JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of tranilast on myocardial fibrosis in mice with viral myocarditis.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the role of tranilast in the pathogenesis of myocardiac fibrosis in viral myocarditis.
Related JoVE Video
Treelets Binary Feature Retrieval for Fast Keypoint Recognition.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fast keypoint recognition is essential to many vision tasks. In contrast to the classification-based approaches, we directly formulate the keypoint recognition as an image patch retrieval problem, which enjoys the merit of finding the matched keypoint and its pose simultaneously. To effectively extract the binary features from each patch surrounding the keypoint, we make use of treelets transform that can group the highly correlated data together and reduce the noise through the local analysis. Treelets is a multiresolution analysis tool, which provides an orthogonal basis to reflect the geometry of the noise-free data. To facilitate the real-world applications, we have proposed two novel approaches. One is the convolutional treelets that capture the image patch information locally and globally while reducing the computational cost. The other is the higher-order treelets that reflect the relationship between the rows and columns within image patch. An efficient sub-signature-based locality sensitive hashing scheme is employed for fast approximate nearest neighbor search in patch retrieval. Experimental evaluations on both synthetic data and the real-world Oxford dataset have shown that our proposed treelets binary feature retrieval methods outperform the state-of-the-art feature descriptors and classification-based approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of chemotherapy-related hyperglycemia on prognosis of child acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the impact of hyperglycemia during inductive treatment on the prognosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in children.
Related JoVE Video
Biomechanical Analysis of Differential Pullout Strengths of Bone Screws using Cervical Anterior Transpedicular Technique (ATPS) in normal and Osteoporotic Cervical Cadaveric Spines.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Study Design. Biomechanical in vitro studyObjective. To determine whether the peak pullout force (PPF) of Anterior Cervical Transpedicular Screw (ATPS) fixed in osteoporotic vertebrae positively influence screw stability or not before and after fatigue.Summary of Background Data. Multilevel cervical spine procedures with osteoporosis can challenge the stability of current screw-and-plate systems. A second surgical posterior approach is coupled with potential risks of increased morbidity and complications. Hence, anterior cervical instrumentation that increases primary construct stability, while avoiding the need for posterior augmentation, would be valuable.Methods. Sixty formalin-fixed vertebrae at different levels were randomly selected. The vertebrae were divided into healthy controls (group A1, A2), osteoporotic controls (B1, B2), healthy ATPS groups (C1, C2), osteoporotic ATPS groups (D1, D2) and osteoporotic restoration controls (E1, E2). The procedure of ATPS insertion was simulated with 2 pilot holes being drilled on each side of 20 vertebral bodies that were implanted with either vertebral screw or PMMA. Each side randomly received either instant PPF or PPF beyond fatigue (2.5 Hz; 20,000 times).Results. The pre-fatigue PPFs were significantly higher than the post-fatigue PPFs in all groups (group A: 366.06±58.78 vs. 248.93±57.21N; group B: 275.58±23.18 vs. 142.79±44.78 N; group C: 635.99±185.28 vs. 542.57±136.58N; group D: 519.22±122.12 vs. 393.16±192.07N, and group E: 431.78±75.77 vs. 325.74±95.10 N). The post-fatigue PPFs were reduced by 32.00% (group A), 48.19% (group B), 14.69% (group C), 24.28% (group D) and 24.72% (group E). The acute and post-fatigue PPFs of both control groups were significantly lower than that of ATPS groups (P<0.05). The cyclic osteoporosis ATPS group achieved the same PPF compared to the vertebral restoration screw (VBRS) group.Conclusions. The findings of this study suggest that instant PPF and fatigue resistance capability of an ATPS fixation were significantly better than other control groups, especially in the osteoporotic vertebrae.
Related JoVE Video
[Antifungal Azoles Exacerbate Vinblastine-related Hyponatremia in ALL Children].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and the treatments of patients with vinblastine-related hyponatremia which was aggravated by azole antifungal agents in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL). A total of 93 children treated with vinblastine in our department during April 2013 to March 2014 were enrolled in this study and were divided into 3 groups:VDLD, VDLD with azoles antifungal, VDLD with non azoles antifungal. The incidence and severity of hyponatremia were statistically analysed. The results showed that (1) the incidence of hyponatremia in VDLD group was 93.1%(67/72),100%(13/13) in VDLD with azoles antifungal group, and 75%(6/8) in VDLD with non-azoles antifungal, there was no statistically difference between these three groups. (2) Incidence of moderate to severe hyponatremia (Na<129 mmol/L) in VDLD with azoles antifungal group was(9/13,69.2%),which was significartly higher than those in VDLD group (22/72, 30.6%) and in VDLD with non azoles antifungal group (1/8, 12.5%). However, the difference between VDLD group and VDLD with non azoles antifungal group were not statistical significant. (3) the lowest serum sodium level in VDLD with azoles antifungal group (124.0 ± 8.6 mmol/L) was significantly lower than that in VDLD group (130.8 ± 3.8 mmol/L)and VDLD+non azoles antifungal group(132.9 ± 4.9 mmol/L). Otherwise, the difference was not statistically significant between VDLD group and VDLD with non azoles antifungal group. (4) four children with severe hyponatremia showed convulsions and coma which all belong to VDLD with azoles antifungal group. The children with hyponatremia were restricted intake of fluid, adjusted the liquid tension, supplied hypertonic sodium and given diuretic, the serum sodium value gradually picked up in these children. In 4-11 months' follow-up, no hyponatremia happened again in these children. It is concluded that the incident of hyponatremia in children treated with vinblastine is high, but most of them seldom showed clinical characteristics. The combination of antifungal azoles with vinblastine can increase the incidence and severity of hyponatremia. Therefore, combined administration of azole antifungals with vinblastine should be avoided.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death in podocytes: A protective role.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum stress occurs in a variety of patho-physiological mechanisms and there has been great interest in managing this pathway for the treatment of clinical diseases. Autophagy is closely interconnected with endoplasmic reticulum stress to counteract the possible injurious effects related with the impairment of protein folding. Studies have shown that glomerular podocytes exhibit high rate of autophagy to maintain as terminally differentiated cells. In this study, podocytes were exposed to tunicamycin and thapsigargin to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thapsigargin/tunicamycin treatment induced a significant increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress and of cell death, represented by higher GADD153 and GRP78 expression and propidium iodide flow cytometry, respectively. However, thapsigargin/tunicamycin stimulation also enhanced autophagy development, demonstrated by monodansylcadaverine assay and LC3 conversion. To evaluate the regulatory effects of autophagy on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death, rapamycin (Rap) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was added to enhance or inhibit autophagosome formation. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death was decreased at 6?h, but was not reduced at 24?h after Rap+TG or Rap+TM treatment. In contrast, endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death increased at 6 and 24?h after 3-MA+TG or 3-MA+TM treatment. Our study demonstrated that thapsigargin/tunicamycin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which resulted in podocytes death. Autophagy, which counteracted the induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, was simultaneously enhanced. The salvational role of autophagy was supported by adding Rap/3-MA to mechanistically regulate the expression of autophagy and autophagosome formation. In summary, autophagy helps the podocytes from cell death and may contribute to sustain the longevity as a highly differentiated cell lineage.
Related JoVE Video
[In vitro differentiation of rat amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells into type II alveolar epithelial cells].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the in vitro differentiation of rat amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII).
Related JoVE Video
Robust 3D Face Landmark Localization Based on Local Coordinate Coding.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the 3D facial animation and synthesis community, input faces are usually required to be labeled by a set of landmarks for parameterization. Because of the variations in pose, expression and resolution, automatic 3D face landmark localization remains a challenge. In this paper, a novel landmark localization approach is presented. The approach is based on local coordinate coding (LCC) and consists of two stages. In the first stage, we perform nose detection, relying on the fact that the nose shape is usually invariant under the variations in the pose, expression, and resolution. Then, we use the iterative closest points algorithm to find a 3D affine transformation that aligns the input face to a reference face. In the second stage, we perform resampling to build correspondences between the input 3D face and the training faces. Then, an LCC-based localization algorithm is proposed to obtain the positions of the landmarks in the input face. Experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to state of the art methods in terms of its robustness, flexibility, and accuracy.
Related JoVE Video
[Sequence analysis of VP1 region of coxsackievirus A4 and coxsackievirus A10 in Guangzhou city, 2010-2012].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify the enterovirus from stool samples of patients with hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2012 and to perform phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene sequences of coxsackievirus A4 and coxsackievirus A10.
Related JoVE Video
Circulation of Coxsackievirus A6 in hand-foot-mouth disease in Guangzhou, 2010-2012.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by Enterovirus 71(EV71), and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Guangzhou, the biggest city of South China. However, Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) were observed increased dramatically from 2010-2012.
Related JoVE Video
Thermally Triggered Frame-Guided Assembly.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a thermally triggered frame-guided assembly (FGA) strategy for the preparation of vesicles. We employ thermally responsive poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) to make the leading hydrophobic groups (LHGs) thermally responsive, so that they are hydrophilic below the low critical solution temperature (LCST) and the frame forms in a homogeneous environment. When the temperature is increased above the LCST, the LHGs become hydrophobic and the assembly process is triggered, which drives DNA-b-PPO to assemble around the LHGs, forming vesicles. This work verified that FGA is a general strategy and can be applied to polymeric systems. The thermally triggered assembly not only provides more controllability over the FGA process but also promotes an in-depth understanding of the FGA strategy and in a broad view, the formation mechanism and functions of cell membrane.
Related JoVE Video
Blocking the function of inflammatory cytokines and mediators by using IL-10 and TGF-?: a potential biological immunotherapy for intervertebral disc degeneration in a beagle model.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The debilitating effects of lower back pain are a major health issue worldwide. A variety of factors contribute to this, and oftentimes intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD) is an underlying cause of this disorder. Inflammation contributes to IDD, and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?, play key roles in the pathology of IDD. Therefore, the development of treatments that inhibit the expression and/or effects of TNF-? and IL-1? in IDD patients should be a promising therapeutic approach to consider. This study characterized the potential to suppress inflammatory cytokine production in degenerative intervertebral disc (NP) cells by treatment with IL-10 and TGF-? in a canine model of IDD. IDD was induced surgically in six male beagles, and degenerative NP cells were isolated and cultured for in vitro studies on cytokine production. Cultured degenerative NP cells were divided into four experimental treatment groups: untreated control, IL-10-treated, TGF-?-treated, and IL-10- plus TGF-?-treated cells. Cultured normal NP cells served as a control group. TNF-? expression was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); moreover, ELISA and real-time PCR were also performed to evaluate the effect of IL-10 and TGF-? on NP cell cytokine expression in vitro. Our results demonstrated that IL-10 and TGF-? treatment suppressed the expression of IL-1? and TNF-? and inhibited the development of inflammatory responses. These data suggest that IL-10 and TGF-? should be evaluated as therapeutic approaches for the treatment of lower back pain mediated by IDD.
Related JoVE Video
Learning to Track Multiple Targets.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic.
Related JoVE Video
Variability in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate by Area under the Curve Predicts Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Greater variability in renal function is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have demonstrated the predictive value of renal function variability in relation to renal outcomes. This study investigates the predictive ability of different methods of determining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variability for progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. This was a prospective observational study, which enrolled 1,862 CKD patients. The renal end point was defined as commencement of RRT. The variability in eGFR was measured by the area under the eGFR curve (AUC)%. A significant improvement in model prediction was based on the -2 log likelihood ratio statistic. During a median 28.7-month follow-up, there were 564 (30.3%) patients receiving RRT. In an adjusted Cox model, a smaller initial eGFR AUC%_12M (P < 0.001), a smaller peak eGFR AUC%_12M (P < 0.001), and a larger negative eGFR slope_12M (P < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of renal end point. Two calculated formulas: initial eGFR AUC%_12M and eGFR slope_12M were the best predictors. Our results demonstrate that the greater eGFR variability by AUC% is associated with the higher risk of progression to RRT.
Related JoVE Video
No difference in clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty between patellar eversion and non-eversion.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple surgical techniques in minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are associated with clinical differences. However, whether patellar eversion impairs clinical outcomes remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to provide current understanding on this topic.
Related JoVE Video
New insight in understanding oxygen reduction and evolution in solid-state lithium-oxygen batteries using an in situ environmental scanning electron microscope.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Via designing a facile microscale all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery system constructed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, direct visualization of discharge and charge processes of the lithium-oxygen battery is achieved. Different morphologies of the discharge product are observed, including a sphere, conformal film, and red-blood-cell-like shape, with a particle size up to 1.5 ?m; whereas upon charge, the decomposition initiates at their surface and continues along a certain direction, instead of from the contact point at the electrode. These new findings indicate that the electron and lithium ion conductivities of Li2O2 could support the growth and decomposition of the discharge product in our system. In addition, our results indicate that various morphologies of Li2O2 arise from the different current density and surface chemistry of CNT, and the growth and decomposition of the particle are related to the uneven distribution of the ionic and electronic conductivities of Li2O2.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic effects of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on lung injury in rats with emphysema.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. To treat COPD, it is crucial to repair damaged lung tissue and regenerate the lost alveoli. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining lung tissue repair, and amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AFMSCs) possess the characteristics of regular mesenchymal stromal cells. However, it remains untested whether transplantation of rat AFMSCs (rAFMSCs) might alleviate lung injury caused by emphysema by increasing the expression of surfactant protein (SP)A and SPC and inhibiting AECII apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Sagittally malrotated kidney: a case series of two patients.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal malrotation along the horizontal plane with the long axis of the kidney in the vertical plane can be classified according to an anomalous rotation of the embryologic kidney during ascent. However, renal malrotation along the sagittal plane with the long axis of the kidney in the horizontal plane cannot be explained embryologically and had only been previously reported in one case. Here we report two cases of renal malrotation with the long axis of the kidney in the horizontal plane. Case 1 was a 43-year-old woman with acute pyelonephritis. Right unilateral malrotated kidney was accidentally found in abdominal CT scan and she recovered uneventfully. Case 2 was a 63-year-old diabetic woman with atrial fibrillation, cerebral hemorrhage, sepsis, acute respiratory failure, acute renal failure and right renal infarction. Right unilateral malrotated kidney was accidentally found in abdominal CT scan and she expired within a few days. Thus, these two patients were the 2nd and the 3rd cases of sagittally malrotated kidneys worldwide.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin on Monocyte-Secreted Chemokines.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundMammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and its derivative, everolimus, are potent immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by immunological dysfunction, and monocyte recruitment underlies the mechanism of cell damage. Chemokines attract inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8); the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2); the regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, presumably secreted protein (RANTES/CCL5); the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1¿ (CCL3); and MIP-1ß (CCL4) are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. However, whether mTOR inhibitors moderate the production of chemokines in monocytes remains unclear.MethodsA human monocyte cell line, THP-1, and primary monocytes obtained from human volunteers, were stimulated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then treated with sirolimus. The expression of the MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1¿, MIP-1ß, and TNF-¿ proteins was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and intracellular signalling was examined using western blotting.ResultsSirolimus significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß in the THP-1 cells and human primary monocytes. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors that were examined suppressed the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß. In addition, sirolimus suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and p65 in the THP-1 and human primary monocytes.ConclusionSirolimus downregulates the expression of chemokines in monocytes, including MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß, by inhibiting the NF-¿B-p65 and MAPK-p38 signalling pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Is the prescribing behavior of Chinese physicians driven by financial incentives?
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prescribing behavior to prescribe high-priced drugs has been hypothesized to be related to the increasing drug expenditures in China, but little empirical evidence exists. The purpose of this study was to examine whether Chinese physicians, driven by financial incentives, tend to prescribe high-priced drugs. The 2000-2008 drug data in the Yangtze River Basin Hospitals' Drug Use Analysis System were analyzed to examine the prescription patterns of penicillins and cephalosporins in Shanghai. Among the top-100 drugs (by volume), cephalosporins cost as 1.1- 2.3 times as penicillins and their volume was 1.7-18.2 times. Revenues generated from prescribing cephalosporins were 3.4-24.2 times as those from prescribing penicillins. The tendency of prescribing relatively high-priced drugs was observed given the same chemical name, dosage, and specification but different trade names. Furthermore, high-priced drugs remained on the top-100 list with increasing volumes, while some lower-priced drugs exited from the list due to decreases in volumes. Facing the policy dilemmas, the Chinese government needs to implement a new financially rewarding system in which hospitals and physicians are able to achieve financial gains in a cost-effective way including prescribing similar drugs with lower prices. Reforming hospitals' payment methods is necessary and feasible to reshape financial incentives of healthcare providers. The combination of the global budget policy and financial incentive measures would be likely to change providers' prescribing behaviors towards a cost-effective direction.
Related JoVE Video
Systolic blood pressure and outcomes in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease patients: evidence from a taiwanese cohort.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is ?140mm Hg. However, the SBP target provides no suggested lower limit, and some studies indicate that a lower SBP target may be harmful. We aimed to investigate the J-shaped relationship between SBP and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and the factors that modify this relationship.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of Notch signaling facilitates the differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells into neural stem cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are becoming an appealing source of cell-based therapies of brain diseases. As such, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of iPSCs toward NSCs. It is well known that Notch signaling governs the retention of stem cell features and drives stem cells fate. However, further studies are required to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the NSCs differentiation of iPSCs. In this study, we successfully generated NSCs from human iPSCs using serum-free medium supplemented with retinoic acid (RA) in vitro. We then assessed changes in the expression of Notch signaling-related molecules and some miRNAs (9, 34a, 200b), which exert their regulation by targeting Notch signaling. Moreover, we used a ?-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) to disturb Notch signaling. Data revealed that the levels of the Notch signaling-related molecules decreased, whereas those miRNAs increased, during this differentiation process. Inhibition of Notch signaling accelerated the formation of the neural rosette structures and the expression of NSC and mature neurocyte marker genes. This suggests that Notch signaling negatively regulated the neuralization of human iPSCs, and that this process may be regulated by some miRNAs.
Related JoVE Video
Tetrahedron DNA dendrimers and their encapsulation of gold nanoparticles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA dendrimers have achieved increasing attention recently. Previously reported DNA dendrimers used Y-DNA as monomers. Tetrahedron DNA is a rigid tetrahedral cage made of DNA. Herein, we use tetrahedron DNA as monomers to prepare tetrahedron DNA dendrimers. The prepared tetrahedron DNA dendrimers have larger size compared with those made of Y-DNA. In addition, thanks to the central cavity of tetrahedron DNA monomers, some nanoscale structures (e.g., gold nanoparticles) can be encapsulated within tetrahedron DNA monomers. Tetrahedron DNA encapsulated with gold nanoparticles can be further assembled into dendrimers, guiding gold nanoparticles into clusters.
Related JoVE Video
Salicylato titanocene complexes as cooperative organometallic Lewis acid and Brønsted acid catalysts for three-component mannich reactions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A binary acid system has been developed that features an air-stable organometallic precursor, titanocene dichloride, and simple organic cooperative Brønsted acids, which allowed for mild and highly efficient Mannich reactions of both aryl and alkyl ketones with excellent yields and satisfactory diastereoselectivity. Mechanistic studies, including (1) H?NMR titration, X-ray structure analyses as well as isolation of catalytically active species, elucidated the dramatic synergistic effects of this new binary acid system.
Related JoVE Video
A single poly-Si gate-all-around junctionless fin field-effect transistor for use in one-time programming nonvolatile memory.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This work demonstrates a feasible single poly-Si gate-all-around (GAA) junctionless fin field-effect transistor (JL-FinFET) for use in one-time programming (OTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) applications. The advantages of this device include the simplicity of its use and the ease with which it can be embedded in Si wafer, glass, and flexible substrates. This device exhibits excellent retention, with a memory window maintained 2 V after 10(4) s. By extrapolation, 95% of the original charge can be stored for 10 years. In the future, this device will be applied to multi-layer Si ICs in fully functional systems on panels, active-matrix liquid-crystal displays, and three-dimensional (3D) stacked flash memory.
Related JoVE Video
Neuronal correlates of a virtual-reality-based passive sensory p300 network.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
P300, a positive event-related potential (ERP) evoked at around 300 ms after stimulus, can be elicited using an active or passive oddball paradigm. Active P300 requires a person's intentional response, whereas passive P300 does not require an intentional response. Passive P300 has been used in incommunicative patients for consciousness detection and brain computer interface. Active and passive P300 differ in amplitude, but not in latency or scalp distribution. However, no study has addressed the mechanism underlying the production of passive P300. In particular, it remains unclear whether the passive P300 shares an identical active P300 generating network architecture when no response is required. This study aims to explore the hierarchical network of passive sensory P300 production using dynamic causal modelling (DCM) for ERP and a novel virtual reality (VR)-based passive oddball paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the causal relationship of this passive P300 network and the changes in connection strength to address the possible functional roles. A classical ERP analysis was performed to verify that the proposed VR-based game can reliably elicit passive P300. The DCM results suggested that the passive and active P300 share the same parietal-frontal neural network for attentional control and, underlying the passive network, the feed-forward modulation is stronger than the feed-back one. The functional role of this forward modulation may indicate the delivery of sensory information, automatic detection of differences, and stimulus-driven attentional processes involved in performing this passive task. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to address the passive P300 network. The results of this study may provide a reference for future clinical studies on addressing the network alternations under pathological states of incommunicative patients. However, caution is required when comparing patients' analytic results with this study. For example, the task presented here is not applicable to incommunicative patients.
Related JoVE Video
Fluid overload, pulse wave velocity, and ratio of brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time in diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluid overload is one of the characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Changes in extracellular fluid volume are associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Not only diabetes but also fluid overload is associated with cardiovascular risk factors The aim of the study was to assess the interaction between fluid overload, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial stiffness and left ventricular function in 480 patients with stages 4-5 CKD. Fluid status was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy method, Body Composition Monitor. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), as a good parameter of arterial stiffness, and brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP)/brachial ejection time (bET), correlated with impaired left ventricular function were measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. Of all patients, 207 (43.9%) were diabetic and 240 (50%) had fluid overload. For non-diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with being female (??=?-2.87, P?=?0.003), heart disease (??=?2.69, P?=?0.04), high baPWV (??=?0.27, P?=?0.04), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.10, P<0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-5.21, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. For diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with diuretics use (??=?3.69, P?=?0.003), high mean arterial pressure (??=?0.14, P?=?0.01), low bPEP/ET (??=?-0.19, P?=?0.03), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.55, P?=?0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-9.46, P<0.001). In conclusion, baPWV is associated with fluid overload in non-diabetic CKD and bPEP/bET is associated with fluid overload in diabetic CKD. Early and accurate assessment of these associated cardiovascular risk factors may improve the effects of entire care in late CKD.
Related JoVE Video
Association of angiopoietin-2 with renal outcome in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathophysiological mechanisms of renal function progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have still not been completely explored. In addition to well-known traditional risk factors, non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, have gradually attracted physicians' attention. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) impairs endothelial function through preventing angiopoietin-1 from binding to Tie2 receptor. Whether Ang-2 is associated with renal function progression in CKD is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as a noninvasive tool to evaluate left atrial enlargement. This study was designed to assess whether P wave parameters were associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This longitudinal study enrolled 439 patients with CKD stages 3-5. Renal end points were defined as the commencement of dialysis or death. Change in renal function was measured using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected for heart rate, i.e., corrected P wave dispersion and corrected maximum P wave duration. The values of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were 88.8±21.7 ms and 153.3±21.7 ms, respectively. During the follow-up period (mean, 25.2 months), 95 patients (21.6%) started hemodialysis and 30 deaths (6.8%) were recorded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that increased P wave dispersion [hazard ratio (HR), 1.020; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.009-1.032; P<0.001] and maximum P wave duration (HR, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.003-1.024; P?=?0.012) were associated with progression to renal end points. Furthermore, increased P wave dispersion (unstandardized coefficient ??=?-0.016; P?=?0.037) and maximum P wave duration (unstandardized coefficient ??=?-0.014; P?=?0.040) were negatively associated with the eGFR slope. We demonstrated that increased P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were associated with progression to the renal end points of dialysis or death and faster renal function decline in CKD patients. Screening CKD patients on the basis of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration may help identify patients at high risk for worse renal outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatitis C virus infection increases risk of developing end-stage renal disease using competing risk analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are closely linked and both increase patient mortality. The association of HCV and risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been analyzed with competing risk model.
Related JoVE Video
Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations for Taiwanese adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations may not be accurate for Asians; thus, we developed modified eGFR equations for Taiwanese adults.
Related JoVE Video
Association of relatives of hemodialysis patients with metabolic syndrome, albuminuria and Framingham Risk Score.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), albuminuria, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) are significant predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship and clinical significance of these CVD predictors in individuals with a family history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are unclear. We investigated the association of relatives of hemodialysis (HD) patients with MetS, albuminuria, and the FRS.
Related JoVE Video
Discrepancy between serological and virological analysis of viral hepatitis in hemodialysis patients.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Viral hepatitis is a health threat for hemodialysis (HD) patients and it may be transmitted during treatment. Some patients categorized to have viral hepatitis were found to be non-viremic. To clarify the discrepancy between the serological tests in HD patients, we conducted the study.
Related JoVE Video
Mutations in pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism in ethnic Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An inactivating mutation in the GNAS gene causes either pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP1A) when it is maternally inherited or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) when it is paternally inherited. We investigated clinical manifestations and mutations of the GNAS gene in ethnic Chinese patients with PHP1A or PPHP. Seven patients from 5 families including 4 girls and 2 boys with PHP1A and 1 girl with PPHP were studied. All PHP1A patients had mental retardation. They were treated with calcitriol and CaCO3 with regular monitoring of serum Ca levels, urinary Ca/Cr ratios, and renal sonography. Among them, 5 patients also had primary hypothyroidism suggesting TSH resistance. One female patient had a renal stone which was treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. She had an increased urinary Ca/Cr ratio of 0.481 mg/mg when the stone was detected. We detected mutations using PCR and sequencing as well as analysed a splice acceptor site mutation using RT-PCR, sequencing, and minigene construct. We detected 5 mutations: c.85C>T (Q29*), c.103C>T (Q35*), c.840-2A>G (R280Sfs*21), c.1027_1028delGA (D343*), and c.1174G>A (E392K). Mutations c.840-2A>G and c.1027_1028delGA were novel. The c.840-2A>G mutation at the splice acceptor site of intron 10 caused retention of intron 10 in the minigene construct but skipping of exon 11 in the peripheral blood cells. The latter was the most probable mechanism which caused a frameshift, changing Arg to Ser at residue 280 and invoking a premature termination of translation at codon 300 (R280Sfs*21). Five GNAS mutations in ethnic Chinese with PHP1A and PPHP were reported. Two of them were novel. Mutation c.840-2A>G destroyed a spice acceptor site and caused exon skipping. Regular monitoring and adjustment in therapy are mandatory to achieve optimal therapeutic effects and avoid nephrolithiasis in patients with PHP1A.
Related JoVE Video
[Present status of Individualized Therapy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the commonest pediatric malignancy caused by the disturbed differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Due to the effective measure of individualized therapy, the outcome of ALL therapy has been improved dramatically in recent decades. The reduction of treatment intensity in favorable patient groups decreases acute and long-term toxicity, only for the high-risk groups the intensive chemotherapy is of value, and the different therapies should be used, depending on their different biologic features.Even with intensive therapy or new drugs, the outcome of replapsed ALL remains poor, the treatment could be turned to the molecularly defined targeted drugs and stem cell transplantation. What is more, the progress in the detection technique for minimal residual disease and pharmacogenomics help to estimate the sensitivity of chemotherapy and judge the prognosis, so as to provide the reliable objective foundation for the individualized therapy.In this review, the present statas of individualized therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic lenkemia is discussed and summarized.
Related JoVE Video
PQJS380: A novel lead compound to induce apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder of lymphoid progenitor cells that are committed to the B- or the T-cell lineage. The pathogenesis of ALL is heterogeneous and may be at least in part caused by genetic alterations. Although the modern sequencing technologies make it possible to rapidly discover novel genetic and epigenetic alterations and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention for ALL, conventional chemotherapy is still the most important therapeutic approach. Relapses and high morbidity and mortality remain major challenges particularly in adult patients with ALL. Therefore, development of novel chemotherapeutic agents remains in demand for ALL patients. In the course of seeking novel agents against ALL, we screened a library of small molecules and identified that PQJS380, a S-(E)-4-([7S,10S]-4-ethyl-7-isopropyl-2,5,8,12-tetraoxo-9-oxa-3,6,13,18-tetraaza-bicycle[13,2,1] octadec-1-en-10-yl)but-3-enyl octanethioate, showed potent anti-leukemia activity. PQJS380 inhibited the proliferation with IC 50 values of 14.25 nM and 5 nM in REH and NALM-6 cells, respectively. PQJS380 had 10-fold higher molar potency than the front-line ALL drugs Ara-C and VP-16. The median IC 50 value for leukemia blast cells from 14 patients with ALL was 40 nM. PQJS380 induced G 1-phase arrest in REH cells, and S-phase in NALM-6 cells, respectively. Treatment of PQJS380 led to apoptosis in ALL cell lines (REH and NALM-6) cells and primary ALL cells. Our data supported that PQJS380 may be a promising lead compound for ALL treatment even though the precise targets remain to be elucidated.
Related JoVE Video
Abatacept in B7-1-positive proteinuric kidney disease.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abatacept (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein [CTLA-4-Ig]) is a costimulatory inhibitor that targets B7-1 (CD80). The present report describes five patients who had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (four with recurrent FSGS after transplantation and one with primary FSGS) and proteinuria with B7-1 immunostaining of podocytes in kidney-biopsy specimens. Abatacept induced partial or complete remissions of proteinuria in these patients, suggesting that B7-1 may be a useful biomarker for the treatment of some glomerulopathies. Our data indicate that abatacept may stabilize ?1-integrin activation in podocytes and reduce proteinuria in patients with B7-1-positive glomerular disease.
Related JoVE Video
[Roles of cardiac mast cells and Toll-like receptor 4 in viral myocarditis among mice].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the role and significance of cardiac mast cells and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the development and progression of viral myocarditis (VMC).
Related JoVE Video
Normal function of myf5 during gastrulation is required for pharyngeal arch cartilage development in zebrafish embryos.
Zebrafish
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Myf5, a myogenic regulatory factor, plays a key role in regulating muscle differentiation. However, it is not known if Myf5 has a regulatory role during early embryogenesis. Here, we used myf5-morpholino oligonucleotides [MO] to knock down myf5 expression and demonstrated a series of results pointing to the functional roles of Myf5 during early embryogenesis: (1) reduced head size resulting from abnormal morphology in the cranial skeleton; (2) decreased expressions of the cranial neural crest (CNC) markers foxd3, sox9a, dlx2, and col2a1; (3) defect in the chondrogenic neural crest similar to that of fgf3 morphants; (4) reduced fgf3/fgf8 transcripts in the cephalic mesoderm rescued by co-injection of myf5 wobble-mismatched mRNA together with myf5-MO1 during 12?h postfertilization; (5) abnormal patterns of axial and non-axial mesoderm causing expansion of the dorsal organizer, and (6) increased bmp4 gradient, but reduced fgf3/fgf8 marginal gradient, during gastrulation. Interestingly, overexpression of fgf3 could rescue the cranial cartilage defects caused by myf5-MO1, suggesting that Myf5 modulates craniofacial cartilage development through the fgf3 signaling pathway. Together, the loss of Myf5 function results in a cascade effect that begins with abnormal formation of the dorsal organizer during gastrulation, causing, in turn, defects in the CNC and cranial cartilage of myf5-knockdown embryos.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple hypovascular tumors in kidney: a rare case report and differential diagnosis.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The most common malignant renal tumor is renal cell carcinoma and surgery is the standard treatment. The proportion of lymphoma with renal involvement is 2~15% and lymphoma could be cured by chemotherapy without nephrectomy. Sonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect and characterize a renal mass. We present a case of right renal hypovascular tumors and differential diagnosis of hypovascular tumors by image study. CT scan showed hypovascular tumors and MRI image revealed multifocal hypovascular solid tumors with significantly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Based on image finding, renal lymphoma was highly suspected. Renal lymphoma was confirmed by renal biopsy and this patient received chemotherapy without surgery. The noninvasive CT scan and MRI image can help clinicians to diagnose the characteristics of renal mass and to avoid unnecessary nephrectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensing platform for site-specific determination of DNA methylation and assay of DNA methyltransferase activity using exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Site-specific determination of DNA methylation and assay of MTase activity can be used for determining specific cancer types, providing insights into the mechanism of gene repression, and developing novel drugs to treat methylation-related diseases. Herein, we develop a simple and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) biosensing platform for site-specific determination of DNA methylation using Exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted target recycling signal amplification. After bisulfite treatment of mixture of methylated DNA and unmethylated DNA, methylated DNA can hybridize with fluorescein (FAM)-labeled probe DNA to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), removing the FAM-labeled probe DNA from the surface of grapheme oxide, and the chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) sensing signal can be observed and then amplified using Exo III-based recycling strategy. The biosensing platform exhibits excellent high sensitivity, and it can ever distinguish as low as 0.002% methylation level from the mixture, which is superior to most currently reported methods used for DNA methylation assay. In addition, the proposed method can also be used to sensitively assay MTase activity with determination limit of 0.007U/mL. This CL biosensing offers the advantages of being facile, sensitive, rapid and cost-effective. These features make the system promising for future use for early cancer diagnosis and discover of new anticancer drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Dyslipoproteinemia and impairment of renal function in diabetic kidney disease: an analysis of animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials.
Rev Diabet Stud
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, lower high-density lipoprotein, and higher small, dense low-density lipoprotein. A number of observational studies have reported that dyslipidemia may be associated with albuminuria, renal function impairment, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, and especially in CKD and DKD patients. Diabetic glomerulopathy and the related albuminuria are the main manifestations of DKD. Numerous animal studies support the finding that glomerular atherosclerosis is the main mechanism of glomerulosclerosis in CKD and DKD. Some randomized, controlled trials suggest the use of statins for the prevention of albuminuria and renal function impairment in CKD and DKD patients. However, a large clinical study, the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), does not support that statins could reduce ESRD in CKD. In this article, we analyze the complex association of dyslipoproteinemia with DKD and deduce its relevance from animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials. We show that special subgroups could benefit from the statin treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Association of cholesterol levels with mortality and cardiovascular events among patients with CKD and different amounts of proteinuria.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malnutrition and/or inflammation may modify the risk relationship of total cholesterol with cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. However, it is unclear whether the relationship of total cholesterol with cardiovascular events and mortality varies by proteinuria.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple comparisons permutation test for image based data mining in radiotherapy.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comparing incidental dose distributions (i.e. images) of patients with different outcomes is a straightforward way to explore dose-response hypotheses in radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduced a permutation test that compares images, such as dose distributions from radiotherapy, while tackling the multiple comparisons problem. A test statistic Tmax was proposed that summarizes the differences between the images into a single value and a permutation procedure was employed to compute the adjusted p-value. We demonstrated the method in two retrospective studies: a prostate study that relates 3D dose distributions to failure, and an esophagus study that relates 2D surface dose distributions of the esophagus to acute esophagus toxicity. As a result, we were able to identify suspicious regions that are significantly associated with failure (prostate study) or toxicity (esophagus study). Permutation testing allows direct comparison of images from different patient categories and is a useful tool for data mining in radiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Save life and improve quality: Report from the 5th Congress of International Society for Hemodialysis.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 5th congress of International Society for Hemodialysis took place last August 3-5, 2012 at the Grand Hotel in Taipei and focused on "Save Life and Improve Quality." It attracted a total of 927 participants from 18 countries. The full spectrum of hemodialysis was covered with plenary lectures and symposiums delivered by experts from different subspecialties in nephrology starting from the history of hemodialysis, mineral bone disease, microinflammation and advanced techniques in hemodialysis. It was followed by critical care in nephrology, anemia, and nutrition in dialysis. Last but not the least, natural disasters and medical economics in hemodialysis were also discussed extensively. This special article will highlight the authentic contributions and innovative clinical presentations from the meeting.
Related JoVE Video
Association of metabolic syndrome and albuminuria with cardiovascular risk in occupational drivers.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors in occupational drivers;
Related JoVE Video
High hepatitis B virus surface antigen levels and favorable interleukin 28B genotype predict spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance in uremic patients.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host and viral factors interplay in the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to explore the roles of IL28B genotypes and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in spontaneous HCV seroclearance.
Related JoVE Video
Fabrication, characterization and simulation of ?-gate twin poly-Si FinFET nonvolatile memory.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study proposed the twin poly-Si fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) nonvolatile memory with a structure that is composed of ?-gate nanowires (NWs). Experimental results show that the NW device has superior memory characteristics because its ?-gate structure provides a large memory window and high program/erase efficiency. With respect to endurance and retention, the memory window can be maintained at 3.5 V after 104 program and erase cycles, and after 10 years, the charge is 47.7% of its initial value. This investigation explores its feasibility in the future active matrix liquid crystal display system-on-panel and three-dimensional stacked flash memory applications.
Related JoVE Video
Covalent small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of Maf1 protein controls RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription repression.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes genes that determine biosynthetic capacity. Induction of these genes is required for oncogenic transformation. The transcriptional repressor, Maf1, plays a central role in the repression of these and other genes that promote oncogenesis. Our studies identify an important new role for SUMOylation in repressing RNA pol III-dependent transcription. We show that a key mechanism by which this occurs is through small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of Maf1 by both SUMO1 and SUMO2. Mutation of each lysine residue revealed that Lys-35 is the major SUMOylation site on Maf1 and that the deSUMOylase, SENP1, is responsible for controlling Maf1K35 SUMOylation. SUMOylation of Maf1 is unaffected by rapamycin inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mTOR-dependent Maf1 phosphorylation. By preventing SUMOylation at Lys-35, Maf1 is impaired in its ability to both repress transcription and suppress colony growth. Although SUMOylation does not alter Maf1 subcellular localization, Maf1K35R is defective in its ability to associate with RNA pol III. This impairs Maf1 recruitment to tRNA gene promoters and its ability to facilitate the dissociation of RNA pol III from these promoters. These studies identify a novel role for SUMOylation in controlling Maf1 and RNA pol III-mediated transcription. Given the emerging roles of SENP1, Maf1, and RNA pol III transcription in oncogenesis, our studies support the idea that deSUMOylation of Maf1 and induction of its gene targets play a critical role in cancer development.
Related JoVE Video
Performance of the Framingham risk score in patients receiving hemodialysis.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), calculated by considering conventional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations. However, reverse epidemiology has been raised concerning these risk factors in predicting high cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Our objectives are to determine whether FRS is associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality and the role of new risk markers when they were added to a FRS model in hemodialysis patients.
Related JoVE Video
Short-term effects of meteorological factors on children hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangzhou, China.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral illness that commonly affects infants and children. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effects of meteorological factors on children HFMD in Guangzhou, China. Daily count of HFMD among children younger than 15 years and meteorological variables from 2009 to 2011 were collected to construct the time series. A generalized additive model was applied to estimate the effects of meteorological factors on HFMD occurrence, after adjusting for long-term trend, seasonal trend, day of week, and public holidays. A negative association between temperature and children HFMD occurrence was observed at lag days 1-3, with the relative risk (RR) for a 1 °C increase on lag day 2 being 0.983 (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.977 to 0.989); positive effect was found for temperature at lag days 5-9, with the highest effect at lag day 6 (RR?=?1.014, 95 % CI 1.006 to 1.023). Higher humidity was associated with increased HFMD at lag days 3-10, with the highest effect at lag day 8 (RR?=?1.009 for 1 % increase in relative humidity, 95 % CI 1.007 to 1.010). And we also observed significant positive effect for rainfall at lag days 4 and 8 (RR?=?1.001, 95 % CI 1.000 to 1.002) for 1-mm increase. Subgroup analyses showed that the positive effects of temperature were more pronounced among younger children. This study suggests that meteorological factors might be important predictors of children HFMD occurrence in Guangzhou.
Related JoVE Video
Ratio of transmitral E-wave velocity to early diastole mitral annulus velocity with cardiovascular and renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
Nephron Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Impaired left ventricular diastolic function and increased left ventricular filling pressure are frequently noted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even in early stages. The association of increased left ventricular filling pressure with cardiovascular and renal outcomes remains uncertain in CKD. This study is designed to assess whether the ratio of transmitral E-wave velocity (E) to early diastole mitral velocity (Ea) is associated with cardiovascular events and progression to dialysis in patients with CKD stages 3-5.
Related JoVE Video
Atypical X-linked agammaglobulinaemia caused by a novel BTK mutation in a selective immunoglobulin M deficiency patient.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is the most common inherited humoural immunodeficiency disorder. Mutations in the gene coding for Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) have been identified as the cause of XLA. Most affected patients exhibit a marked reduction of serum immunoglobulins, mature B cells, and an increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. However, the diagnosis of XLA can be a challenge in certain patients who have near-normal levels of serum immunoglobulin. Furthermore, reports on XLA with renal involvement are scant.
Related JoVE Video
Severe late esophagus toxicity in NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We reported the incidence of severe late esophagus toxicity (LET) in locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Acute esophagus toxicity (AET) and the dose to the esophagus were analyzed for their associations with severe LET.
Related JoVE Video
Association of Fluid Overload With Kidney Disease Progression in Advanced CKD: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluid overload is a common phenomenon in patients in a late stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about whether fluid overload is related to kidney disease progression in patients with CKD. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to assess the association of the severity of fluid status and kidney disease progression in an advanced CKD cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Lethal cardiac arrhythmia during central venous catheterization in a uremic patient: a case report and review of the literature.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Double-lumen central venous catheter (CVC) is a rapid access technique for hemodialysis (HD) when an arteriovenous fistula or graft is not available. A variety of procedure-related complications have been reported, such as infection and pneumothorax, but serious cardiac complications are relatively less mentioned. We report a uremic woman with preexisting left bundle branch block who required emergent HD and received jugular double-lumen CVC insertion, which was complicated by short-duration ventricular tachycardia followed by complete atrio-ventricular block and bradycardia. Pharmacological management did not reverse heart rate and rhythm. External pacing was not applied because she remained hemodynamically stable in the course of HD. Heart rate returned to sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block 4 hours later and did not recur through the whole admission period. We speculate that the transient arrhythmia might have been induced by mechanical contact with the ventricular wall during the procedure with the guided metallic wire. In conclusion, physicians responsible for CVC catheterization should pay more attention to patients with preexisting cardiac arrhythmia to prevent such technical mistakes from transpiring.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: Results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Framingham risk score with cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations, and it tended to under-estimate the risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Our objectives were to determine whether FRS was associated with cardiovascular events, and to evaluate the role of new risk markers and echocardiographic parameters when they were added to a FRS model. This study enrolled 439 CKD patients. The FRS is used to identify individuals categorically as "low" (<10% of 10-year risk), "intermediate" (10-20% risk) or "high" risk (? 20% risk). A significant improvement in model prediction was based on the -2 log likelihood ratio statistic and c-statistic. "High" risk (v.s. "low" risk) predicts cardiovascular events either without (hazard ratios [HR] 2.090, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.144 to 3.818) or with adjustment for clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic parameters (HR 1.924, 95% CI 1.008 to 3.673). Besides, the addition of albumin, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, left atrial diameter >4.7 cm, left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular ejection fraction<50% to the FRS model significantly improves the predictive values for cardiovascular events. In CKD patients, "high" risk categorized by FRS predicts cardiovascular events. Novel biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters provide additional predictive values for cardiovascular events. Future study is needed to assess whether risk assessment enhanced by using these biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might contribute to more effective prediction and better care for patients.
Related JoVE Video
Association of dyslipidemia with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the relationship between dyslipidemia with renal outcomes in patients with moderate to advanced CKD remains controversial. Hence, our objective is to determine whether dyslipidemia is independently associated with rapid renal progression and progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. The study analyzed the association between lipid profile, RRT, and rapid renal progression (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] slope <-6 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/yr) in 3303 patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. During a median 2.8-year follow-up, 1080 (32.3%) participants commenced RRT and 841 (25.5%) had rapid renal progression. In the adjusted models, the lowest quintile (hazard ratios [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.49) and the highest two quintiles of total cholesterol (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.52 and HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.65 respectively) increased risks for RRT (vs. quintile 2). Besides, the highest quintile of total cholesterol was independently associated with rapid renal progression (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.83). Our study demonstrated that certain levels of dyslipidemia were independently associated with RRT and rapid renal progression in CKD stage 3-5. Assessment of lipid profile may help identify high risk groups with adverse renal outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of a self-management program on patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease: a pilot study.
Appl Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Without intervention, renal function deteriorates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Related JoVE Video
Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels predict cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury better than albuminuria or urinary cystatin C levels.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major concern among clinicians in prescribing cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated and compared the ability of urinary biomarkers, including urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) to predict cisplatin-induced AKI. Thirty-three cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy were prospectively studied, including 10 (30%) who developed AKI (the study group). Changes of urinary biomarkers were compared at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 12 hours, and 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days after cisplatin intravenous infusions (75mg/m(2)) versus the baseline. There was a significant increase in urinary NGAL levels from 12 hours to 4 days (p<0.05) compared to baseline after cisplatin infusion in the AKI group. The magnitude of these changes over time differed significantly by group (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve describing the relationship between urinary NGAL levels and AKI within 12 hours was 0.865 (95% confidence interval=0.691-1.000). Urinary NGAL levels independently predicted AKI 12 hours after cisplatin (p=0.045) after adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, baseline serum creatinine, and urinary total protein. Urinary NGAL levels may be an early biomarker of AKI in patients receiving cisplatin-based treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Left atrial diameter and albumin with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Echocardiographic left atrial diameter (LAD) has been documented to be an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in various populations. An enlarged left atrium is frequently noted in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the association between albumin and indexed LAD (indexed to height) and assessed whether the combination of indexed LAD and albumin was independently associated with renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3-5.
Related JoVE Video
Is fluid overload more important than diabetes in renal progression in late chronic kidney disease?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluid overload is one of the major presentations in patients with late stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes is the leading cause of renal failure, and progression of diabetic nephropathy has been associated with changes in extracellular fluid volume. The aim of the study was to assess the association of fluid overload and diabetes in commencing dialysis and rapid renal function decline (the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than -3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/y) in 472 patients with stages 4-5 CKD. Fluid status was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy method, Body Composition Monitor. The study population was further classified into four groups according to the median of relative hydration status (?HS =fluid overload/extracellular water) and the presence or absence of diabetes. The median level of relative hydration status was 7%. Among all patients, 207(43.9 %) were diabetic. 71 (15.0%) subjects had commencing dialysis, and 187 (39.6%) subjects presented rapid renal function decline during a median 17.3-month follow-up. Patients with fluid overload had a significantly increased risk for commencing dialysis and renal function decline independent of the presence or absence of diabetes. No significantly increased risk for renal progression was found between diabetes and non-diabetes in late CKD without fluid overload. In conclusion, fluid overload has a higher predictive value of an elevated risk for renal progression than diabetes in late CKD.
Related JoVE Video
CT Morphometric Analysis to Determine the Anatomical Basis for the Use of Transpedicular Screws during Reconstruction and Fixations of Anterior Cervical Vertebrae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS) in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
High cost and low survival rate in high comorbidity incident elderly hemodialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The comorbidity index is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients but there are few reports for predicting elderly dialysis mortality and national population-based cost studies on elderly dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term mortality of incident elderly dialysis patients using the Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and to assess the inpatient and outpatient visits along with non-dialysis costs.
Related JoVE Video
Hypokalemia, its contributing factors and renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population, the impact of serum potassium (sK) on renal outcomes has been controversial. Moreover, the reasons for the potential prognostic value of hypokalemia have not been elucidated.
Related JoVE Video
Accelerating Computation of DCM for ERP in MATLAB by External Function Calls to the GPU.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to improve the performance of Dynamic Causal Modelling for Event Related Potentials (DCM for ERP) in MATLAB by using external function calls to a graphics processing unit (GPU). DCM for ERP is an advanced method for studying neuronal effective connectivity. DCM utilizes an iterative procedure, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, to find the optimal parameters given a set of observations and the underlying probability model. As the EM algorithm is computationally demanding and the analysis faces possible combinatorial explosion of models to be tested, we propose a parallel computing scheme using the GPU to achieve a fast estimation of DCM for ERP. The computation of DCM for ERP is dynamically partitioned and distributed to threads for parallel processing, according to the DCM model complexity and the hardware constraints. The performance efficiency of this hardware-dependent thread arrangement strategy was evaluated using the synthetic data. The experimental data were used to validate the accuracy of the proposed computing scheme and quantify the time saving in practice. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can accelerate the computation by a factor of 155 for the parallel part. For experimental data, the speedup factor is about 7 per model on average, depending on the model complexity and the data. This GPU-based implementation of DCM for ERP gives qualitatively the same results as the original MATLAB implementation does at the group level analysis. In conclusion, we believe that the proposed GPU-based implementation is very useful for users as a fast screen tool to select the most likely model and may provide implementation guidance for possible future clinical applications such as online diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Predicting mortality of incident dialysis patients in Taiwan--a longitudinal population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comorbid conditions are highly prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and index score is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. The aim of this study is to perform a population-based cohort study to investigate the survival rate by age and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) in incident dialysis patients.
Related JoVE Video
Fabrication and characterization of twin poly-Si thin film transistors EEPROM with a nitride charge trapping layer.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigates the characteristics of the planar twin poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) EEPROM that utilizes a nitride (Si3N4) charge trapping layer. A comparison is made of two devices with different gate dielectrics, one a 16 nm-thick oxide (SiO2) layer for O-structure and the other 5 nm/10 nm-thick oxide/nitride layers for O/N-structure. Incorporating a nitride charge trapping layer and reducing the tunneling oxide thickness enable the O/N-structure EEPROM to enhance the program/erase (P/E) efficiency. Additionally, EEPROM formed with the tri-gate nanowires (NWs) structure can further enhance P/E efficiency and a large memory window because of its high electric field across the tunneling oxide. Reliability results indicated that, since the nitride layer contains discrete traps, the memory window can be maintained 2.2 V after 10(4) P/E cycles. For retention, the memory window can be maintained 1.9 V, and 30% charge loss for ten years of data storage. This investigation indicates that its possibility in future system-on-panel (SOP) of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFTLCD) and 3-D stacked high-density Flash memory applications.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.