Inefficient memory inhibition has been observed in nonclinical and clinical dissociators. Paradoxically, dissociators also report unusual forgetfulness. Investigating how forgetting emerges in dissociators may uncover the antecedents for their self-report memory problems. We postulated that set switch can link inefficient memory inhibition to forgetting. Recollection detour, which involves an affect switch, may elicit forgetting of previously uninhibited memories in nonclinical dissociators. This hypothesis was verified in participants with high- and low-dissociation proneness via a retrieval practice paradigm using positive and negative autobiographical memories. After the study and retrieval-practice phases, memories of the practiced affect category were tested without and with intervening recall of the unpracticed affect category in the control and detour condition, respectively. Nondissociators showed reduced recall in the control condition, replicating the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect and recollection detour did not alter the RIF effect. By contrast, nonclinical dissociators showed the RIF effect in the detour condition but not in the control condition. Detour to recollecting memories of another affect category rendered an aftereffect of forgetting of previously uninhibited memories in nonclinical dissociators.
Based on tissues from 20 female patients (mean age: 53 years; rang: 36-72 years), we examine the performance of a room-temperature-operated terahertz (THz) fiber-scanning near-field microscopy to diagnose slices of breast tissues. The specimens were frozen sliced and then measured in a thawed state without dehydration. We performed the imaging at 320 GHz. Our study indicates that images acquired in the THz transmission-illumination mode can all clearly distinguish breast tumor tissues from normal tissues without H&E staining. Due to its capability to perform quantitative analysis and to allow follow-up staining and traditional pathohistological analysis, our study indicates great potential of the THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy for future automation, which is critical for fast and complete pre-screening on breast tumor pathological examinations and for assisting quick definition of the tumor margins during the surgical procedure such as breast-conserving surgery.
Little is known about executive function among adolescents with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is a lack of such information in an ethnic Chinese population. This study investigated nonverbal executive functions in adolescence among Taiwanese children with ADHD.
We demonstrate a room-temperature-operated all-terahertz (THz) fiber-scanning near-field imaging system. The upright-type THz near-field microscope has a compact size, capable of being integrated with an optical microscope. This transmission illumination near-field system could be a promising tool to distinguish breast cancer from the normal tissue without pathologic staining.
Rapid switching may underlie the disruption of some integrated thought processes that characterize dissociation in both nonclinical and clinical populations. We investigated the set switching function under negative emotion with three groups of nonclinical participants that had different degrees of dissociation proneness. In the experiment, participants judged whether the digit in a predefined target color was odd or even on the preswitch trials. In a perseverance condition, participants were required to switch to a new target color while the previous target color became the distractor color. In a learned irrelevance condition, the previously ignored color became the new target color. The results showed that the three groups did not differ in focusing attention in the preswitch trials, for set switching in the baseline condition (in which emotion was not engaged), or for switching in the learned irrelevance condition under negative emotion. However, high dissociators under negative emotion showed faster switching in the perseverance condition. This enhanced ability to divert attention to a new mental set under negative emotion may be a coping strategy related to cognitive symptoms in dissociative disorders.
Although participants with dissociation proneness showed inefficient cognitive inhibition, whether and under what stimulus-task contexts dissociators show inefficient memory inhibition remains inconclusive. This study investigated the relationship between trait dissociation and basic operation of memory control using a non-clinical sample. To reduce the involvement of strategic control and the influence of emotionality, the retrieval-practice paradigm was adopted to examine unintentional memory inhibition of neutral materials. Both the low- and middle-dissociation groups showed the forgetting effect, resulting from suppressing competing memories while retrieving a target. In contrast, the high-dissociation group did not show the forgetting effect although their performance in the baseline condition and in recalling practiced items was comparable to the other two groups. High dissociation proneness is linked with weakened memory inhibition that may cause diverse memory problems in clinical patients.
Different hypotheses exist for the relationship among trauma, dissociation, and recovered memory. According to one view, recovered memory results from dissociation that a survivor adopts as a defense mechanism during a traumatizing event to avoid emotional pain. From this perspective, trauma is a necessary antecedent to relate dissociative symptoms with recovered memory. Another view emphasizes the characteristics of the victim, such as fantasy proneness and atypical cognitive operations. This alternate view holds that trauma is not necessary in relating dissociation to recovered memory. We tested these two hypotheses, measuring recovered memory, dissociative symptoms, childhood interpersonal adversity, and fantasy proneness in a nonclinical sample of college students. Our results showed a significant correlation between recovered memory and dissociative symptoms; the correlation cannot be accounted for by childhood interpersonal adversity, fantasy proneness, or absorption. Recovered events can be negative, neutral, or even positive. Trauma is not necessary in relating recovered memory to dissociative symptoms.
One newly bred variety of tea cultivar, purple-shoot tea, was selected to evaluate its antiproliferative effects on colorectal carcinoma cells, as well as normal colon cells. The phytochemicals and identified catechins of purple-shoot tea extract (PTE) were significantly higher than that of ordinary tea, especially the anthocyanins (surpassed by 135-fold) and anthocyanidins (surpassed by 3.5-fold). PTE inhibited the proliferation of COLO 320DM (IC(50) = 64.9 ?g/mL) and HT-29 (IC(50) = 55.2 ?g/mL) by blocking cell cycle progression during the G(0)/G(1) phase and inducing apoptotic death. Western blotting indicated that PTE induced cell cycle arrest by reducing the expression of cyclin E and cyclin D1 in COLO 320DM and the upregulation of p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in HT-29. Two cells treated with PTE also indicated the cleavage of PARP, activation of caspase 3, and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results showed that PTE is a potential novel dietary agent for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.
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