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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A synergistic effect of pretreatment on cell-wall structural changes in barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) for efficient bioethanol production.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an attractive lignocellulosic material and is one of the most abundant renewable resources for fuel-ethanol production. Although it contains high cellulose and hemicellulose contents, it has several challenges and limitations in the process of converting barley straw (BS) to fuel-ethanol. High ash, silica, and lignin contents in barley straw make it an inferior feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment plays an important role for structural and compositional changes in increasing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and makes the whole process economically viable.
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Depression and somatic symptoms may influence on chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a preliminary study.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The present study is the first one to investigate the impacts of depression and somatization on the disease severity and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The Korean version of National Institutes of Health (NIH)- Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) for severity of CP/CPPS. Korean version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression, Korean version of Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) for somatization, and Korean version of EuroQol Questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)- [(EQ-5D utility index and visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS)] for QoL, were administered. Eighty patients were enrolled. The NIH-CPSI total scores were significantly higher in those with depression (25.3%, p=0.01) or somatization (23.2%, p=0.03) than in those without. These trends toward significantly negative influence of depression and somatic symptoms on QoL were also observed. Our preliminary results indicate that depression and somatization may have negative influence on the symptom severity and QoL in patients with CP/CPPS. However, adequately-powered and more well-designed studies are mandatory to prove our results.
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Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methylpenicinoline from a Marine Isolate of Penicillium sp. (SF-5995): Inhibition of NF-?B and MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages and BV2 Microglia.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1) was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia. It also attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a concentration-dependent manner (from 10 ?M to 80 ?M) without affecting cell viability. In addition, compound 1 reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?). In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effects, compound 1 was shown to block nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-? (I?B-?), thereby suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B dimers, namely p50 and p65, that are known to be crucial molecules associated with iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, compound 1 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that compound 1 might be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory diseases.
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Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with ?-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN) from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600) of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and sodium azide (NaN3) were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN) from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0-125 ?g/mL) gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 ?g/mL); however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was investigated.
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Amomum tsao-ko suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages via Nrf2-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expression.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, used as a spice in Asia, is an important source of Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicines. A. tsao-ko is reported to exert a variety of biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-proliferative, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, NNMBS227, consisting of the ethanol extract of A. tsao-ko, exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 macrophages. We investigated the effect of NNMBS227 in the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including pro-inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?) in LPS stimulated macrophages. NNMBS227 also inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-?, as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65 caused by stimulation with LPS. In addition, NNMBS227 induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we confirmed an association between the anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS227 and the up-regulation of HO-1. These findings suggest that Nrf2-dependent increases in the expression of HO-1 induced by NNMBS227 conferred anti-inflammatory activities in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
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Prescription patterns for patients with schizophrenia in Korea: a focus on antipsychotic polypharmacy.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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This study investigated the prescription patterns for Korean patients with schizophrenia with a particular focus on antipsychotic polypharmacy. All data were gathered from patients presenting at 41 tertiary university hospitals and 8 secondary hospitals.
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The influence of depression, anxiety and somatization on the clinical symptoms and treatment response in patients with symptoms of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This is the first study to investigate the influence of depression, anxiety and somatization on the treatment response for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). The LUTS/BPH patients were evaluated with the Korean versions of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the PHQ-15. The primary endpoint was a responder rate defined by the total score of IPSS (? 7) at the end of treatment. The LUTS/BPH severity was significantly higher in patients with depression (whole symptoms P = 0.024; storage sub-symptom P = 0.021) or somatization (P = 0.024) than in those without, while the quality of life (QOL) was significantly higher in patients with anxiety (P = 0.038) than in those without. Anxious patients showed significantly higher proportion of non-response (odds ratio [OR], 3.294, P = 0.022) than those without, while somatic patients had a trend toward having more non-responders (OR, 2.552, P = 0.067). Our exploratory results suggest that depression, anxiety and somatization may have some influences on the clinical manifestation of LUTS/BPH. Further, anxious patients had a lower response to treatment in patients with LUTS/BPH. Despite of limitations, the present study demonstrates that clinicians may need careful evaluation of psychiatric symptoms for proper management of patients with LUTS/BPH.
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Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid, a Bile Acid, Promotes Blood Vessel Repair by Recruiting Vasculogenic Progenitor Cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Although serum bile acid concentrations are ~10 ?M in healthy subjects, the cross-talk between the biliary system and vascular repair has never been investigated. In this study, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) induced dissociation of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from stromal cells by reducing adhesion molecule expression. TUDCA increased CD34(+) /Sca1(+) progenitors in mice peripheral blood (PB), and CD34(+) , CD31(+) , and c-kit(+) progenitors in human PB. In addition, TUDCA increased differentiation of CD34(+) HSCs into EPC lineage cells via Akt activation. EPC invasion was increased by TUDCA, which was mediated by fibroblast activating protein (FAP) via Akt activation. Interestingly, TUDCA induced integration of EPCs into human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by increasing adhesion molecule expression. In the mouse hindlimb ischemia model, TUDCA promoted blood perfusion by enhancing angiogenesis through recruitment of Flk-1(+) /CD34(+) and Sca-1(+) /c-kit(+) progenitors into damaged tissue. In GFP(+) bone marrow-transplanted hindlimb ischemia, TUDCA induced recruitment of GFP(+) /c-kit(+) progenitors to the ischemic area, resulting in an increased blood perfusion ratio. Histological analysis suggested that GFP(+) progenitors mobilized from bone marrow, integrated into blood vessels, and differentiated into VEGFR(+) cells. In addition, TUDCA decreased cellular senescence by reducing levels of p53, p21, and reactive oxygen species and increased nitric oxide. Transplantation of TUDCA-primed senescent EPCs in hindlimb ischemia significantly improved blood vessel regeneration, as compared with senescent EPCs. Our results suggested that TUDCA promoted neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, their differentiation into EPCs, and their integration with preexisting endothelial cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A randomized controlled trial of the effect of preoperative dexmedetomidine on the half maximal effective concentration of propofol for successful i-gel insertion without muscle relaxants.
J Anesth
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Dexmedetomidine is a useful anesthetic adjuvant for general anesthesia. We determined whether preoperative dexmedetomidine administration could reduce the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of propofol for successful i-gel insertion without muscle relaxants.
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Isocudraxanthone K induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral cancer cells via hypoxia inducible factor-1?.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Isocudraxanthone K (IK) is a novel, natural compound from a methanol extract of the root bark of Cudrania tricuspidata. It has not been shown previously that IK possessed antitumor activity. We investigated the antitumor effects and molecular mechanism of IK and related signal transduction pathway(s) in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (OSCCCs). The MTT assay revealed that IK had an antiproliferative effect on OSCCCs, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IK induced apoptosis in OSCCCs, as identified by a cell-cycle analysis, annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining, and the nuclear morphology in cell death. IK caused time-dependent phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). In addition, IK increased the cytosolic to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and the degradation and phosphorylation of I?B-? in HN4 and HN12 cells. Furthermore, IK treatment downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and its target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a HIF-1? activator, attenuated the IK-induced growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects, and blocked IK-induced expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins, such as Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, and cytochrome c. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of IK as a HIF-1? inhibitor and suggest it may be a drug candidate for chemotherapy against oral cancer.
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Anti-fibrotic effect of PF2401-SF, a standardized fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza, in thioacetamide-induced experimental rats liver fibrosis.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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We previously reported the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects of PF2401-SF, a standardized fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza, against acute and subacute liver injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PF2401-SF on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA), a chronic liver injury model (12 weeks) that closely resembles fibrosis and cirrhosis in humans. Hepatoprotective activity was indicated by low serum levels of the markers aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase .In addition, compared to the TAA-group livers, the PF2401-SF-treated liver tissues showed no fibrous tissue deposition in the portal areas, hepatocyte morphology more closely resembling normal tissue morphology, and significantly reduced collagen deposition. Furthermore, downregulation of collagen 1(?) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1 protein and mRNA expression also supports PF2401-SF's anti-fibrotic effect. We also observed reduced expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), an important marker of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. From these results, we conclude that PF2401-SF's anti-fibrotic mechanism in the TAA model involves reduced HSC activation, and may be mediated by downregulation of central markers of fibrosis, including collagen 1(?), TIMP1, and ?-SMA.
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Ginsenoside compound K-bearing glycol chitosan conjugates: synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro biological studies.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Ginsenosides are triterpenoids found in Panax ginseng and have a numerous structural, functional, and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to develop hydrophilic polymer functionalized ginsenoside conjugates to enhance water solubility and targeted delivery. To this end, hydrophobic ginsenoside compound K (CK) was covalently conjugated to the backbone of hydrophilic glycol chitosan (GC) through an acid-labile linkage. The resulting GC-CK conjugates formed self-assembled spherical nanoparticles in an aqueous solution, and their particles sizes were (296 nm and 255 nm) dependent on the degree of CK substitution. The nanoparticles were stable in the physiological buffer (pH 7.4) over a period of 8 days, whereas they were readily degraded under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) mimicking the intracellular pH-conditions. From in vitro release experiment, it was found that CK released slowly from the self-assembled nanoparticles in the physiological buffer (pH 7.4). On the other hand, the release rate of CK was rapidly increased under the acidic condition (pH 5.0). In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that GC-CK conjugates exhibited higher cytotoxicity than CK in HT29, and similar cytotoxicity in HepG2, and HT22 cell lines. Moreover, RAW264.7 cells treated with GC-CK maintained good cell viability and exhibited decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production. Taken together, these results suggest that the GC-CK conjugate may be potentially useful as a tumor-specific delivery vehicle.
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5-Nitro-5'hydroxy-indirubin-3'oxime Is a Novel Inducer of Somatic Cell Transdifferentiation.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Patient-derived cell transplantation is an attractive therapy for regenerative medicine. However, this requires effective strategies to reliably differentiate patient cells into clinically useful cell types. Herein, we report the discovery that 5-nitro-5'hydroxy-indirubin-3'oxime (5'-HNIO) is a novel inducer of cell transdifferentiation. 5'-HNIO induced muscle transdifferentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic cells. 5'-HNIO was shown to inhibit aurora kinase A, which is a known cell fate regulator. 5'-HNIO produced a favorable level of transdifferentiation compared to other aurora kinase inhibitors and induced transdifferentiation across cell lineage boundaries. Significantly, 5'-HNIO treatment produced direct transdifferentiation without up-regulating potentially oncogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming factors. Thus, our results demonstrate that 5'-HNIO is an attractive molecular tool for cell transdifferentiation and cell fate research.
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Elective tracheostomy scoring system for severe oral disease patients.
J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The purpose of this research was to create a scoring system that provides comprehensive assessment of patients with oromaxillofacial cancer or odontogenic infection, and to statistically reevaluate the results in order to provide specific criteria for elective tracheostomy.
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Cudarflavone B provides neuroprotection against glutamate-induced mouse hippocampal HT22 cell damage through the Nrf2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Oxidative cell damage contributes to neuronal degeneration in many central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischemia. Nrf2 signaling-mediated heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression acts against oxidants that are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. Cudraflavone B is a prenylated flavone isolated from C. tricuspidata which has shown anti-proliferative activity, mouse brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory effects, apoptotic actions in human gastric carcinoma cells and mouse melanoma cells, and hepatoprotective activity. In this study, cudraflavone B showed neuroprotective effects and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by inducing the expression of HO-1 in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Furthermore, cudraflavone B caused the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the promoter activity of antioxidant response elements (ARE) in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. In addition, we found that the Nrf2-midiated HO-1 expression by cudraflavone B is involved in the cell protective response and ROS reductions, and cudraflavone B-induced expression of HO-1 was mediated through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in HT22 cells. Our results demonstrated the potential application of naturally occurring cudraflavone B as a therapeutic agent from neurodegenerative disease.
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Saussurea lappa extract suppresses TPA-induced cell invasion via inhibition of NF-?B-dependent MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Saussurea lappa (SL) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat abdominal pain and tenesmus, and has been suggested to possess various biological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and cardiotonic activities. The effect of SL on breast cancer metastasis, however, is unknown. Cell migration and invasion are crucial in neoplastic metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix, is a major component in cancer cell invasion.
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Overexpression of KAI1 Protein in Diabetic Skin Tissues.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Patients with diabetes mellitus often have a difficult life, suffering from foot ulceration or amputation. Diabetes is characterized by chronic inflammation, and one of the features of inflammation is hypoxia. Recently, it has been reported that KAI1 is a hypoxia target gene. There is no published research on hypoxia-related KAI1 protein levels in human diabetic skin. Therefore, we have investigated the expression of KAI1 protein in diabetic skin tissue in vivo.
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Mechanism of erythropoietin regulation by angiotensin II.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Erythropoietin (EPO) is the primary regulator of red blood cell development. Although hypoxic regulation of EPO has been extensively studied, the mechanism(s) for basal regulation of EPO are not well understood. In vivo studies in healthy human volunteers and animal models indicated that angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors regulated blood EPO levels. In the current study, we found that Ang II induced EPO expression in situ in murine kidney slices and in 786-O kidney cells in culture as determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We further investigated the signaling mechanism of Ang II regulation of EPO in 786-O cells. Pharmacological inhibitors of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) suppressed Ang II transcriptional activation of EPO. Inhibitors of AT2R or Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase had no effect. Coimmunoprecipiation experiments demonstrated that p21Ras was constitutively bound to the AT1R; this association was increased by Ang II but was reduced by the AT1R inhibitor telmisartan. Transmembrane domain (TM) 2 of AT1R is important for G protein-dependent ERK1/2 activation, and mutant D74E in TM2 blocked Ang II activation of ERK1/2. Ang II signaling induced the nuclear translocation of the Egr-1 transcription factor, and overexpression of dominant-negative Egr-1 blocked EPO promoter activation by Ang II. These data identify a novel pathway for basal regulation of EPO via AT1R-mediated Egr-1 activation by p21Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase-ERK1/2. Our current data suggest that Ang II, in addition to regulating blood volume and pressure, may be a master regulator of erythropoiesis.
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Relationship between the severity of diversion colitis and the composition of colonic bacteria: a prospective study.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Diversion colitis is the inflammation of the excluded segment of the colon in patients undergoing ostomy. It has been suggested that a change in colonic flora may lead to colitis; however, direct evidence for this disease progression is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of diversion colitis and the composition of colonic bacteria.
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The cytoprotective effect of sulfuretin against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity through Nrf2/ARE and JNK/ERK MAPK-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Sulfuretin is one of the major flavonoid components in Rhus verniciflua Stokes (Anacardiaceae) isolates. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of sulfuretin against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury. The results indicated that the addition of sulfuretin before t-BHP treatment significantly inhibited cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human liver-derived HepG2 cells. Sulfuretin up-regulated the activity of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase (HO)-1 via nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation into the nucleus and increased the promoter activity of the antioxidant response element (ARE). Moreover, sulfuretin exposure enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Furthermore, cell treatment with a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced sulfuretin-induced HO-1 expression and decreased its protective effects. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effect of sulfuretin against t-BHP-induced oxidative damage in human liver-derived HepG2 cells is attributable to its ability to scavenge ROS and up-regulate the activity of HO-1 through the Nrf2/ARE and JNK/ERK signaling pathways. Therefore, sulfuretin could be advantageous as a bioactive source for the prevention of oxidative injury.
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Carrier-envelope-phase-dependent above-threshold ionization of xenon observed with multi-cycle laser pulses.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Carrier-envelope-phase (CEP)-dependent modulation was measured in above-threshold ionization of xenon driven with 30-fs laser pulses. We showed the dependence from the asymmetry map obtained using a velocity map imaging spectrometer, up to 17 eV in photoelectron energy. The dependence appeared to be linear with a slope of one photon energy increase per CEP change of 2? and did not rely on the sign or the amount of laser chirp. Our results indicated the existence of the quantum interference between different multiphoton ionization paths.
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The Antibacterial Assay of Tectorigenin with Detergents or ATPase Inhibitors against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Tectorigenin (TTR) is an O-methylated isoflavone derived from the rhizome of Belamacanda chinensis (L.) DC. It is known to perform a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor. The aim of this study is to examine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of TTR against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA activity of TTR was analyzed in combination assays with detergent, ATPase inhibitors, and peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from S. aureus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor survival characteristics and changes in S. aureus morphology. The MIC values of TTR against all the tested strains were 125? ? g/mL. The OD(600) of each suspension treated with a combination of Triton X-100, DCCD, and NaN3 with TTR (1/10 × MIC) had been reduced from 68% to 80%, compared to the TTR alone. At a concentration of 125? ? g/mL, PGN blocked antibacterial activity of TTR. This study indicates that anti-MRSA action of TTR is closely related to cytoplasmic membrane permeability and ABC transporter, and PGN at 125? ? g/mL directly bind to and inhibit TTR at 62.5? ? g/mL. These results can be important indication in study on antimicrobial activity mechanism against multidrug resistant strains.
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Safety and efficacy of 8-mg once-daily vs 4-mg twice-daily silodosin in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (SILVER Study): a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel, multicenter study.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To show the noninferiority of silodosin 8-mg once-daily (QD) to 4-mg twice-daily (BID) in efficacy and safety in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms or benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Korean population.
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Second primary mucosal malignant melanoma in hypopharynx.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck are rare. In addition, second primary mucosal melanoma following primary cutaneous malignant melanomas is very rare. We report a second primary mucosal melanoma. A 76-year-old woman, who had a previously cutaneous malignant melanoma of the left foot, visited with a complaint of a foreign body sensation of the throat. Endoscopy revealed a black mass at the left piriform sinus of the hypopharynx. After wide surgical excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap, the histopathology was confirmed to be a second primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the hypopharynx. Five months postoperatively, masses were palpated in the neck, and metastasis was diagnosed. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Eight months postoperatively, computed tomography scans showed other metastatic masses in the liver, spleen, both adrenal glands, soft tissues of the abdominal wall, and both lungs. After that, the patient died 9 months postoperatively. We report a rare case of second primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the hypopharynx. Although rare, this case shows that a detailed examination of the hypopharynx and the head and neck should be a part of the follow-up examination in all cutaneous malignant melanoma patients.
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The association between personality traits and treatment outcomes in Korean patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): a preliminary study.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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We investigated the association between personality traits and treatment outcomes in male Korean patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH).
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The predictor analysis of response to routine treatment in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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This study tried to test predictors of response to routine treatment in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH).
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Ethanol Extract of Alismatis rhizome Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation of OP9 Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The rhizome of Alisma orientale (Alismatis rhizome) has been used in Asia for promoting diuresis to eliminate dampness from the lower-jiao and to expel heat. In this study, an ethanol extract of the rhizome of Alisma orientale (AOE) was prepared and its effects on adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells were investigated. Treatment with AOE in a differentiation medium for 5 days resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of lipid droplet formation in OP9 cells. Furthermore, AOE significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation by downregulating the expression of the master transcription factor of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor ? (PPAR ? ), and related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP ? ), fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). AOE exerted its inhibitory effects primarily during the early adipogenesis stage (days 1-2), at which time it also exerted dose-dependent inhibition of the expression of C/EBP ? , a protein related to the inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion. Additionally, AOE decreased the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including beclin 1, and the autophagy-related genes, (Atg) 7 and Atg12. Our results indicate that AOE's inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells are mediated by reduced C/EBP ? expression, causing inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and autophagy.
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Nationwide database of surgical treatment pattern for patients with stress urinary incontinence in Korea.
Int Neurourol J
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Nationwide database regarding stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is important for evaluating treatment patterns for SUI and for establishing appropriate national policies regarding SUI management. The purpose of this present study was to investigate surgical treatment patterns for women with SUI and analyze the current status of SUI management in Korea by using a nationwide database.
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The effectiveness of cross-tapering switching to ziprasidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Switching antipsychotics is one useful therapeutic option when the treatment of schizophrenia encounters suboptimal efficacy and intolerability issues. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of cross-tapering switching to ziprasidone from other antipsychotics.
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The association of personality trait on treatment outcomes in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: an exploratory study.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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This study investigated the association of personality traits with the baseline clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).
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Elevated aurora kinase a protein expression in diabetic skin tissue.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) plays an important role in the regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis. Dysregulated Aurora-A leads to mitotic faults and results in pathological conditions. No studies on Aurora-A expression in human diabetic skin tissue have been reported. In light of this, we explored the expression of Aurora-A in human diabetic skin tissue.
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Synthesis and therapeutic evaluation of an aptide-docetaxel conjugate targeting tumor-associated fibronectin.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to tumors has attracted considerable research interest because of its potential to reduce adverse toxicity while improving therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a conjugate of a high-affinity peptide (aptide) and the anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX). A fibronectin extra domain B (EDB)-specific aptide (APTEDB) was used as a cancer-specific targeting ligand. An APTEDB-DTX conjugate was synthesized from an alkyne-modified aptide and azide-modified DTX via click chemistry. A microscopy study revealed selective binding of dye-labeled APTEDB to EDB-overexpressing cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of the conjugate toward EDB-overexpressing murine lung carcinoma (LLC) and human glioblastoma (U87MG) was similar to that of free DTX. In a pharmacokinetic study, APTEDB-DTX formulated with PEG400/ethanol(5%) exhibited a circulation half-life similar to that of a Tween-80/ethanol formulation of parent DTX. Finally, an evaluation of intravenously injected APTEDB-DTX in mice bearing EDB-positive tumors showed that APTEDB-DTX inhibited the growth of both LLC allograft and U87MG xenograft tumors with an efficacy better than the parent-DTX formulation but with much lower toxicity, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss. Taken together, these results indicate that the aptide-drug conjugate system described here may hold potential as a targeted therapy regimen.
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Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 protein in malignant cutaneous tumors.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cell molecules, and modifies cell signaling. The nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) is a critical transcription regulator, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Nrf2 expression is increased in a large number of cancers. However, little information has been reported regarding the expression of Nrf2 in skin cancers. Hence, we explored the expression of Nrf2 protein in skin cancers.
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Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked.
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Penicillinolide A: a new anti-inflammatory metabolite from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. SF-5292.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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In the course of studies on bioactive metabolites from marine fungi, a new 10-membered lactone, named penicillinolide A (1) was isolated from the organic extract of Penicillium sp. SF-5292 as a potential anti-inflammatory compound. The structure of penicillinolide A (1) was mainly determined by analysis of NMR and MS data and Moshers method. Penicillinolide A (1) inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 due to inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penicillinolide A (1) also reduced TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-?, NF-?B nuclear translocation, and NF-?B DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO activity, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of compound 1 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-?B DNA binding activity were partially associated with HO-1 expression through Nrf2 nuclear translocation.
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Herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP) modulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) stability through its deubiquitinating activity.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a central regulator of adipogenesis and modulates glucose and lipid metabolism. In this study, herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP) was isolated as a binding partner of PPAR?. Both endogenous and exogenous PPAR? associated with HAUSP in co-immunoprecipitation analysis. HAUSP, but not the catalytically inactive HAUSP C223S mutant, increased the stability of both endogenous and exogenous PPAR? through its deubiquitinating activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that the Lys(462) residue of PPAR? is critical for ubiquitination. HBX 41,108, a specific inhibitor of HAUSP, abolished the increase in PPAR? stability induced by HAUSP. In addition, knockdown of endogenous HAUSP using siRNA decreased PPAR? protein levels. HAUSP enhanced the transcriptional activity of both exogenous and endogenous PPAR? in luciferase activity assays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that HAUSP increased the transcript levels of PPAR? target genes in HepG2 cells, resulting in the enhanced uptake of glucose and fatty acids, and vice versa, upon siRNA knockdown of HAUSP. In vivo analysis using adenoviruses confirmed that HAUSP, but not the HAUSP C223S mutant, decreased blood glucose and triglyceride levels, which are associated with the increased expression of endogenous PPAR? and lipid accumulation in the liver. Our results demonstrate that the stability and activity of PPAR? are modulated by the deubiquitinating activity of HAUSP, which may be a target for the development of anti-diabetic drugs.
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Anti-inflammatory effect of neoechinulin a from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through the suppression of NF-?B and p38 MAPK Pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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In the course of a bioassay-guided study of metabolites from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989, two diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids, neoechinulins A and B, were isolated. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulins A (1) and B (2) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Neoechinulin A (1) markedly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner ranging from 12.5 µM to 100 µM without affecting the cell viability. On the other hand, neoechinulin B (2) affected the cell viability at 25 µM although the compound displayed similar inhibitory effect of NO production to neoechinulin A (1) at lower doses. Furthermore, neoechinulin A (1) decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). We also confirmed that neoechinulin A (1) blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (I?B)-?. Moreover, neoechinulin A (1) decreased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Therefore, these data showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulin A (1) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inhibition of the NF-?B and p38 MAPK pathways, suggesting that neoechinulin A (1) might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
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The inhibition of JNK MAPK and NF-?B signaling by tenuifoliside A isolated from Polygala tenuifolia in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages is associated with its anti-inflammatory effect.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (Polygalaceae) is well known for its use in the treatment of neurasthenia, amnesia, and inflammation. In this study, we isolated phenyl propanoid type metabolite tenuifoliside A, one of the phenylpropanoids from P. tenuifolia, and investigated its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 and murine peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that tenuifoliside A inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PG E2), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In addition, tenuifoliside A suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?. We also evaluated the effects of tenuifoliside A on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B). Tenuifoliside A inhibited the translocation of the NF-?B subunit p65 into the nucleus by interrupting the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (I?B)-? in LPS-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, we confirmed that the suppression of the inflammatory process by tenuifoliside A was mediated through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway based on the fact that tenuifoliside A significantly decreased p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) protein expression in LPS-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory effects of tenuifoliside A were mediated by the inhibition of the NF-?B and MAPK pathways. This study is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effects of tenuifoliside A, and the strong anti-inflammatory effects of tenuifoliside A provide potential compound to be developed as therapeutic for inflammatory diseases.
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Neolignans from the fruits of Magnolia obovata and their inhibition effect on NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Three new neolignans, named 9-methoxyobovatol (6), magnobovatol (7), and 2-hydroxyobovaaldehyde (9), along with six known ones, magnolol (1), honokiol (2), isomagnolol (3), obovatol (4), obovatal (5), and obovaaldehyde (8), were isolated from the fruits of Magnolia obovata using silica gel and ODS column chromatography. From the results of spectroscopic data including EIMS, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT, and 2D-NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC), the chemical structures were determined. All isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibition activity on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and compounds 1-4, 6, 7, and 9 showed significant activity with IC50 values of 15.8 ± 0.3, 3.3 ± 1.2, 14.1 ± 0.9, 6.2 ± 1.2, 14.8 ± 2.3, 14.2 ± 1.2, and 14.8 ± 3.2 µM, respectively, without any visible toxic effect.
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Design and synthesis of potent and selective P2X3 receptor antagonists derived from PPADS as potential pain modulators.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulfonate (7a, PPADS), a nonselective P2X receptor antagonist, was extensively modified to develop more stable, potent, and selective P2X3 receptor antagonists as potential antinociceptive agents. Based on the results of our previous report, all strong anionic groups in PPADS including phosphate and sulfonate groups were changed to carboxylic acids or deleted. The unstable azo (-NN-) linkage of 7a was transformed to more stable carbon-carbon, ether or amide linkages through the synthesis of the 5-hydroxyl-pyridine moieties with substituents at 2 position via a Diels-Alder reaction. This resulted in the retention of antagonistic activity (IC50 = 400 ? 700 nM) at the hP2X3 receptor in the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) assay system on the Xenopus oocytes. Introduction of bulky aromatic groups at the carbon linker, as in compounds 13h-n, dramatically improved the selectivity profiles of hP2X3 when compared with mP2X1 and hP2X7 receptors. Among the substituents tested at the 2-position, the m-phenoxybenzyl group showed optimum selectivity and potency at the hP2X3 receptor. In searching for effective substituents at the 4- and 3-positions, we found that compound 36j, with 4-carboxaldehyde, 3-propenoic acid and 2-(m-phenoxy)benzyl groups, was the most potent and selective hP2X3 receptor antagonist with an IC50 of 60 nM at hP2X3 and marginal antagonistic activities of 10 ?M at mP2X1 and hP2X7. Furthermore, using an ex-vivo assay system, we found that compound 36j potently inhibited pain signaling in the rat dorsal horn with 20 ?M 36j displaying 65% inhibition while 20 ?M pregabalin, a clinically available drug, showed only 31% inhibition.
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Secondary metabolites isolated from Castilleja rubra exert anti-inflammatory effects through NF-?B inactivation on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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8-Epiloganin (1), mussaenoside (2), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (3) have been isolated from Castilleja rubra, and the anti-inflammatory properties of these metabolites in a cell culture system were investigated. Compounds 1-3 suppressed not only the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, but also the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Compounds 1-3 also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS, namely, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?. The underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of compounds 1-3 was associated with downregulation of nuclear factor-?B.
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Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles.
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A new sulfonic acid derivative, (Z)-4-methylundeca-1,9-diene-6-sulfonic acid, isolated from the cold water sea urchin inhibits inflammatory responses through JNK/p38 MAPK and NF-?B inactivation in RAW 264.7.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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In this study, we isolated a new sulfonic acid derivative, (Z)-4-methylundeca-1,9-diene-6-sulfonic acid (1), from the sea urchin collected from the Sea of Okhotsk. We established the structure of this new compound by analysis of NMR and HRMS data, along with comparison of the data with those of the related compounds reported in the literature. In addition, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Compound 1 inhibited the production of NO, iNOS, PGE2, and COX-2, and it also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-? and IL-1?. It inhibited the translocation of the NF-?B subunit p65 into the nucleus by interrupting the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-?. In addition, compound 1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting that suppression of the inflammation process by compound 1 was mediated through the MAPK pathway. Taken together, this study showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of a new sulfonic acid derivative, (Z)-4-methylundeca-1,9-diene-6-sulfonic acid were mediated through the inhibition of NF-?B and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
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Alkaline pretreatment improves saccharification and ethanol yield from waste money bills.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Waste money bills (WMB) is a by-product of the money making process that consists of rich-cellulosic material for many biotechnological applications. This waste money bills is unusable and usually exhausted. Saccharification was improved using various concentrations of sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0% v/v) and various reaction times (20, 30, and 40 min) during pretreatment at 121 °C. Prior to ethanol fermentation, the highest glucose yield (62.2 mg/mL) was found by pretreatment consisting of 30 min at 2.0% NaOH, and it increased 33.8% as compared to an untreated sample. The highest amount of ethanol was obtained (26.1 mg/mL) during fermentation, and this was increased 95.3 and 22.5% as compared to aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively during pretreatment with 2.0% NaOH for 30 min. Under anaerobic conditions, ethanol fermentation was enhanced by adding 0.4 mmol benzoic acid. Production of ethanol from waste money bills would cut waste management costs and make profitable.
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ARS-interacting multi-functional protein 1 induces proliferation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by accumulation of ?-catenin via fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-mediated activation of Akt.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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ARS-Interacting Multi-functional Protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, immune activation, and fibroblast proliferation. In this study, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was isolated as a binding partner of AIMP peptide (amino acids 6-46) in affinity purification using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). AIMP1 peptide induced the proliferation of adult BMMSCs by activating Akt, inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3?, and thereby increasing the level of ?-catenin. In addition, AIMP1 peptide induced the translocation of ?-catenin to the nucleus and increased the transcription of c-myc and cyclin D1 by activating the ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex. By contrast, transfection of dominant negative TCF abolished the effect of AIMP1. The inhibition of Akt, using LY294002, abolished the accumulation and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin induced by AIMP1, leading to a decrease in c-myc and cyclin D1 expression, which decreased the proliferation of BMMSCs. An intraperitoneal injection of AIMP1 peptide into C57/BL6 mice increased the colony formation of fibroblast-like cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showed that the colony-forming cells were CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD90(+)/CD105(+)/CD34(-)/CD45(-), which is characteristic of MSCs. In addition, the fibroblast-like cells differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that AIMP1 peptide promotes the proliferation of BMMSCs by activating the ?-catenin/TCF complex via FGFR2-mediated activation of Akt, which leads to an increase in MSCs in peripheral blood.
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Preoperative factors affecting postoperative early quality of life during the learning curve of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate.
Int Neurourol J
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeons learning curve.
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Performance evaluation of reflective electro-absorption modulator based optical source using a broadband light seed source for colorless WDM-PON applications.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The performance of reflective electro-absorption modulator (R-EAM) based optical source has been evaluated for the use in high-capacity wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs). In our measurements, a broadband light source (BLS) was used as a seeding source for the cost-effective implementation of R-EAM based optical source. At first, a bit-error rate (BER) floor at 10(-6) was observed even in a back-to-back configuration with the BLS seeded R-EAM source. This is mainly because of the excess intensity noise (EIN) within BLS and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation induced by a high insertion loss of R-EAM. To mitigate both effects of EIN and SNR degradation, a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) was also used for the implementation of our BLS seeded R-EAM source. Then, we have evaluated the impact of various noises, such as EIN, chromatic dispersion of transmission fiber and in-band crosstalk, on the systems performance using our BLS seeded R-EAM optical source. From the results, we have found that a 3-dB bandwidth of the BLS seeded R-EAM optical source should be wider than ~0.8 nm to achieve an error-free transmission of 1.25 Gb/s signal. We have also confirmed that there was a trade-off between the dispersion- and the in-band crosstalk-induced penalties due to the wide source bandwidth of our BLS seeded R-EAM source, like the cases of BLS seeded RSOA and Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) sources.
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Transition of proton energy scaling using an ultrathin target irradiated by linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Particle acceleration using ultraintense, ultrashort laser pulses is one of the most attractive topics in relativistic laser-plasma research. We report proton and/or ion acceleration in the intensity range of 5×10(19) to 3.3×10(20) W/cm2 by irradiating linearly polarized, 30-fs laser pulses on 10-to 100-nm-thick polymer targets. The proton energy scaling with respect to the intensity and target thickness is examined, and a maximum proton energy of 45 MeV is obtained when a 10-nm-thick target is irradiated by a laser intensity of 3.3×10(20) W/cm2. The proton acceleration is explained by a hybrid acceleration mechanism including target normal sheath acceleration, radiation pressure acceleration, and Coulomb explosion assisted-free expansion. The transition of proton energy scaling from I(1/2) to I is observed as a consequence of the hybrid acceleration mechanism. The experimental results are supported by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.
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Orbital floor restoration with traction of the infraorbital nerve using a vessel loop in posterior orbital floor fractures.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The authors retracted the infraorbital nerve (ION) using a vessel loop to explore the orbital floor fracture site and analysed when the traction of the ION was needed.
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Inhibitory effect of 9-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxydalbergiquinol from Dalbergia odorifera on the NF-?B-related neuroinflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse BV2 microglial cells is mediated by heme oxygenase-1.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen (Leguminosae) is an important source of traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. 9-Hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxydalbergiquinol (HDDQ), a compound isolated from D. odorifera, has various biological activities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of HDDQ in modulating the regulation of anti-inflammatory activity through the upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in BV2 microglia. HDDQ inhibited the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), and the production of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse BV2 microglia. HDDQ also reduced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production, and suppressed the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-? and the nuclear translocation of p65 in mouse BV2 microglia in response to LPS. Furthermore, HDDQ upregulated HO-1 expression via nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mouse BV2 microglia. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we verified that the inhibitory effects of HDDQ on the proinflammatory mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-?, and IL-1?, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) DNA-binding activity are associated with the induction of HO-1 expression. Our data suggest that HDDQ has therapeutic potential against neurodegenerative diseases caused by neuroinflammation.
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Influence of torrefaction pretreatment for ethanol fermentation from waste money bills.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Waste money bills (WMB) that are no longer legal tender are nonrecyclable and are generally useless. In this work, we used this cellulose-rich material for ethanol fermentation for the first time. Torrefaction of this nonlignocellulosic waste material was attempted to examine whether such material could benefit from this process as a conventional lignocellulosic material does. Effects of two important parameters, that is, residence times (20, 40, and 60 Min) and temperatures (140, 160, 180, 200, and 220°C), on the torrefaction yield were studied under an inert atmosphere. Glucose and ethanol yields were compared using a factorial experimental design. The highest glucose yield (81.59 mg/mL) was obtained with a torrefaction treatment consisting of 40 min at 180 °C, and it was increased 44.89% compared to untreated WMB. Based on ethanol feasibility studies conducted on WMB, this estimated quantity of glucose could be produced for subsequent fermentation to ethanol (38.92 mg/mL) and it was increased 47.92% compared to the untreated sample. The fermentation rate was also enhanced by adding 0.4 mM benzoic acid under anaerobic conditions. It is concluded that production of ethanol from WMB would reduce waste management costs and thus would be profitable.
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Synovial osteochondromatosis in the subacromial bursa mimicking calcific tendinitis: Sonographic diagnosis.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Synovial osteochondromatosis is an idiopathic benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane rarely found in an extra-articular bursa. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with synovial osteochondromatosis in the subacromial bursa mimicking calcific tendinitis. Plain radiographs showed a radiopaque mass over the middle facet of the greater tuberosity, suggesting calcific tendinitis. Sonography, however, showed a loose body in the subacromial bursa, and no evidence of calcification inside the rotator cuff. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2013.
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Analysis of female voiding dysfunction: a prospective, multi-center study.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Female voiding dysfunction lacks clear definitions or objective data even to this day due to the relatively low prevalence and complex etiologies of voiding dysfunction in women compared to men. The prevalence varies widely from 2.7 to 23 % (Nitti et al. in J Urol 161(5):1535-1540, 1999; Rees et al. in Br J Urol 47(7):853-860, 1975; Groutz et al. in Neurourol Urodyn 19(3):213-220, 2000; Farrar et al. in Br J Urol 47(7):815-822, 1975; Massey and Abrams in Br J Urol 61(1):36-39, 1988; Chassagne et al. in Urology 51(3):408-411, 1998). Diagnostic criteria and management of female voiding dysfunction have not yet been established. We performed a prospective, multi-center study at nine hospitals to investigate the characteristics and prevalence of female voiding dysfunction.
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Oral delivery of an anti-diabetic peptide drug via conjugation and complexation with low molecular weight chitosan.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Despite the therapeutic potential of exendin-4 as a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, its utility has so far been limited because of the low level of patient compliance due to the requirement for frequent injections. In this study, an orally available exendin-4 was produced by conjugating it to low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC). Conjugation between the LMWC and cysteinylated exendin-4 was carried out using a cleavable linker system in order to maximize the availability of the active peptide. The LMWC-exendin-4 conjugate formed a nanoparticle structure with a mean particle size of 101 ± 41 nm through complexation between the positively charged LMWC backbone and the negatively charged exendin-4 of individual conjugate molecules. The biological activity of the LMWC-exendin-4 conjugate was evaluated in an INS-1 cell line. The LMWC-exendin-4 conjugate stimulated insulin secretion in a dose dependent manner as similar as that of native exendin-4. From the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of the conjugate, a C(max) value of 344 pg/mL and a T(max) of 6 h were observed, and the bioavailability, relative to the subcutaneous counterpart, was found to be 6.4%. Furthermore, the absorbed exendin-4 demonstrated a significantly enhanced hypoglycemic effect. These results suggest that the LMWC-exendin-4 conjugate could be used as a potential oral anti-diabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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Transurethral procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic enlargement: a quality and meta-analysis.
Int Neurourol J
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Thanks to advancements in surgical techniques and instruments, many surgical modalities have been developed to replace transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgical therapies for BPH compared with TURP.
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Effect of torrefaction for the pretreatment of rice straw for ethanol production.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for ethanol production, since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It generally has high cellulose and hemicellulose contents that can be readily hydrolysed into sugars for subsequent ethanol fermentation. The pretreatment method plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification, thereby making the whole process economically viable. Torrefaction is an appropriate pretreatment technique for enhancing the enzymatic reaction and subsequent ethanol production.
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Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 and effects of ruthenium red on detrusor overactivity associated with bladder outlet obstruction in rats.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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PURPOSE: To investigate transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) expression and the effects of ruthenium red (RR)-TRPV antagonist-on detrusor overactivity (DO) associated with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The control group (n = 10) included sham-operated rats. The BOO-group without RR (n = 15) and BOO-group with RR (n = 15) underwent partial BOO surgery. Three weeks postoperatively, cystometrography was performed in all rats. After confirming DO, RR was instilled intravesically in the BOO-group with RR. Urodynamic parameters were investigated, including contraction interval (CI) and contraction pressure (CP). TRPV4 expression was evaluated through immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. RESULTS: The BOO-group without RR had significantly shorter CI and significantly higher CP compared to the control. In the BOO-group with RR, CI was significantly longer compared to the BOO-group without RR. However, change in CP between BOO-group without and with RR was not significantly different. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TRPV4 was localized in the urothelium and detrusor muscles. TRPV4 immunofluorescence signals were increased in the urothelium and detrusor muscle in BOO-group without RR, compared with the control. In western blot analysis, immunoreactive bands indicating expression of TRPV4 were detected in the urothelium and detrusor muscle, and those were significantly increased in the BOO-group without RR compared with the control in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. CONCLUSIONS: TRPV4 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of DO, and RR has a beneficial effect on DO associated with BOO.
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OsSNDP1, a Sec14-nodulin domain-containing protein, plays a critical role in root hair elongation in rice.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Rice is cultivated in water-logged paddy lands. Thus, rice root hairs on the epidermal layers are exposed to a different redox status of nitrogen species, organic acids, and metal ions than root hairs growing in drained soil. To identify genes that play an important role in root hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified and isolated by using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutation arose from a single amino acid substitution of OsSNDP1 (Oryza sativa Sec14-nodulin domain protein), which shows high sequence homology with Arabidopsis COW1/AtSFH1 and encodes a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP). By performing complementation assays with Atsfh1 mutants, we demonstrated that OsSNDP1 is involved in growth of root hairs. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy was utilized to further characterize the effect of the Ossndp1 mutation on root hair morphology. Aberrant morphogenesis was detected in root hair elongation and maturation zones. Many root hairs were branched and showed irregular shapes due to bulged nodes. Many epidermal cells also produced dome-shaped root hairs, which indicated that root hair elongation ceased at an early stage. These studies showed that PITP-mediated phospholipid signaling and metabolism is critical for root hair elongation in rice.
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Effectiveness of paliperidone extended-release for patients with schizophrenia: focus on subjective improvement.
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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This study assessed whether the subjective experience of patients with schizophrenia improved after switching from an oral antipsychotic to flexibly-dosed paliperidone extended-release.
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Expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase protein in diabetes.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The formation of ROS induces oxidative stress and activates oxidative damage-inducing genes in cells. No research has been published on oxidative damage-related extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) protein levels in human diabetic skin. We investigated the expression of EC-SOD in diabetic skin compared with normal skin tissue in vivo.
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Effect of laminin 332 on motility and invasion in bladder cancer.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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We examined the correlation between laminin 332 and malignancy in bladder cancer patients, and, using a strain of invasive bladder cancer cells, determined whether laminin 332 causes bladder cancer motility and invasion. To investigate the correlation between laminin 332 g2 distribution and patient outcome, we performed a semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 35 paraffin-embedded samples using the antibody D4B5, which is specific for the laminin 5 ?2 chain. To evaluate the role of laminin 332 in NBT-II cell motility and invasion, we used a scratch assay and the Boyden chamber chemoinvasion system. Tumor stage and grade were significantly correlated with a loss of laminin 332 ?2 chain from the basement membrane (p = 0.001) and its retention in the cytoplasm (p = 0.001) (Kruskal-Wallis test). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed an association between the risk of progression and cytoplasmic retention of the laminin 332 ?2 chain. In addition, an in vitro scratch assay showed an increase in the migration of cells treated with laminin 332 from their cluster. The Boyden chamber assay showed that laminin 332 potentiated NBT-II cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry results showed that bladder cancer patients with a higher malignancy expressed more laminin 332. The in vitro scratch and invasion assay showed that laminin 332 stimulated the motility and invasion of bladder cancer cells. The invasion assay explains the correlation between laminin 332 expression and bladder cancer malignancy.
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Fc?RIIb mediates amyloid-? neurotoxicity and memory impairment in Alzheimers disease.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Amyloid-? (A?) induces neuronal loss and cognitive deficits and is believed to be a prominent cause of Alzheimers disease (AD); however, the cellular pathology of the disease is not fully understood. Here, we report that IgG Fc? receptor II-b (Fc?RIIb) mediates A? neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. We found that Fc?RIIb is significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of AD brains and neuronal cells exposed to synthetic A?. Neuronal Fc?RIIb activated ER stress and caspase-12, and Fcgr2b KO primary neurons were resistant to synthetic A?-induced cell death in vitro. Fcgr2b deficiency ameliorated A?-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation and inhibited the reduction of synaptic density by naturally secreted A?. Moreover, genetic depletion of Fcgr2b rescued memory impairments in an AD mouse model. To determine the mechanism of action of Fc?RIIb in A? neurotoxicity, we demonstrated that soluble A? oligomers interact with Fc?RIIb in vitro and in AD brains, and that inhibition of their interaction blocks synthetic A? neurotoxicity. We conclude that Fc?RIIb has an aberrant, but essential, role in A?-mediated neuronal dysfunction.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of carboxylic acid derivatives of pyridoxal as P2X receptor antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Carboxylic acid derivatives of pyridoxal were developed as potent P2X(1) and P2X(3) receptor antagonists with modifications of a lead compound, pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,5-disulfonate (5b, iso-PPADS). The designing strategies included the modifications of aldehyde, phosphate or sulfonate groups of 5b, which may be interacted with lysine residues of the receptor binding pocket, to weak anionic carboxylic acid groups. The corresponding carboxylic acid analogs of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (1), 13 and 14, showed parallel antagonistic potencies. Also, most of 6-azophenyl derivatives (24-28) of compound 13 or 14 showed potent antagonistic activities similar to that of 5b at human P2X(3) receptors with 100 nM range of IC(50) values in two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) assay system on the Xenopus oocyte. The results indicated that aldehyde and phosphoric or sulfonic acids in 5b could be changed to a carboxylic acid without affecting antagonistic potency at mouse P2X(1) and human P2X(3) receptors.
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RUNX3 confers sensitivity to pheophorbide a-photodynamic therapy in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer is one of the promising modalities for cancer treatment. For clinical use of PDT, screening process should be preceded to enhance sensitivity to PDT. Thus, we investigated a molecular biomarker to determine the sensitivity to pheophorbide a (Pa)-PDT in immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Two IHOK and several OSCC cell lines were used. After Pa-PDT, cell viability was reduced by more than 50 %, and reactive oxygen species were generated in IHOK and OSCC cell lines. Additionally, apoptosis occurred in PDT-treated cells. IHOK(S) and IHOK(P), the two IHOK cell lines derived from the same source, showed a difference in cytotoxicity after Pa-PDT. To explain this difference in cytotoxicity, we looked at the expression of Wnt signaling-related genes in these two cell lines, for the morphology of IHOK(S) which was spindle like and elongated and distinct from IHOK(P) and the parent cell. Among the relevant genes, runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), an apoptosis-related gene, was selected as a potential marker that confers sensitivity to PDT. We found that the cytotoxicity by Pa-PDT was proportional to RUNX3 expression in OSCC cell lines. Additionally, knockdown of RUNX3 expression reduced cytotoxicity by Pa-PDT, suggesting that RUNX3 might be a biomarker to determine sensitivity to Pa-PDT. This was the first study to find a new target molecule that enhances Pa-PDT effects in IHOK and OSCC cell lines. Hence, the development of a PDT-dependent biomarker could provide a novel approach to improve the effects of PDT on oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.
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5-OH-5-nitro-Indirubin oxime (AGM130), an Indirubin derivative, induces apoptosis of Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Imatinib is a highly effective drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) that targets the BCR-ABL kinase. However, a number of patients have CML that is resistant to Imatinib treatment. In this report, we developed AGM130 as a potential therapeutic drug for Imatinib-resistant CML treatment. The AGM130 compound is derived from Indirubin, which is an ingredient of Danggui Longhui Wan and known as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. The water solubility of AGM130 is more enhanced than that of the original form of Indirubin, which has very poor water solubility. Our data showed that the AGM130 compound efficiently decreased the viability of CML-derived K562 cells. Moreover, this compound also efficiently decreased the viability of Imatinib-resistant K562 cells in in vitro and in vivo systems. In addition, like Indirubin, AGM130 also inhibited phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), which is a major substrate of CDK. Conclusively, our data suggest that AGM130 is a strong candidate for treating Imatinib-resistant CML.
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Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates root-hair elongation in rice (Oryza sativa).
Planta
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The outgrowth of root hairs from the epidermal cell layer is regulated by a strict genetic regulatory system and external growth conditions. Rice plants cultivated in water-logged paddy land are exposed to a soil ecology that differs from the environment surrounding upland plants, such as Arabidopsis and maize. To identify genes that play important roles in root-hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified, and the gene was isolated using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutant harbored a point mutation at a splicing acceptor site, which led to truncation of OsFH1 (rice formin homology 1). Subsequent analysis of two additional T-DNA mutants verified that OsFH1 is important for root-hair elongation. Further studies revealed that the action of OsFH1 on root-hair growth is dependent on growth conditions. The mutant Osfh1 exhibited root-hair defects when roots were grown submerged in solution, and mutant roots produced normal root hairs in the air. However, root-hair phenotypes of mutants were not influenced by the external supply of hormones or carbohydrates, a deficiency of nutrients, such as Fe or P i , or aeration. This study shows that OsFH1 plays a significant role in root-hair elongation in a growth condition-dependent manner.
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Tacrolimus decreases albuminuria in patients with IgA nephropathy and normal blood pressure: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of efficacy of tacrolimus on IgA nephropathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Treatment remains uncertain for IgA nephropathy patients with mild to moderate proteinuria, for whom anti-hypertensive medication or the RAS blocker is not applicable due to low blood pressure.
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Antiviral activity of coxsackievirus B3 3C protease inhibitor in experimental murine myocarditis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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We investigated the efficacy of a 3C protease inhibitor (3CPI) in a murine coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis model. CVB3 is a primary cause of viral myocarditis. The CVB3 genome encodes a single polyprotein that undergoes a series of proteolytic events to produce several viral proteins. Most of this proteolysis is catalyzed by the 3C protease (3CP).
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Sauchinone suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators by inducing heme oxygenase-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Sauchinone, a biologically active lignan isolated from the roots of Saururus chinensis (LOUR.) BAILL. (Saururaceae), is reported to exert a variety of biological activities, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory actions and inhibitory effects on bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effect of sauchinone in suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, leading to a reduction in COX-2-derived prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Present study also demonstrates the effects of sauchinone in inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and an increase in heme oxygenase (HO) activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. The effects of sauchinone on LPS-induced PGE(2), NO, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interlukine-1? (IL-1?) production were partially reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor Tin protoporphyrin was also seen in this study. In addition, we found that treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) reduced sauchinone-induced HO-1 expression. Sauchinone also increased ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that sauchinone inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1 via ERK pathway.
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