds ratios were pooled by the fixed-effects/random-effects model in STATA 12.0 software. As a result, a total of 48 case-control studies with 17,159 cases and 22,002 controls were included. No significant association was detected between the Glu185Gln polymorphism and overall cancer risk. As to subgroup analysis by cancer site, the results showed that this polymorphism could increase the risk for leukemia and nasopharyngeal cancer. Notably, the Glu185Gln polymorphism was found to be related to increased risk for urinary system cancer, but decreased risk for digestive system cancer. No significant associations were obtained for other subgroup analyses such as ethnicity, sample size and smoking status. In conclusion, current evidence did not suggest that the NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism was associated with overall cancer risk, but this polymorphism might contribute to the risk for some specific cancer sites due to potential different mechanisms. More well-designed studies are imperative to identify the exact function of this polymorphism in carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F polymorphisms on gastric cancer risk and associations with H.pylori infection.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conducted a hospital case-control study by genotyping four potential functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess the association of Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) with gastric cancer susceptibility, and role of XPF polymorphisms in combination with H.pylori infection in risk definition. A total of 331 patients with gastric cancer and 355 controls were collected. Four SNPs of XPF, rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154, were genotyped by Taqman real-time PCR method with a 7900 HT sequence detector system. The gastric cancer patients were more likely to have smoking habit, a family history of cancer and H.pylori infection. We did not find any significant difference in the genotype distributions of XPF rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154 between cases and controls. However, multivariate logistic analysis showed a non-significant decreased risk in patients carrying rs180067 G allele, rs1799801 T allele or rs2276466 T allele genotypes. A non-significant increased risk of gastric cancer was found in individuals carrying the rs744154 GG genotype. Stratification by H.pylori infection and smoking was not significantly different in polymorphisms of XPF rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154. The four XPF SNPs did not show significant interaction with H.pylori infection and smoking status (P for interaction was 0.35 and 0.18, respectively). Our study indicated that polymorphisms in rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154 may affect the risk of gastric cancer but further large sample size studies are needed to validate any association.
Related JoVE Video
[Treatment of anteromedial coronoid facet fractures with open reduction and internal fixation through anteromedial approach].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the approach of open reduction and internal fixation for the treatment of anteromedial coronoid facet fractures and associated injury.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-21 regulates the invasion and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma and may be a potential biomarker for cancer prognosis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNA-21 in cholangiocarcinomas and its relationship to cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell capacity for invasion and metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Storing cycles in Hopfield-type networks with pseudoinverse learning rule: admissibility and network topology.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyclic patterns of neuronal activity are ubiquitous in animal nervous systems, and partially responsible for generating and controlling rhythmic movements such as locomotion, respiration, swallowing and so on. Clarifying the role of the network connectivities for generating cyclic patterns is fundamental for understanding the generation of rhythmic movements. In this paper, the storage of binary cycles in Hopfield-type and other neural networks is investigated. We call a cycle defined by a binary matrix ? admissible if a connectivity matrix satisfying the cycles transition conditions exists, and if so construct it using the pseudoinverse learning rule. Our main focus is on the structural features of admissible cycles and the topology of the corresponding networks. We show that ? is admissible if and only if its discrete Fourier transform contains exactly r=rank(?) nonzero columns. Based on the decomposition of the rows of ? into disjoint subsets corresponding to loops, where a loop is defined by the set of all cyclic permutations of a row, cycles are classified as simple cycles, and separable or inseparable composite cycles. Simple cycles contain rows from one loop only, and the network topology is a feedforward chain with feedback to one neuron if the loop-vectors in ? are cyclic permutations of each other. For special cases this topology simplifies to a ring with only one feedback. Composite cycles contain rows from at least two disjoint loops, and the neurons corresponding to the loop-vectors in ? from the same loop are identified with a cluster. Networks constructed from separable composite cycles decompose into completely isolated clusters. For inseparable composite cycles at least two clusters are connected, and the cluster-connectivity is related to the intersections of the spaces spanned by the loop-vectors of the clusters. Simulations showing successfully retrieved cycles in continuous-time Hopfield-type networks and in networks of spiking neurons exhibiting up-down states are presented.
Related JoVE Video
Co-assembled thin films of Ag nanowires and functional nanoparticles at the liquid-liquid interface by shaking.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we report the fabrication of co-assembled thin films composed of silver nanowires (NWs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs) at the liquid-liquid interface (water-chloroform) by vigorous shaking. The composition of co-assembled thin films can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the nanosized building blocks. As a versatile interfacial assembly method, other nanoparticles such as Ag2S and Fe3O4 NPs can also be co-assembled with Ag NWs using the same procedure. Meanwhile, the co-assembly state of the obtained Au NPs and Ag NWs makes a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to model the molecule 3,3-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTCI). The SERS intensities show high dependence on the molar ratio of Au NPs and Ag NWs and the layer number of the co-assembled thin films. This shaking-assisted liquid-liquid assembly system has been proved to be a facile way for co-assembling nanowires and nanoparticles, and will pave a way for further applications of the macroscopic co-assemblies with novel functionalities.
Related JoVE Video
A two-dimensional mass transfer model for an annular bioreactor using immobilized photosynthetic bacteria for hydrogen production.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A two-dimensional model for substrate transfer and biodegradation in a novel, annular fiber-illuminating bioreactor (AFIBR) is proposed in which photosynthetic bacteria are immobilized on the surface of a side-glowing optical fiber to form a stable biofilm. When excited by light, the desired intensity and uniform light distribution can be obtained within the biofilm zone in bioreactor and then realize continuous hydrogen production. Substrate transfer and biodegradation within the biofilm zone, as well as substrate diffusion and convection within bulk fluid regions are considered simultaneously in this model. The validity of the model is verified experimentally. Based on the model analysis, influences of flow rate and light intensity on the substrate consumption rate and substrate degradation efficiency were investigated. The simulation results show that the optimum operational conditions for the substrate degradation within the AFIBR are: flow rate 100 ml h(-1) and light intensity 14.6 ?mol photons m(-2 )s(-1).
Related JoVE Video
Defect effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of nanoscale LiFe0.92PO4 and LiFe0.92PO4/C/graphene composites.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanoscale LiFe0.92PO4 and LiFe0.92PO4/C/graphene composites including defects as performance-improved cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by a carbothermal reduction method. The physical and electrochemical properties of samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical testing techniques. The results confirmed that defects existed within the nanoscale LiFe0.92PO4 lattice and had significant effects on improving the electrochemical properties of samples. The excellent graphene sheets covered on nanoparticles and formed a three-dimensional conductive network in nanoscale LiFe0.92PO4/C/graphene composites. The composites exhibited a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 10 C and capacity retention ratios of 98% after 100 cycles at various rates, implying outstanding high-rate capability and cycling stability.
Related JoVE Video
Whole-genome mRNA expression profiling identifies functional and prognostic signatures in patients with mesenchymal glioblastoma multiforme.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has divided patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) into four subtypes based on mRNA expression microarray. The mesenchymal subtype, with a larger proportion, is considered a more lethal one. Clinical outcome prediction is required to better guide more personalized treatment for these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic diversity of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strains.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a baculovirus that selectively infects the domestic silkworm. In this study, six BmNPV strains were compared at the whole genome level. We found that the number of bro genes and the composition of the homologous regions (hrs) are the two primary areas of divergence within these genomes. When we compared the ORFs of these BmNPV variants, we noticed a high degree of sequence divergence in the ORFs that are not baculovirus core genes. This result is consistent with the results derived from phylogenetic trees and evolutionary pressure analyses of these ORFs, indicating that ORFs that are not core genes likely play important roles in the evolution of BmNPV strains. The evolutionary relationships of these BmNPV strains might be explained by their geographic origins or those of their hosts. In addition, the total number of hr palindromes seems to affect viral DNA replication in Bm5 cells.
Related JoVE Video
The genome- and transcriptome-wide analysis of innate immunity in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most serious rice plant pests in Asia. N. lugens causes extensive rice damage by sucking rice phloem sap, which results in stunted plant growth and the transmission of plant viruses. Despite the importance of this insect pest, little is known about the immunological mechanisms occurring in this hemimetabolous insect species.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular characterization of the flightin gene in the wing-dimorphic planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and its evolution in Pancrustacea.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flightin was initially identified in Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work has shown that Drosophila flightin plays a key role in indirect flight muscle (IFM) function and has limited expression in the IFM. In this study, we demonstrated that flightin is conserved across the Pancrustacea species, including winged insects, non-winged insects, non-insect hexapods and several crustaceans. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a long-distance migration insect with wing dimorphism, is the most destructive rice pest in Asia. We showed that flightin was one of the most differentially expressed genes in macropterous and brachypterous BPH adults. In female BPHs, flightin was expressed in the IFM of macropterous adults, no expression was detected in brachypterous ones; while in male BPHs, flightin was not only expressed in the IFM of macropterous adults, but also in the dorsal longitudinal muscle (DLM) in the basal two abdominal segments of both macropterous and brachypterous ones. RNAi and transmission electron microscopy results showed that flightin played key roles in maintaining IFM and male DLM structure, which drive wing movements in macropterous adults and the vibration of the male-specific tymbal, respectively. Using Daphnia magna as an example of a crustacean species, we observed that flightin was expressed in juvenile instars and adults, and was localized in the antenna muscles. These results illustrate the functional variations of flightin in insects and other arthropod species and provide clues as to how insects with flight apparatuses evolved from ancient pancrustaceans.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and immunohistochemical characterization of the chitinase gene from Pieris rapae granulovirus.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chitinase gene of baculoviruses is expressed in the late phase of virus replication in insects and possesses high exo- and endochitinase activity, which can hydrolyze chitin in the body of the insect, thus promoting terminal host liquefaction. Alphabaculovirus viral chitinases (vChitA) have been well analyzed, but information regarding viral chitinases from betabaculoviruses is limited. Whole-genome sequencing of a Korean isolate of Pieris rapae GV (PiraGV-K) predicted a putative chitinase gene corresponding to ORF10. The PiraGV-K chitinase gene had a coding sequence of 1,761 bp, encoding a protein of 586 amino acid (aa) residues, including an 18-aa putative signal peptide. Time course induction pattern observed by SDS-PAGE and subsequent Western blot with anti-PiraGV-K chitinase antibody revealed the cleavage of the signal peptide from the intact chitinase. Edman sequencing analysis was further conducted to confirm the exact nature of the mature chitinase, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence (KPGAP) exactly matched the sequence following the signal peptide sequence. The transcriptomics of PiraGV-K chitinase in infected P. rapae larvae, examined by real-time PCR, revealed a significant 75-fold increase after four days of feeding with PiraGV-K-treated leaves, with a subsequent decline at the later stages of infection. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that PiraGV-K chitinase possibly exists as a secreted protein, with strong chitinase-specific signals in fat body cells and integument at four days postinfection. Furthermore, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies localized the PiraGV-K chitinase in the cytoplasm and sparsely within vacuolar structures in the fat body apart from the extensive aggregation in the cuticular lining of the integument.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic insights into the glutathione S-transferase gene family of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade.
Related JoVE Video
Direct interactions between bidensovirus BmDNV-Z proteins and midgut proteins from the virus target Bombyx mori.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study we aimed to identify the protein-protein interactions between Bombyx mori midgut and the bidensovirus BmDNV-Z via a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. To achieve this we constructed a Gal4 activation domain fusion library that expresses the host genes and Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion bait vectors that express BmDNV-Z genes. Y2H assay revealed 15 potential interactions between host and viral proteins. To verify the interactions, we modified and reconstructed a pair of bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) vectors and achieved the co-expressions of the candidate host genes and viral genes in insect culture cells. The BiFC assay confirmed the specificity of the interactions including B. mori 35 kDa protease and two BmDNV-Z proteins encoded by VD1-ORF2 and VD2-ORF1; B. mori transgelin and BmDNV-Z protein encoded by VD2-ORF3; and B. mori serine protease precursor and BmDNV-Z encoded by VD2-ORF3 in vitro. Our findings revealed that the specific host midgut proteins are involved in the interactions between B. mori and BmDNV-Z, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of BmDNV-Z infection.
Related JoVE Video
A general approach to DNA-programmable atom equivalents.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanoparticles can be combined with nucleic acids to programme the formation of three-dimensional colloidal crystals where the particles size, shape, composition and position can be independently controlled. However, the diversity of the types of material that can be used is limited by the lack of a general method for preparing the basic DNA-functionalized building blocks needed to bond nanoparticles of different chemical compositions into lattices in a controllable manner. Here we show that by coating nanoparticles protected with aliphatic ligands with an azide-bearing amphiphilic polymer, followed by the coupling of DNA to the polymer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as copper-free azide-alkyne click chemistry), nanoparticles bearing a high-density shell of nucleic acids can be created regardless of nanoparticle composition. This method provides a route to a virtually endless class of programmable atom equivalents for DNA-based colloidal crystallization.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and immunohistochemical characterization of granulin gene encoded in Pieris rapae granulovirus genome.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pieris rapae granulovirus (PiraGV) is highly pathogenic to the cabbage butterfly (P. rapae), an important pest of cultivated cabbages and mustard crops. It therefore holds significant promise towards exploitation as a potent bio-control agent in the field controlling the pest population. Whole-genome elucidation of the Korean isolate of the granulovirus (PiraGV-K), reported the presence of a granulin gene corresponding to ORF 1 in its genome. Comprehensive studies towards functional characterization of the gene, established that it is composed of 744 nucleotides and encodes a peptide of 247 amino acid residues. It possessed significant homology with AoGV and ClanGV with 87% identity at amino acid level. Multiple alignment data suggests that the C-terminus region of the gene had three different conserved regions. Time-course studies conducted in PiraGV-K infected P. rapae larvae revealed a significant upsurge of the transcript (134-fold) at 4 days post infection followed by a significant decline at the most advanced stages of infection. Anti-PiraGV-K granulin antibody was produced and western blot conducted with the infected larvae further confirmed the induction pattern with a protein of 30 kDa. Immunofluorescent staining showed a granulin-specific signal in fat body and integument of the infected larvae. Granulin-specific signals were noticed 2 days post infection with the eventual systemic spread of infection to the associated tracheal matrix witnessed at 4 days post infection. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopic studies further proved the cytopathological effects as the presence of numerous membrane-bound vesicles with nucleocapsids and abruption of intercellular junctions in fat body and hypertrophied cells in the integument.
Related JoVE Video
The Elicitation Effect of Pathogenic Fungi on Trichodermin Production by Trichoderma brevicompactum.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of six species of phytopathogenic fungi mycelia as elicitors on trichodermin yield by Trichoderma brevicompactum were investigated. Neither nonviable nor viable mycelia of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and Thanatephorus cucumeris demonstrated any elicitation on the accumulation of trichodermin. However, the production of trichodermin was increased by the presence of viable/nonviable Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum mycelia. The strongest elicitation effect was found at the presence of nonviable R. solani. At the presence of nonviable R. solani, the maximum yield of trichodermin (144.55?mg/L) was significantly higher than the Control (67.8?mg/L), and the cultivation time to obtain the maximum yield of trichodermin decreased from 72?h to 60?h. No difference of trichodermin accumulation was observed by changing the concentration of nonviable R. solani from 0.1 to 1.6?g/L. It was observed that the optimum time for adding nonviable R. solani is immediately after inoculation. The diameter of T. brevicompactum mycelial globule after 72?h cultivation with nonviable R. solani elicitor was smaller than that of the Control.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Oral Paracetamol versus Ibuprofen in Premature Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral ibuprofen has demonstrated good effects on symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but with many contraindications and potential side-effects. In the past two years, oral paracetamol administration to several preterm infants with PDA has been reported. Here, a randomized, non-blinded, parallel-controlled and non-inferiority trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of oral paracetamol to those of standard ibuprofen for PDA closure in premature infants.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of enteral nutrition on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the effect of enteral nutrition (EN) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Better functional outcome provided by short-armed sigmoid colon-rectal side-to-end anastomosis after laparoscopic low anterior resection: a match-paired retrospective study from China.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Side-to-end anastomosis using the descending colon has been proved to be as effective as J pouch in alleviating low anterior resection syndrome. However, using the sigmoid colon, which is less compliant for reconstruction after rectal cancer surgery, is common in China due to less prevalence of diverticulosis. The effectiveness of using the sigmoid colon for a side-to-end colorectal anastomosis in improving bowel dysfunction after laparoscopic low anterior resection of rectal cancer has not been investigated. This study was designed to compare the functional and surgical outcomes between the two anastomoses.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular characterization of a signal-regulated kinase homolog from Echinococcus granulosus.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is one of the most important chronic helminthic diseases, especially in sheep/cattle-raising regions. The larval stage of the parasite forms a cyst that grows in the liver, lung, or other organs of the host. To ensure a long life in the host tissues, the parasite establishes complex inter-cellular communication systems between its host to allow its differentiation toward each larval stage. Recent studies have reported that this communication is associated with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in helminth parasites, and in particular that these protein kinases might serve as effective targets for a novel chemotherapy for cystic echinococcosis. The aim of the present study investigated the biological function of a novel ERK ortholog from E. granulosus, EgERK.
Related JoVE Video
Controlled assemblies of gold nanorods in PVA nanofiber matrix as flexible free-standing SERS substrates by electrospinning.
Small
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Under control: Controlled assemblies of gold nanorods in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber matrix with tunable optical properties can be achieved by using electrospinning. The resultant assemblies can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This work provides a facile way to control alignment of anisotropic nanostructures in a polymer nanofiber matrix and generates new assemblies with interesting properties.
Related JoVE Video
[The efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in medical critically ill patients].
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical critically ill patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Velocity vector imaging for left ventricular diastolic function assessment and the reference values].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) in assessment of normal left ventricular diastolic function and the corresponding reference values.
Related JoVE Video
[Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B induced IDO expression in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) after adding Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B (rAgB) in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Structural relaxation of polymer nanospheres under soft and hard confinement: isobaric versus isochoric conditions.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have measured the glassy-state structural relaxation of aqueous suspended polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (the case of soft confinement) and the corresponding silica-capped PS nanoparticles (the case of hard confinement) via differential scanning calorimetry. Suspended and capped PS nanoparticles undergo physical aging under isobaric and isochoric conditions, respectively. With decreasing diameter, suspended and capped PS nanoparticles exhibited reduced and bulk glass transition temperatures (T(g)), respectively. To account for T(g) changes with confinement, all physical aging measurements were performed at a constant value of T(g) - T(a), where T(a) is the aging temperature. With decreasing diameter, aqueous suspended PS nanoparticles exhibited enhanced physical aging rates in comparison to bulk PS. Due to differences in thermodynamic conditions during aging and interfacial effects from nanoconfinement, at all values of T(g) - T(a) investigated, capped PS nanoparticles aged at reduced rates compared to the corresponding aqueous suspended PS nanoparticles. We captured the physical aging behavior of all nanoparticles via the Tool, Narayanaswamy, and Moynihan model of structural relaxation.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.