Some evidence exists to support the use of an extended bandwidth (EBW) for those with a relatively mild to moderate degree of hearing loss. The use of frequency lowering is suggested for those with a severe/profound degree of hearing loss. The amplification option for those with a moderately severe hearing loss in the high frequencies is less clear. This study compared three amplification options for listeners with a moderately severe hearing loss in the high frequencies.
Temperature changes due to climate change and seasonal fluctuation can have profound implications on chemical toxicity to marine organisms. Through a comprehensive meta-analysis by comparing median lethal or effect concentration data of six chemicals for various saltwater species obtained at different temperatures, we reveal that the chemical toxicity generally follows two different models: (1) it increases with increasing temperature and (2) it is the lowest at an optimal temperature and increases with increasing or decreasing temperature from the optimal temperature. Such observations are further supported by temperature-dependent hazardous concentration 10% (HC10) values derived from species sensitivity distributions which are constructed using the acute toxicity data generated at different temperatures. Considering these two models and natural variations of seawater temperature, we can scientifically assess whether applying an assessment factor (e.g. 10) to modify water quality guidelines of the chemicals can adequately protect marine ecosystems in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions, respectively.
Nearly 20years after the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis (TB) a global public health emergency, TB still remains a major global threat with 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis adapts to a quiescent physiological state, and is notable for complex interaction with the host, producing poorly-understood disease states ranging from latent infection to fully active disease. Of the approximately 2.5 billion people latently infected with M. tuberculosis, many will develop reactivation disease (relapse), years after the initial infection. While progress has been made on some fronts, the alarming spread of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and more recently totally-drug resistant strains is of grave concern. New tools are urgently needed for rapidly diagnosing TB, monitoring TB treatments and to allow unique insights into disease pathogenesis. Nuclear bioimaging is a powerful, noninvasive tool that can rapidly provide three-dimensional views of disease processes deep within the body and conduct noninvasive longitudinal assessments of the same patient. In this review, we discuss the application of nuclear bioimaging to TB, including the current state of the field, considerations for radioprobe development, study of TB drug pharmacokinetics in infected tissues, and areas of research and clinical needs that could be addressed by nuclear bioimaging. These technologies are an emerging field of research, overcome several fundamental limitations of current tools, and will have a broad impact on both basic research and patient care. Beyond diagnosis and monitoring disease, these technologies will also allow unique insights into understanding disease pathogenesis; and expedite bench-to-bedside translation of new therapeutics. Finally, since molecular imaging is readily available for humans, validated tracers will become valuable tools for clinical applications.
Obesity is a major public health problem, and measuring adiposity accurately and predicting its future comorbidities are important issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4 adiposity measurements, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage, have different physiological meanings and distinct associations with adverse health consequences. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of these 4 measurements with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and identify the most associated factor for MetS occurrence in older, non-medicated men. Cross-sectional data from 3004 men, all 65 years of age and older, were analyzed. The correlation and association between adiposity measurements and MetS components were evaluated by Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Based on multivariate logistic regression, BMI and WC were significantly associated with MetS and were selected to build a combined model of receiver operating characteristic curves to increase the diagnosis accuracy for MetS. The results show that BMI is independently associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure; WC and body fat percentage are associated with fasting plasma glucose and log transformation of triglyceride; BMI and WC are negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and WC is a better discriminate for MetS than BMI, although the combined model (WC + BMI) is not significantly better than WC alone. Based on these results, we conclude that the 4 adiposity measurements have different clinical implications. Thus, in older men, BMI is an important determinant for blood pressure and HDL-C. Waist circumference is associated with the risk of fasting plasma glucose, HDL-C, triglyceride, and MetS occurrence. The combined model did not increase the diagnosis accuracy.
The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A "rational" development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings.
AIM: Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are important causes for mortality in older people. Both hypertension and prehypertension are correlated with them. Recently, health promotion and disease prevention in postmenopausal women have become an essential issue of public health policy. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the harmful effects of blood pressure (BP) could still be found in normotensive postmenopausal women (below 120/80?mmHg). METHODS: A total of 4539 normotensive postmenopausal women aged 51?years or older, undergoing routine health examinations, were enrolled in the cross-sectional analyses. To mitigate the effect of age on BP, participants within the same age were divided into tertiles according to their systolic BP (SBP). Then, participants in the low-SBP tertile of each age stratum were pooled together to form a larger group (low-normal SBP group [LNSBP]). Similarly, the middle- and high-normal SBP were grouped accordingly (MNSBP and HNSBP). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was considered to be a surrogate for future cardiovascular disease and diabetes. RESULTS: The study showed that HNSBP bore a higher likelihood of having abnormal MetS components, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and a higher odds ratio (1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.81) for having MetS than LNSBP. In contrast, age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly related to SBP in multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of having MetS was significantly associated with higher SBP even within normotension. Primary prevention, such as lifestyle modification, and more strict control of BP should be stressed in postmenopausal women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; ??: ??-??.
Ecotoxicity tests are often conducted following standard methods, and thus carried out at a fixed water temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. Yet, toxicity of a chemical contaminant may vary in a temperature-dependent manner, depending on the physiology of the test organism and physicochemical properties of the chemical. Although an assessment factor of 10 (AF10) is commonly adopted to account for variability in toxicity data related to temperature in the development of water quality guidelines and/or ecological risk assessment, no one has ever rigorously assessed the appropriateness of AF10 to account for potential variation in temperature-dependent chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms. This study, therefore, aims to address this issue through a meta-analysis by comparing median lethal concentration data for nine chemicals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, silver, zinc, arsenic, selenium and DDT) on a range of freshwater ectothermic animal species at different temperatures, and to assess whether AF10 is under- or over-protective for tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Our results reveal varying extents of interaction between temperature and different chemicals on organisms and the complexity of these interactions. Applying AF10 sufficiently protects 90 % of the animal species tested over a range of temperatures for cadmium, copper, nickel, silver, zinc and DDT in the tropics, but it is insufficient to adequately encompass a larger temperature variation for most studied chemicals in temperate regions. It is therefore important to set specific AFs for different climatic zones in order to achieve the desired level of ecosystem protection.
Many candidate HIV vaccines are designed to primarily elicit T cell responses. Although repeated immunization with the same vaccine boosts Ab responses, the benefit for T cell responses is ill defined. We compared two immunization regimens that include the same recombinant adenoviral serotype 5 (rAd5) boost. Repeated homologous rAd5 immunization fails to increase T cell responses, but increases gp140 Ab responses 10-fold. DNA prime, as compared with rAd5 prime, directs long-term memory CD8(+) T cells toward a terminally differentiated effector memory phenotype with cytotoxic potential. Based on the kinetics of activated cells measured directly ex vivo, the DNA vaccination primes for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, despite the lack of detection of the latter until after the boost. These results suggest that heterologous prime-boost combinations have distinct immunological advantages over homologous prime-boosts and suggest that the effect of DNA on subsequent boosting may not be easily detectable directly after the DNA vaccination.
HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance.
Disclosure of serostatus is critical in preventing the transmission of HIV among youth. The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe serostatus disclosure in a multisite study of youth living with HIV.
Fatigue among cancer patients has often been reported in the literature; however, great variations have been documented, ranging from 15% to 90%, probably due to the lack of a widely accepted definition and established diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proposed International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision) (ICD-10) criteria in a sample of cancer patients from a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. More accurate prevalence estimates of CRF may result in improved diagnoses and management of one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment.
In May 2009, a workshop was held in Washington DC to identify ways in which HIV vaccine clinical research could benefit from and better incorporate behavioral and social science (BSS) considerations. Seventy-one people from government, non-government, and private organizations participated, including HIV vaccine researchers, clinical trial scientists, BSS researchers, community representatives, and sponsors. This workshop elucidated the opportunities and challenges for integrating BSS in HIV vaccine research by highlighting insights gained from previous BSS research on HIV prevention and highlighting new BSS approaches and methodologies. Meeting participants identified priority areas where BSS methodologies could significantly impact HIV research and developed concrete recommendations for addressing current challenges encountered in HIV vaccine research relating to social impact, risk assessment, community engagement, informed consent, risk reduction, and special populations. These recommendations address the need for improving the accuracy of participant data; standardizing data collection to enable comparisons across studies; engaging the community at all levels; using evidenced-based counseling techniques; understanding the needs and concerns of target populations; and considering the impacts of macro-level forces and influences. The importance of establishing collaborations that can carry out these recommendations and facilitate necessary changes in thinking and practice was emphasized throughout the meeting.
Many new processing features in hearing aids have their primary effects on information located in the high frequencies. Speech perception tests that are optimized for evaluating high-frequency processing are needed to adequately study its effects on speech identification. The goal of the current research was to develop a medium for evaluating the effects of high-frequency processing in hearing aids.
To measure the subjective and objective improvement of speech intelligibility in noise offered by a commercial hearing aid that uses a fully adaptive directional microphone and a noise reduction algorithm that optimizes the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII).
Frequency transposition has gained renewed interest in recent years. This type of processing takes sounds in the unaidable high-frequency region and moves them to the lower frequency region. One concern is that the transposed sounds mask or distort the original low-frequency sounds and lead to a poorer performance. On the other hand, experience with transposition may allow the listeners to relearn the new auditory percepts and benefit from transposition.
Chinese medicine has been proposed as a novel strategy for the prevention of metabolic disorders such as obesity. The present study tested 17 Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential anti-obesity effects.
Social and behavioral science research is integral to the conduct of HIV vaccine trials, especially because the vaccine targets an infection laden with sensitive human issues. Although social and behavioral sciences have played a larger role in HIV vaccine clinical trials than other vaccine clinical trials to date, this role should be expanded. Fortunately, related publications, conference coverage and research proposals are on the rise; community engagement is receiving more attention during the earlier stages of product development; and collaboration between HIV vaccine scientists and social and behavioral scientists is being fostered. Greater attention to social and behavioral science issues could not only facilitate accrual, but also improve research efficiency and relevance. In this review, gaps in the literature on social and behavioral science issues in HIV vaccine clinical research, including barriers and facilitators to trial participation, enhancing feasibility of trial success, health systems, policy and monitoring social and behavioral issues, are identified and directions are suggested for filling those gaps. Development of a safe, efficacious and acceptable HIV vaccine will be nurtured by addressing the gaps through interdisciplinary collaborations.
Hypertension and prehypertension are correlated with future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Whether these harmful effects of the blood pressure (BP) could be found in normotensive is of interest.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.