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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibiting the Deubiquitinating Enzymes (DUBs).
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The diverse roles of deubiquitinating enzymes, or DUBs, in determining the fate of specific proteins continue to unfold. Concurrent with the revelation of DUBs as potential therapeutic targets are publications of small molecule inhibitors of these enzymes. In this review, we summarize these molecules and their associated data and suggest additional experiments to further validate and characterize these compounds. We believe the field of drug discovery against DUBs is still in its infancy, but advances in assay development, biophysical techniques, and screening libraries hold promise for identifying suitable agents that could advance into the clinic.
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Discovery of a Potent and Selective BCL-XL Inhibitor with in Vivo Activity.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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A-1155463, a highly potent and selective BCL-XL inhibitor, was discovered through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fragment screening and structure-based design. This compound is substantially more potent against BCL-XL-dependent cell lines relative to our recently reported inhibitor, WEHI-539, while possessing none of its inherent pharmaceutical liabilities. A-1155463 caused a mechanism-based and reversible thrombocytopenia in mice and inhibited H146 small cell lung cancer xenograft tumor growth in vivo following multiple doses. A-1155463 thus represents an excellent tool molecule for studying BCL-XL biology as well as a productive lead structure for further optimization.
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Fragment-based identification and optimization of a class of potent pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine MAP4K4 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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MAP4K4 has been shown to regulate key cellular processes that are tied to disease pathogenesis. In an effort to generate small molecule MAP4K4 inhibitors, a fragment-based screen was carried out and a pyrrolotriazine fragment with excellent ligand efficiency was identified. Further modification of this fragment guided by X-ray crystal structures and molecular modeling led to the discovery of a series of promising compounds with good structural diversity and physicochemical properties. These compounds exhibited single digit nanomolar potency and compounds 35 and 44 achieved good in vivo exposure.
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Structure-Guided Rescaffolding of Selective Antagonists of BCL-XL.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Because of the promise of BCL-2 antagonists in combating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), interest in additional selective antagonists of antiapoptotic proteins has grown. Beginning with a series of selective, potent BCL-XL antagonists containing an undesirable hydrazone functionality, in silico design and X-ray crystallography were utilized to develop alternative scaffolds that retained the selectivity and potency of the starting compounds.
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Discovery of selective 4-Amino-pyridopyrimidine inhibitors of MAP4K4 using fragment-based lead identification and optimization.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in the regulation of many biological processes. A fragment-based lead discovery approach was used to generate potent and selective MAP4K4 inhibitors. The fragment hit pursued in this article had excellent ligand efficiency (LE), an important attribute for subsequent successful optimization into drug-like lead compounds. The optimization efforts eventually led us to focus on the pyridopyrimidine series, from which 6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (29) was identified. This compound had low nanomolar potency, excellent kinase selectivity, and good in vivo exposure, and demonstrated in vivo pharmacodynamic effects in a human tumor xenograft model.
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Discovery of 2-{3-[2-(1-isopropyl-3-methyl-1H-1,2-4-triazol-5-yl)-5,6-dihydrobenzo[f]imidazo[1,2-d][1,4]oxazepin-9-yl]-1H-pyrazol-1-yl}-2-methylpropanamide (GDC-0032): a ?-sparing phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor with high unbound exposure and robust i
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Dysfunctional signaling through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway leads to uncontrolled tumor proliferation. In the course of the discovery of novel benzoxepin PI3K inhibitors, we observed a strong dependency of in vivo antitumor activity on the free-drug exposure. By lowering the intrinsic clearance, we derived a set of imidazobenzoxazepin compounds that showed improved unbound drug exposure and effectively suppressed growth of tumors in a mouse xenograft model at low drug dose levels. One of these compounds, GDC-0032 (11l), was progressed to clinical trials and is currently under phase I evaluation as a potential treatment for human malignancies.
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Discovery of thiazolobenzoxepin PI3-kinase inhibitors that spare the PI3-kinase ? isoform.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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A series of suitable five-membered heterocyclic alternatives to thiophenes within a thienobenzoxepin class of PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors was discovered. Specific thiazolobenzoxepin 8-substitution was identified that increased selectivity over PI3K?. PI3K?-sparing compound 27 (PI3K? Ki,app/PI3K? Ki,app=57) demonstrated dose-dependent knockdown of pAKT, pPRAS40 and pS6RP in vivo as well as differential effects in an in vitro proliferation cell line screen compared to pan PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. A new structure-based hypothesis for reducing inhibition of the PI3K ? isoform while maintaining activity against ?, ? and ? isoforms is presented.
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Targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins for therapeutic intervention.
Future Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2009
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The inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have emerged over the last decade as important targets for therapeutic intervention in human malignancies. Overexpression of IAPs has been implicated in cell survival and resistance against stress-induced apoptosis brought on by radiation and/or chemotherapeutics (currently the standard-of-care in a variety of different cancer diseases). In addition, evasion from death receptor-mediated apoptosis and regulation of NF-?B pathways and cell division have also been associated with IAP proteins. Efforts to target IAP proteins in tumors have focused mainly on designing small molecules that mimic the IAP-binding motif of the endogenous IAP antagonist, second mitochondrial activator of caspases. In addition, several other IAP-targeting strategies, including antisense oligonucleotides and transcriptional repression, have also been initiated, with the hope of providing therapeutic benefit to cancer patients.
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Antagonism of c-IAP and XIAP proteins is required for efficient induction of cell death by small-molecule IAP antagonists.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are critical regulators of cancer cell survival, which makes them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancers. Herein, we describe the structure-based design of IAP antagonists with high affinities and selectivity (>2000-fold) for c-IAP1 over XIAP and their functional characterization as activators of apoptosis in tumor cells. Although capable of inducing cell death and preventing clonogenic survival, c-IAP-selective antagonists are significantly less potent in promoting apoptosis when compared to pan-selective compounds. However, both pan-IAP- and c-IAP-selective antagonists stimulate c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 degradation and activation of NF-kappaB pathways with comparable potencies. Therefore, although compounds that specifically target c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are capable of inducing apoptosis, antagonism of the c-IAP proteins and XIAP is required for efficient induction of cancer cell death by IAP antagonists.
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The design and identification of brain penetrant inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ?.
J. Med. Chem.
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Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling through PI3K? has received significant attention for its potential in cancer therapy. While the PI3K pathway is a well-established and widely pursued target for the treatment of many cancer types due to the high frequency of abnormal PI3K signaling, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is particularly relevant because the pathway is implicated in more than 80% of GBM cases. Herein, we report the identification of PI3K inhibitors designed to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to engage their target where GBM tumors reside. We leveraged our historical experience with PI3K inhibitors to identify correlations between physicochemical properties and transporter efflux as well as metabolic stability to focus the selection of molecules for further study.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.