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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dihydroxyacid dehydratase is important for gametophyte development and disruption causes increased susceptibility to salinity stress in Arabidopsis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD) catalyses a key step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthetic pathway that exists in numerous organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants, but not humans. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DHAD is encoded by a single gene (AT3G23940), but its biological function in controlling plant development remains uncharacterized. In this study, we showed that DHAD is highly expressed in most vegetative and reproductive tissues. It is an essential gene, and complete disruption caused partial sterility in both male and female gametophyte phases. In addition, reduced expression of DHAD in knockdown mutants resulted in a reduction in the accumulation of all three BCAAs in roots and, as a consequence, led to a shorter root phenotype, which could be restored by an exogenous supplement of free BCAAs. Interestingly, the knockdown mutants became hypersensitive to salt stress, not to heavy metal stress, implying that BCAAs may act as osmolytes in salt tolerance. This would be the second amino acid shown to confer such a function in addition to the well-documented proline. Our results provide evidence that BCAA biosynthesis plays important roles in gametophyte and root development, and BCAA homeostasis contributes to the adaptation of Arabidopsis to salinity stress.
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Adiponectin abates atherosclerosis by reducing oxidative stress.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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We investigated whether the anti-atherosclerosis of adiponectin (APN) relates to the reduction of oxidative stress. We observed the overexpression of adiponectin gene with different titers on atherosclerosis (AS) models of high-fat apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice.
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[Total vertebral column resection combined with anterior mesh cage support for the treatment of severe congenital kyphoscoliosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To explore the clinical effects of total vertebral column resection combined with anterior mesh cage support in treating severe congenital kyphoscoliosis.
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The autotetraploid fish derived from hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. (female) × Megalobrama amblycephala (male).
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The establishment of the tetraploid organism is difficult but useful in genetics and breeding. In the present study, we have artificially established an autotetraploid fish line (F2-F8) derived from the distant hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. (RR, 2n = 100) (female) × Megalobrama amblycephala (BB, 2n = 48) (male). The autotetraploid line (F2-F8) possess four sets of chromosomes from red crucian carp (RRRR, 4n = 200) and produce diploid ova and diploid sperm, which maintains the formation of the autotetraploid line. The F2 of the autotetraploid fish result from the fertilization of the autodiploidy diploid eggs and diploid sperm from the females and males of F1 hybrids (RRBB, 4n = 148), which exhibit abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis as revealed by gynogenesis and backcrossing. This is the first report concerning the establishment of an autotetraploid fish line derived from distant hybridization. The autotetraploid fish line provides an important gamete source for the production of triploids and tetraploids. The autotetraploid fish line also provides an ideal system to investigate the poorly understood mechanisms that drive diploidization in autotetraploids and to study the hybrid progenies' characteristics, including the appearance of new traits that promote a diversity of traits and facilitate adaptation.
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Tetrandrine suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation by inhibiting NF-?B and ERK signaling pathways in BV2 cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Tetrandrine (TET) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra Moore. Recent studies have suggested that TET can reduce the inflammatory response in microglia, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether TET can inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and clarify its possible mechanisms.
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Palladium-catalyzed direct C(sp(2))-H alkoxylation of 2-aryloxypyridines using 2-pyridyloxyl as the directing group.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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An efficient and highly regioselective palladium-catalyzed ortho-C(sp(2))-H bond alkoxylation of 2-aryloxypyridines was developed using 2-pyridyloxyl as the directing group and alcohols as alkoxylation reagents. Under an air atmosphere and in the presence of PhI(OAc)2, the reaction gave the corresponding products in moderate to good yields, and a series of functional groups could be tolerated.
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Simultaneous determination of the repertoire of classical neurotransmitters released from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Dynamic, continuous, and simultaneous multi-analysis of transmitters is important for the delineation of the complex interactions between the neuronal and intercellular communications. But the analysis of the whole repertoire of classical transmitters of diverse structure is challenging due to their different physico-chemical properties and to their high polarity feature which leads to poor retention in traditional reversed-phase columns during LC-MS analysis. Here, an online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online MD-HILIC-MS/MS) detection method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the repertoire of classical transmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine). Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. The method was successfully employed to reveal the characteristics of transmitter release from embryonal carcinoma stem cells. The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (?73%), high accuracy (89.36%?RE?116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18%?RSD?14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10pg for dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glycine). It can be flexibly applied to determine the contents of the classical transmitters in other biological matrix samples with minor changes.
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Loss of PEG chain in routine SDS-PAGE analysis of PEG-maleimide modified protein.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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SDS-PAGE represents a quick and simple method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein-containing conjugates, mostly pegylated proteins. PEG-maleimide (MAL) is frequently used to site-specifically pegylate therapeutic proteins via free cysteine residue by forming a thiosuccinimide structure for pursuing homogeneous products. The C-S linkage between protein and PEG-MAL is generally thought to be relatively stable. However, loss of intact PEG chain in routine SDS-PAGE analysis of PEG-maleimide modified protein was observed. It is a thiol-independent thioether cleavage and the shedding of PEG chain exclusively happens to PEG-MAL modified conjugates although PEG-vinylsulfone conjugates to thiol-containing proteins also through a C-S linkage. Cleavage kinetics of PEG40k-MAL modified ciliary neurotrophic factor showed this kind of degradation could immediately happen even in 1 min incubation at high temperature and could be detected at physiological temperature and pH, although the rate was relatively slow. This may provide another degradation route for maleimide-thiol conjugate irrespective of reactive thiol, although the specific mechanism is still not very clear for us. It would also offer a basis for accurate characterization of PEG-MAL modified protein/peptide by SDS-PAGE analysis.
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Nontoxic-dose of Deguelin Induce NPMc+ AML Cell differentiation by Selectively Targeting Mt NPM1/SIRT1 Instead of HDAC1/3.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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AML with Mt NPM1 has relatively good responses to induction therapy. However, a proportion of NPMc+ AML cells cannot be cleared by conventional treatments. Therefore, we determined the therapeutic efficacy of deguelin that has demonstrated extensive biological activity with low toxicity. We previously reported that deguelin selectively reduces Mt NPM1, as well as induces differentiation and potentiates apoptosis in NPMc+ AML cells. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding the mechanism of deguelin-induced differentiation. Here, we investigated the role of deguelin in the induction of NPMc+ AML cell differentiation. Deguelin at the nontoxic concentration of 2 µM strongly inhibited cell growth but reduced apoptosis in OCI-AML3 cells carrying Mt NPM1, whereas the antiproliferative effect was minimal in OCIM2 cells harboring Wt NPM1. Compared with OCIM2 cells that showed no response, deguelin-treated OCI-AML3 cells exhibited the morphological features of granulocytic/monocytic differentiation, increased expression of differentiation antigens, and a nitroblue tetrazolium reduction activity. Induction of differentiation was associated with downregulation of Mt NPM1 and SIRT1, but not Wt NPM1, which was accompanied by an increase in CEBP? and G-CSFR expression, and further confirmed by sh-Mt NPM1 and sh-SIRT1. sh-Mt NPM1 treatment reduced SIRT1 expression, but did not change HDAC1/3 levels, suggesting that the decline of SIRT1 was partially accountable for the deguelin-induced, Mt-NPM1-related differentiation. Moreover, Mt NPM1 overexpression blocked deguelin-induced cell differentiation. Lastly, we showed that deguelin reduced the expression of Mt NPM1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that deguelin may be a therapeutic candidate for NPMc+ AML.
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[Delayed lower extremity deep venous thrombosis after operation for osteofibrous dysplasia of the left femur: report of one case].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LDVT) is one of the most common complications in orthopedic surgery, and it often occurs in the first 24 h after operation. We report a case of delayed LDVT, which occurred on d 16 after operation for osteofibrous dysplasia on the left femur. Upon the diagnosis confirmed, thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy was conducted. The symptoms disappeared 3 weeks later and lower limb vascular ultrasound examination showed no remnant thrombosis.
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Apolipoprotein e mutation and double filtration plasmapheresis therapy on a new chinese patient with lipoprotein glomerulopathy.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare hereditary disease. In this study, we investigated the apoE mutation and the role of double filtration plasmapheresis therapy (DFPP) on a new Chinese patient with LPG.
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Therapeutic effect of alprostadil in diabetic nephropathy: possible roles of angiopoietin-2 and IL-18.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To investigate the role of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the molecular mechanisms through which alprostadil protects renal function.
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Serum levels of microRNA-133b and microRNA-206 expression predict prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aberrant expression of microRNA (miR)-133b and miR-206 can be used as potential prognostic markers of human osteosarcoma. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-133b and miR-206 in 100 pairs of osteosarcoma tissues and matched noncancerous bone tissues, and serum samples from 100 patients with osteosarcoma as well as in serum samples from 100 healthy controls. As a result, expression levels of miR-133b and miR-206 were both significantly decreased in osteosarcoma tissues and patients' sera (both P<0.001). Then, the downregulation of miR-133b and miR-206 both more frequently occurred in osteosarcoma patients with high tumor grade (both P=0.01), positive metastasis (both P<0.001) and recurrence (both P<0.001). Moreover, the patients with low miR-133b expression and low miR-206 expression both had shorter overall survival (OS, both P<0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS, both P<0.001) than those with high expressions. Of note, the OS and DFS of patients with combined low expression of miR-133b and miR-206 (miR-133b-low/miR-206-low) were the shortest (both P<0.001). Furthermore, low miR-133b expression, low miR-206 expression and conjoined expression of miR-133b/miR-206 were all independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS of osteosarcoma patients. Collectively, the aberrant expression of miR-133b and miR-206 may be implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression of osteosarcoma. More interestingly, detection of serum miR-133b and miR-206 expression could be further developed as novel, non-invasive and efficient markers for prognosis in patients with osteosarcomas.
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Therapeutic Retrobulbar Inhibition of STAT3 Protects Ischemic Retina Ganglion Cells.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Astrocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Abnormal activation and/or proliferation of astrocytes, termed astrogliosis, have been observed during optic nerve degeneration. Our previous study identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling as an important regulator of astrogliosis in the optic nerve in a rat transient ischemia/reperfusion model. In this study, we used pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activation in the same model to assess whether it could attenuate reactive astrogliosis and to observe its influence on optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Our findings show that retrobulbar inhibition of STAT3 in optic nerve head astrocytes leads to (a) increased nerve fiber bundle survival in the optic nerve, (b) increased nerve fiber bundle and RGC survival in the retina, (c) decreased astrocyte reactivation in the optic nerve (d) decreased remodeling of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and (e) no influence of astrocyte reactivation inside the retina. Taken together, the Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway contributes to astrocyte reactivation in the optic nerve, which plays a pivotal role in neurodegeneration after transient ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. Inhibition of this pathway provides a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glaucomatous neuropathy, and could extend to other neurodegenerative diseases.
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[Analysis on the long-term effects of modified double endobutton technique in the treatment of Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To investigate the long-term clinical effects of modified double Endobutton technique for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III.
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A retrospective survey of quality of reporting on randomized controlled trials of metformin for polycystic ovary syndrome.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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From previous reviews, there still have been controversies over the effect of metformin (MET) on reproductive function in PCOS patients. The reasons for the inconsistent findings especially lie in the transparency and accuracy of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reports. However, we could find no data about the quality of RCTs reporting in MET for PCOS. Thus, a retrospective survey related to the quality of reporting in MET for PCOS was conducted.
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The investigation of reducing PAHs emission from coal pyrolysis by gaseous catalytic cracking.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.
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Palladium-catalyzed alkenylation via sp2 C-H bond activation using phenolic hydroxyl as the directing group.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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This note describes the efficient and highly regioselective synthesis of 2-(2'-alkenylphenyl)phenol derivatives via palladium-catalyzed 2'-alkenylation of 2-arylphenols directed by the phenolic hydroxyl group using benzoquinone as the oxidant in an atmosphere of air. This reaction can tolerate a series of functional groups and provides the alkenylation products regio- and stereoselectively in moderate to good yields.
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The fertility of the hybrid lineage derived from female Megalobrama amblycephala×male Culter alburnus.
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Distant hybridization can combine together the genomes of different species, which leads to changes of the offspring in phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, we successfully establish a fertile hybrid lineage by intergeneric hybridization of female blunt snout bream (BSB, Megalobrama amblycephala)×male topmouth culter (TC, Culter alburnus) and investigate some important biological traits of this lineage including the morphological traits, chromosomal number, karyotype, DNA content, gonadal development, egg and milt yield, sperm shape and density, fertilization rate and early survival rate. The results show that: (1) the diploid and triploid hybrids coexist in F1 and only diploid hybrids are found in F2, in which the diploid hybrids of F1 and F2 possess 48 chromosomes with one chromosome set of BSB and one chromosome set of TC, and the triploid hybrids of F1 possess 72 chromosomes with two chromosome sets of BSB and one chromosome set of TC. (2) All the tested males and females of the diploid F1 and F2 hybrids have the normal gonadal development and produce mature sperm and egg, respectively, which are fertilized with each other to form F2 and F3 hybrids, respectively, and finally form a diploid hybrid lineage (F1-F3). (3) The good fertility of the F1 and F2 hybrids of female BSB×male TC potentially provides reproductive base to make the hybrid lineage propagate from one generation to another. The formation of the hybrid lineage (F1-F3) also provides an ideal model to research the reproductive rules of distant hybrid progeny.
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Combined elevation of microRNA-196a and microRNA-196b in sera predicts unfavorable prognosis in patients with osteosarcomas.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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To investigate whether the aberrant expression of microRNA (miR)-196a and miR-196b can be used as potential prognostic markers of human osteosarcoma.
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Puerarin induces the upregulation of glutathione levels and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 through PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? signaling events in PC12 cells exposed to lead.
Neurotoxicol Teratol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in lead-induced toxicity, especially affecting the brain. We reported previously that puerarin possesses antioxidative properties in the nervous system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that puerarin inhibits lead acetate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by interrupting phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling through increasing glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Our results showed that puerarin attenuates oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner in PC12 cells exposed to lead acetate demonstrated by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reducing lipid peroxidation (LPO). Treatment with puerarin significantly up-regulates glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc) expression both at its mRNA and protein levels, but not glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLm) subunit, accompanying the elevation of cellular glutathione level. The increased nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was not because of increased transcription of Nrf2 as Nrf2 transcript levels did not change after puerarin treatment. The effects of puerarin could be partially blocked by pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K and the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) pathways with LY294002 and LiCl, respectively. On the other hand, puerarin treatment promoted Akt and GSK-3? phosphorylation in PC12 cells exposed to lead acetate. Moreover, puerarin failed to modulate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) demonstrating some specificity for its action on the PI3K/GSK-3? pathway. These findings suggest that puerarin as a phytoestrogen might be an attractive agent for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases related to lead neurotoxicity.
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Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis.
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Tetraphenylethylene-based expanded oxacalixarene: synthesis, structure, and its supramolecular grid assemblies directed by guests in the solid state.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A novel TPE-based expanded oxacalixarene with typical aggregation-induced emission properties was synthesized by the SNAr reaction of dihydroxytetraphenylethylene with 2,6-dichloropyrazine. The conformation of the oxacalixarene is adjusted by the encapsulated guests (benzene or THF), which results in different supramolecular grid structures in the solid state.
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Research advances in animal distant hybridization.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Distant hybridization refers to crosses between two different species or higher-ranking taxa that enables interspecific genome transfer and leads to changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the resulting progeny. If progeny derived from distant hybridization are bisexual and fertile, they can form a hybrid lineage through self-mating, with major implications for evolutionary biology, genetics, and breeding. Here, we review and summarize the published literature, and present our results on fish distant hybridization. Relevant problems involving distant hybridization between orders, families, subfamilies, genera, and species of animals are introduced and discussed, with an additional focus on fish distant hybrid lineages, genetic variation, patterns, and applications. Our review serves as a useful reference for evolutionary biology research and animal genetic breeding.
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Submandibular gland cystadenocarcinoma with mucinous adenocarcinoma-like areas: a case report.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Cystadenocarcinoma is primarily characterized by cystic structures of varying sizes, that are lined by epithelial cells. As a rare neoplasm, only four cases of cystadenocarcinoma of submandibular glands have been previously reported. Herein, we reported a unique case of submandibular gland cystadenocarcinoma in a 44-year-old man. By in large, this case had typical morphologic cystadenocarcinoma features. However, mucinous adenocarcinoma-like areas were additionally observed in the tumor tissues. This case was initially misdiagnosed as mucinous adenocarcinoma due to the low incidence of submandibular gland cystadenocarcinoma and the presentation of mucinous adenocarcinoma-like areas in the tumor tissues. Histopathology of additional tumor tissues revealed that mucinous adenocarcinoma-like areas accounted for only a small percentage of the tumor tissues, confirming the submandibular gland cystadenocarcinoma diagnosis.
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Thioredoxin-interacting protein mediates NALP3 inflammasome activation in podocytes during diabetic nephropathy.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Numerous studies have shown that the NALP3 inflammasome plays an important role in various immune and inflammatory diseases. However, whether the NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is unclear. In our study, we confirmed that high glucose (HG) concentrations induced NALP3 inflammasome activation both in vivo and in vitro. Blocking NALP3 inflammasome activation by NALP3/ASC shRNA and caspase-1 inhibition prevented IL-1? production and eventually attenuated podocyte and glomerular injury under HG conditions. We also found that thioredoxin (TRX)-interacting protein (TXNIP), which is a pro-oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factor, activated NALP3 inflammasome by interacting with NALP3 in HG-exposed podocytes. Knocking down TXNIP impeded NALP3 inflammasome activation and alleviated podocyte injury caused by HG. In summary, the NALP3 inflammasome mediates podocyte and glomerular injury in DN, moreover, TXNIP participates in the formation and activation of the NALP3 inflammasome in podocytes during DN, which represents a novel mechanism of podocyte and glomerular injury under diabetic conditions.
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Rapid establishment of a HEK 293 cell line expressing FVIII-BDD using AAV site-specific integration plasmids.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Stable human cell lines have gradually become the preferred system for large scale production of recombinant proteins for clinical applications because of their capacity of proper protein post-translational modification and low immunogenicity. However, human cell line development technologies are commonly based on random genome integration of protein expressing genes. It is required to screen large numbers of cell clones to identify stable high producer cell clones and the cell line development process usually takes 6 to 12 months. Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) Rep protein is known to induce rAAV DNA integration into a specific site (AAVS1) of the human chromosome 19 and integrated transgenes can stably express proteins. We take advantage of this AAV unique feature to develop a rapid protocol to clone a stable recombinant protein expression human cell line.
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Histone deacetylase 4 selectively contributes to podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of diabetic complications. Inhibitors of HDAC are a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy, but currently available inhibitors are mostly nonselective inhibit multiple HDACs, and different HDACs serve very distinct functions. Therefore, it is essential to determine the role of individual HDACs in diabetic nephropathy and develop HDAC inhibitors with improved specificity. First, we identified the expression patterns of HDACs and found that, among zinc-dependent HDACs, HDAC2/4/5 were upregulated in the kidney from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, diabetic db/db mice, and in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients. Podocytes treated with high glucose, advanced glycation end products, or transforming growth factor-? (common detrimental factors in diabetic nephropathy) selectively increased HDAC4 expression. The role of HDAC4 was evaluated by in vivo gene silencing by intrarenal lentiviral gene delivery and found to reduce renal injury in diabetic rats. Podocyte injury was associated with suppressing autophagy and exacerbating inflammation by HDAC4-STAT1 signaling in vitro. Thus, HDAC4 contributes to podocyte injury and is one of critical components of a signal transduction pathway that links renal injury to autophagy in diabetic nephropathy.
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Histone methyltransferase G9a and H3K9 dimethylation inhibit the self-renewal of glioma cancer stem cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Epigenetic modification is crucial to keep the self-renewal and the "stemness" states of stem cells, not letting them to differentiate. The actual roles of Histone 3 Lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and its methyltransferase G9a in this process are still unclear, especially in cancer stem cells. In our study, we found an interesting observation that most CD133-positive cells were H3K9me2 negative, both in glioma tissues and in cultured cells, although most cancer cells were detected to be H3K9me2 immunopositive. This implied that the G9a-dependent H3K9me2 was one of the crucial barriers of cancer stem cell self-renewal. To test the hypothesis, we examined the loss-of-function and gain-of-function of G9a. We found that bix01294, the selective inhibitor of G9a, can stimulate the sphere formation rate of glioma cancer stem cells, together with increasing Sox2 and CD133 expressions. The increase of CD133-active stem cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. On the other aspect, overexpression of G9a increased the H3K9me2 and decreased the sphere formation rate as well as the CD133 and Sox2 expressions. Since H3K9me2 modification is the major repressive switch, we predict that the repressive H3K9me2 modification may happen at the CD133 promoter regions. By chromatin precipitation assay, we confirmed that the CD133 and Sox2 promoter regions were modified by the H3K9me2. Therefore, we concluded that the G9a-dependent H3K9me2 repression on CD133 and Sox2 was one of the main switches of the self-renewal in glioma cancer stem cells.
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Primary cerebellar endodermal sinus tumor: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Endodermal sinus tumors are rare malignant germ cell tumors that usually originate from the gonads and are rarely observed extragonadally. Pure primary endodermal sinus tumors of the cerebellar hemisphere are extremely rare and patients diagnosed with the disease often have a poor prognosis. The symptoms of YSTs are unspecific and associated with the location of tumors. Intracranial YSTs (such as cerebellar hemispheres) always present with symptoms including headache and poor vision. The present study reports the case of a three-year-old male who presented to The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (Nanchang, China) with a headache that had persisted for one month, and then worsened for the last 10 days. This was accompanied by vomiting and gait disturbance. An abnormal signal mass was identified in the left cerebellar hemisphere on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The case initially presented as a medulloblastoma and the patient was followed up for six months. The final pathology report revealed an endodermal sinus tumor, also known as a yolk sac tumor. Six months following resection of the left cerebellar tumor, the patient succumbed to recurrence of the disease, due to acute vomiting and severe headache.
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Comparison of dexamethasone intravitreal implant and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema in diabetic patients.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of dexa methasone (DEX) implant for the treatment of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) in diabetic patients.
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A polymorphism rs12325489C>T in the lincRNA-ENST00000515084 exon was found to modulate breast cancer risk via GWAS-based association analyses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Breast cancer, one of the most common malignancies diagnosed among women worldwide, is a complex polygenic disease in the etiology of which genetic factors play an important role. Thus far, a subset of breast cancer genetic susceptibility loci has been addressed among Asian woman through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In this study, we identified numerous long, intergenic, noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) enriched in these breast cancer risk-related loci and identified 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the sequences of lincRNA exonic regions. We examined whether these 16 SNPs are associated with breast cancer risk in 2539 cancer patients and 2818 control subjects from eastern, southern, and northern Chinese populations. We found that the C allele of the rs12325489C>T polymorphism in the exonic regions of lincRNA-ENST00000515084 was associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.50-2.12), compared with the rs12325489TT genotype. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the C to T base change at rs12325489C>T disrupts the binding site for miRNA-370, thereby influencing the transcriptional activity of lincRNA-ENST00000515084 in vitro and in vivo, and affecting cell proliferation and tumor growth. Our findings indicate that the rs12325489C>T polymorphism in the lincRNA-ENST00000515084 exon may be a genetic modifier in the development of breast cancer.
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Tetrandrine protects mouse retinal ganglion cells from ischemic injury.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. We found that Tet affected RGC-5 survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared to dimethyl sulfoxide treatment, Tet increased the numbers of RGC-5 cells by 30% at 72 hours. After 48 hours, Tet protected staurosporine-induced RGC-5 cells from serum deprivation-induced cell death and significantly increased the relative number of cells cultured with 1 mM H2O2 (P<0.01). Several concentrations of Tet significantly prevented 25-mM-glutamate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Tet also increased primary RGC survival after 72 and 96 hours. Tet administration (10 ?M, 2 ?L) 1 day before retinal ischemia showed RGC layer loss (greater survival), which was less than those in groups with phosphate-buffered saline intravitreal injection plus ischemia in the central (P=0.005, n=6), middle (P=0.018, n=6), and peripheral (P=0.017, n=6) parts of the retina. Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. Furthermore, Tet showed greater in vivo protective effects on RGCs 1 day after ischemia. Tet and ciliary neurotrophic factor maintained the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) of primary cultured RGCs and inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 and bcl-2 in ischemia/reperfusion-insult retinas.
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MicroRNA-7a/b protects against cardiac myocyte injury in ischemia/reperfusion by targeting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) is highly connected to cancerous cell proliferation and metastasis. It is also involved in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and is upregulated in cardiomyocyte under simulated I/R (SI/R). We aimed to investigate the role of miR-7 during myocardial I/R injury in vitro and in vivo and a possible gene target.
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Enrichment of human osteosarcoma stem cells based on hTERT transcriptional activity.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Telomerase is crucial for the maintenance of stem/progenitor cells in adult tissues and is detected in most malignant cancers, including osteosarcoma. However, the relationship between telomerase expression and cancer stem cells remains unknown. We observed that sphere-derived osteosarcoma cells had higher telomerase activity, indicating that telomerase activity might be enriched in osteosarcoma stem cells. We sorted subpopulations with high or low telomerase activity (TEL) using hTERT transcriptional promoter-induced green fluorescent protein (GFP). The TELpos cells showed an increased sphere and tumor propagating capacity compared to TELneg cells, and enhanced stem cell-like properties such as invasiveness, metastatic activity and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the telomerase inhibitor MST312 prevented tumorigenic potential both in vitro and in vivo, preferentially targeting the TELpos cells. These data support telomerase inhibition as a potential targeted therapy for osteosarcoma stem-like cells.
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Communication: Electronic and transport properties of molecular junctions under a finite bias: A dual mean field approach.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We show that when a molecular junction is under an external bias, its properties cannot be uniquely determined by the total electron density in the same manner as the density functional theory for ground state properties. In order to correctly incorporate bias-induced nonequilibrium effects, we present a dual mean field (DMF) approach. The key idea is that the total electron density together with the density of current-carrying electrons are sufficient to determine the properties of the system. Two mean fields, one for current-carrying electrons and the other one for equilibrium electrons can then be derived. Calculations for a graphene nanoribbon junction show that compared with the commonly used ab initio transport theory, the DMF approach could significantly reduce the electric current at low biases due to the non-equilibrium corrections to the mean field potential in the scattering region.
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Liver cancer-related gene CYP2E1 expression in HBV transgenic mice with acute liver injury.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The objective of this research was to study the CYP2E1 gene expression in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice. Twenty-four HBV (-) and 24 HBV (+) transgenic mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were selected for the present study. Intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 ?L/g of CCl4 (1:4 dissolved in olive oil) to mice was performed to induce acute liver injury model. Eight normal clean-grade C57BL/6 mice were taken as the control group. The control group received saline intraperitoneally. The mice in each group were killed 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. The liver tissue samples of mice were collected. The liver histological changes at different time points in each group were observed under light microscope. The quantitative PCR methods were utilized to measure the relative mRNA levels of CYP2E1 gene in liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques were used to observe tissue expression levels of CYP2E1 in each group. Compared with that of the control group, mRNA and protein expression levels of CYP2E1 significantly increased both in the HBV (-) group and in the HBV (+) group after the CCl4 induced the acute liver injury, and it reached the peak at 72 h after the CCl4 injection. Compared with the HBV (-) group, the mice in the HBV (+) group had severe liver damage and significantly increased CYP2E1 gene and protein expression levels. In the CCl4-induced acute liver injury of HBV transgenic mice, the CYP2E1 gene expression significantly increased. The results provided evidence for the HBV-induced liver damage and liver cancer pathogenesis.
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Cu-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxygenation and C-C bond cleavage: an approach to ?-ketoesters.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The Cu-catalyzed novel aerobic oxidative esterification reaction of 1,3-diones for the synthesis of ?-ketoesters has been developed. This method combines C-C ?-bond cleavage, dioxygen activation and oxidative C-H bond functionalization, as well as provides a practical, neutral, and mild synthetic approach to ?-ketoesters which are important units in many biologically active compounds and useful precursors in a variety of functional group transformations. A plausible radical process is proposed on the basis of mechanistic studies.
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[Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on childrens dermatitis and eczema].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on childrens dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on childrens dermatitis and eczema were provided.
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Massless Dirac fermions in graphene under an external periodic magnetic field.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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By solving the two-component spinor equation for massless Dirac fermions, we show that graphene under a periodic external magnetic field exhibits a unique energy spectrum. At low energies, Dirac fermions are localized inside the magnetic region with discrete Landau energy levels, while at higher energies, Dirac fermions are mainly found in non-magnetic regions with continuous energy bands originating from wavefunctions analogous to particle-in-box states of electrons. These findings offer a new methodology for the control and tuning of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.
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Non-neuronal release of gamma-aminobutyric Acid by embryonic pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principle inhibitory transmitter in the mature central nervous system, is also involved in activities outside the nervous system. Recent studies have shown that functional GABA receptors are expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells and these receptors control ES cell proliferation. However, it is not clear whether ES cells have their own GABAergic transmission output machinery that can fulfill GABA release or whether the cells merely process the GABA receptors by receiving and responding to the diffused GABA released elsewhere. To get further insight into this unresolved problem, we detected the repertoire of components for GABA synthesis, storage, reaction, and termination in ES and embryonal carcinoma stem cells by biological assays, and then directly quantified released GABA in the intercellular milieu from these pluripotent stem (PS) cells by an analytical chemical assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). We found that embryonic PS cells processed a GABAergic circuit machinery and spontaneously released GABA, which suggests the potential that embryonic PS cells could autonomously establish a GABA niche via release of the transmitter.
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[Effects of chondroitinase ABC combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on repair of spinal cord injury in rats].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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To investigate the effects of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in repair spinal cord injury of rats.
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Elevated expression of Piwi and piRNAs in ovaries of triploid crucian carp.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Increasing piRNAs provide RNA-interference pathways to regulate transposons and gene expression in germline cells. We demonstrate that Piwi transcripts are exclusively expressed in adult testes and ovaries in teleosts, with triploids showing the highest Piwi expression in the ovaries. Studies in vivo and in vitro showed that hCG and E2 treatment suppressed Piwi expression. We further cloned 200 small RNAs in the three kinds of fish. Seven piRNAs were obtained from all the three different ploidy fishes. During ovulation, five piRNAs showed significantly higher expression in the ovaries of sterile triploids than fertile diploids and tetraploids. Furthermore, E2 suppressed the expression of the six piRNAs at different levels in vivo and in vitro. The present study bridges the gap between the HPG axis and Piwi-piRNA pathway by suggesting that a dysfunctional HPG axis abrogated the piRNA suppression in triploid fish.
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Nod-Like Receptor Protein 1 Inflammasome Mediates Neuron Injury under High Glucose.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Inflammatory events during diabetes may be an important mechanism of diabetic encephalopathy. Inflammasome is a multiprotein complex consisting of Nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase 1 or 5, which functions to switch on the inflammatory process and the release of inflammatory factors. The present study hypothesized that the formation and activation of NLRP1 inflammasome turns on neuroinflammation and neuron injury during hyperglycemia. The results demonstrated that the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) were increased in the cortex of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of mature IL-1? and IL-18 were also elevated in culture medium of neurons treated with high glucose (50 mM). The expression of three essential components of the NLRP1 inflammasome complex, namely, NLRP1, ASC, and caspase 1, was also upregulated in vivo and in vitro under high glucose. Silencing the ASC gene prevented the caspase-1 activation, and inhibiting caspase 1 activity blocked hyperglycemia-induced release of inflammatory factors and neuron injury. Moreover, we found that pannexin 1 mediated the actvitation of NLRP1 inflammasome under high glucose. These results suggest that hyperglycemia induces neuroinflammation through activation of NLRP1 inflammasome, which represents a novel mechanism of diabetes-associated neuron injury.
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[Diagnosis and treatment of upper arm radial neuritis by ultrasonography].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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To evaluate the application of ultrasonography in diagnosis and treatment of the upper arm radial neuritis.
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[Application of vancomycin-loaded calcium sulphate in treatment of osteomyelitis].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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To investigate the role of vancomycin-loaded calcium sulphate in the treatment of osteomyelitis.
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[Analysis of correlative factors of non-surgical vertebral fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To investigate the correlative factors of non-surgical vertebral fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures(OVCFs).
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hTERT promoter activity identifies osteosarcoma cells with increased EMT characteristics.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in order for epithelial-derived malignancies to metastasize, however, its role in mesenchymal-derived tumors, i.e., osteosarcoma, remains unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are enriched with cells that undergo EMT. The activity of telomerase is maintained in normal stem cells and a number of malignant tumors. The current study observed the heterogeneity of telomerase activity among individual osteosarcoma cells. We hypothesized that telomerase-positive (TELpos) cells are enriched for stem cell-like and EMT properties. A human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter-reporter was applied to assess the telomerase activity of individual MG63 osteosarcoma cells and sort them into TELpos and telomerase-negative (TELneg) subpopulations. It was found that the TELpos cells exhibited an enhanced ability to form sarcospheres in vitro. In addition, TELpos cells exhibited a higher expression of vimentin, accompanied by an increased long/short axis ratio. A panel of EMT-related genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, and were found to be significantly upregulated in TELpos cells. Next, the in vitro migration capacity was examined by Transwell assay, which confirmed that TELpos cells are more prone to migration (2.6 fold). The results of the present study support the concept that EMT also applies to mesenchymal-derived osteosarcoma and draws a connection between telomerase and EMT characteristics.
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Role of NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species in Podocyte Injury.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Shankland, 2006). Recent studies highlighted the mechanisms of podocyte injury and implications for potential treatment strategies in proteinuric kidney diseases (Zhang et al., 2012). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals which are closely associated with the development and progression of glomerular sclerosis. NADPH oxidase is a district enzymatic source of cellular ROS production and prominently expressed in podocytes (Zhang et al., 2010). In the last decade, it has become evident that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction is a key trigger of podocyte injury, such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation (Whaley-Connell et al., 2006), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Zhang et al., 2011), and inflammatory priming (Abais et al., 2013). This review focuses on the mechanism of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS in podocyte injury under different pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we also reviewed the therapeutic perspectives of NADPH oxidase in kidney diseases related to podocyte injury.
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Rapid Quantification of Tobramycin and Vancomycin by UPLC-TQD and Application to Osteomyelitis Patient Samples.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Tobramycin and vancomycin are the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of osteomyelitis. A sensitive and rapid method was developed for the analysis of tobramycin and vancomycin in human drainage tissue fluid. The procedure involved a simple liquid-liquid extraction of tobramycin, vancomycin and atenolol (internal standard) and separation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid water solution and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid acetonitrile solution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (m/z 468 ? 163 transitions for tobramycin; m/z 725 ? 144 for vancomycin; m/z 267 ? 74 for the internal standard). The retention times of tobramycin, vancomycin, and the internal standard were 0.68, 3.62 and 3.03 min, respectively. The total analysis time was less than 10 min. Excellent linear relationships (correlation coefficient > 0.99) were demonstrated between the area under the peak ratios of tobramycin and vancomycin to the internal standard in the drainage tissue fluid, and the concentration ranges were 1.25-100.00 mg/L and 0.50-150.00 mg/L for tobramycin and vancomycin, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision (coefficient of variation) acceptance criteria for each quality control was ? 7.8% and the mean accuracy values were < 5.0% for tobramycin and < 4.0% for vancomycin. All experiments suggested the high-throughput potential of the proposed method. The method was successfully applied to investigate local delivery of tobramycin and vancomycin in four calcaneal osteomyelitis patients who had accepted drug-loaded artificial bone implantation.
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[Effects of hypothermia plus dexamethasone on eNOS expression and spermatogenic cell apoptosis after testicular torsion reduction].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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To investigate the protective effects of hypothermia combined with dexamethasone on the testis of rats after testicular torsion reduction and on the expression of eNOS and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells.
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[Novel qPCR strategy for quantification of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 vector genome-titer].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has many advantages for gene therapy over other vector systems. However, after the production of recombinant AAV (Raav) vectors, the biological titration of rAAV stocks is still cumbersome. Different investigators used laboratory-specific methods or internal reference standards that may limit preclinical and clinical applications. The inverted terminal repeats (ITR) sequences are the only cis-regulated viral elements required for rAAV packaging and remain within viral vector genomes. ITR is the excellent target sequences for qPCR quantification of rAAV titer. In this study, we developed a novel qPCR strategy to quantify rAAVs vector genome titer via targeting the ITR2 or ITR2-CMV element. In conclusion, the method is fast and accurate for the titration of rAAV2-derived vector genomes. It will promote the standardization of rAAV titration in the future.
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Reduced cerebrovascular reactivity in posterior cerebral arteries in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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To evaluate the hemodynamics and vasoreactivity in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
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CD4 positive T helper cells contribute to retinal ganglion cell death in mouse model of ischemia reperfusion injury.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Neuron degeneration is a common pathological process associated with many disease conditions in the central nervous system including retina. Although immune responses have been proposed as one potential element in triggering neural damage, the mechanism of action of specific immune components underlying the pathogenesis is unclear. In this study we focus on adaptive immune activities to evaluate CD4 positive helper cells in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration in response to transient retinal ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Transient retinal ischemia was induced in four mouse strains with different immune backgrounds, including wild type mice from C57BL/6 and BABL/c strains, severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice lacking T and B lymphocytes, SCID mice with transferred wild type CD4+ T cells, and the STAT6 deficient mice without T helper 2 (TH2) cells. In SCID mice RGCs showed a strong resistance to cell death in response to I/R injury (89% ± 3% of the survival cells in contralateral eye) compared with C57BL/6 (p = 0.018) and BALB/C (p = 0.038) wild types. By transferring the mature CD4+ T cells from matched wild type into SCID mice, the resistance of RGCs to injury was significantly compromised (p < 0.05). Furthermore a significant resistance of RGCs to cell death (p < 0.05) accompanied with an overexpression of STAT1 and STAT3 was confirmed in STAT6 deficient mice in response to I/R injury compared with the wild type controls, indicating that TH2 cells maturation might be involved in RGC damage. Adaptive immunity carried by CD4 T cells plays an essential role in RGC degeneration.
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Identification of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 as a Cell Cycle Regulator through Modulating Sp1 Mediated Transcription in Human Hepatoma Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The transcription factor Sp1 is implicated in the activation of G0/G1 phase genes. Modulation of Sp1 transcription activities may affect G1-S checkpoint, resulting in changes in cell proliferation. In this study, our results demonstrated that activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) promoted cell proliferation by inhibiting Sp1 signaling pathway. Cell proliferation and cell cycle assays demonstrated that PARP inhibitors or PARP-1 siRNA treatment significantly inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cells and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in hepatoma cells, while overexpression of PARP-1 or PARP-1 activator treatment promoted cell cycle progression. Simultaneously, inhibition of PARP-1 enhanced the expression of Sp1-mediated checkpoint proteins, such as p21 and p27. In this study, we also showed that Sp1 was poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated by PARP-1 in hepatoma cells. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suppressed Sp1 mediated transcription through preventing Sp1 binding to the Sp1 response element present in the promoters of target genes. Taken together, these data indicated that PARP-1 inhibition attenuated the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Sp1 and significantly increased the expression of Sp1 target genes, resulting in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and the decreased proliferative ability of the hepatoma cells.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading gene islands in five pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium isolates from different geographic locations.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS utilizes pyrene, a high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), as a sole carbon source. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of isolate KMS predicted 25 genes with the potential to encode 17 pyrene-induced proteins identified by proteomics; these genes were clustered on both the chromosome and a circular plasmid. RT-PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from KMS cells grown with or without pyrene showed that the presence of pyrene increased the transcript accumulation of 20 of the predicted chromosome- and plasmid-located genes encoding pyrene-induced proteins. The transcribed genes from both the chromosome and a circular plasmid were within larger regions containing genes required for PAH degradation constituting PAH-degrading gene islands. Genes encoding integrases and transposases were found within and outside the PAH-degrading gene islands. The lower GC content of the genes within the gene island (61%-64%) compared with the average genome content (68%) suggested that these mycobacteria initially acquired these genes by horizontal gene transfer. Synteny was detected for the PAH-degrading islands in the genomes of two additional Mycobacterium isolates from the same PAH-polluted site and of two other pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium from different sites in the United States of America. Consequently, the gene islands have been conserved from a common ancestral strain.
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[Experimental study on the stimulating effect and the tissue compatibility of a new type of implanted gastric electrical stimulator].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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A new type of gastric electrical stimulator (GES) was introduced. After the stimulator was implanted in beagle dogs, its stimulating effects and the pathological changes at the implant site were observed to study the safety and efficacy of stimulator as well as the tissue compatibility of the materials used. The results showed that, this type of stimulator was safe and capable of inhibiting food intake of the dogs, and that the materials used had good tissue compatibility.
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Triptolide induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells in vitro via altering expression of histone demethylase LSD1 and JMJD2B.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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To elucidate the relationship between triptolide-induced changes in histone methylation and its antitumor effect on human multiple myeloma (MM) cells in vitro.
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Switching and rectification of a single light-sensitive diarylethene molecule sandwiched between graphene nanoribbons.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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The "open" and "closed" isomers of the diarylethene molecule that can be converted between each other upon photo-excitation are found to have drastically different current-voltage characteristics when sandwiched between two graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). More importantly, when one GNR is metallic and another one is semiconducting, strong rectification behavior of the "closed" diarylethene isomer with the rectification ratio >10(3) is observed. The surprisingly high rectification ratio originates from the band gap of GNR and the bias-dependent variation of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the diarylethene molecule, the combination of which completely shuts off the current at positive biases. Results presented in this paper may form the basis for a new class of molecular electronic devices.
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[Treatment of acute ankle fractures with arthroscopy-assisted open reduction and internal fixation].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To explore the clinical results of arthroscopy-assisted open reduction and internal fixation for the treatment of acute Lauge-Hansen stage IV ankle fractures.
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Bandgap engineering of zigzag graphene nanoribbons by manipulating edge states via defective boundaries.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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One of the most severe limits of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) in future applications is that zigzag GNRs (ZGNRs) are gapless, so cannot be used in field effect transistors (FETs), and armchair GNR (AGNR) based FETs require atomically precise control of edges and width. Using the tight-binding approach and first principles method, we derived and proved a general boundary condition for the opening of a significant bandgap in ZGNRs with defective edge structures. The proposed semiconducting ZGNRs have some interesting properties one of which is that they can be embedded and integrated in a large piece of graphene without the need to completely cut them out. We also demonstrated a new type of high-performance all-ZGNR FET. Previous proposals of graphene FETs are all based on AGNRs.
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SNARE-mediated rapid lysosome fusion in membrane raft clustering and dysfunction of bovine coronary arterial endothelium.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The present study attempted to evaluate whether soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate lysosome fusion in response to death receptor activation and contribute to membrane raft (MR) clustering and consequent endothelial dysfunction in coronary arterial endothelial cells. By immunohistochemical analysis, vesicle-associated membrane proteins 2 (VAMP-2, vesicle-SNAREs) were found to be abundantly expressed in the endothelium of bovine coronary arteries. Direct lysosome fusion monitoring by N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-[4-(dibutylamino)styryl]pyridinium dibromide (FM1-43) quenching demonstrated that the inhibition of VAMP-2 with tetanus toxin or specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) almost completely blocked lysosome fusion to plasma membrane induced by Fas ligand (FasL), a well-known MR clustering stimulator. The involvement of SNAREs was further confirmed by an increased interaction of VAMP-2 with a target-SNARE protein syntaxin-4 after FasL stimulation in coimmunoprecipitation analysis. Also, the inhibition of VAMP-2 with tetanus toxin or VAMP-2 siRNA abolished FasL-induced MR clustering, its colocalization with a NADPH oxidase unit gp91(phox), and increased superoxide production. Finally, FasL-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation was reversed by the treatment of bovine coronary arteries with tetanus toxin or VAMP-2 siRNA. VAMP-2 is critical to lysosome fusion in MR clustering, and this VAMP-2-mediated lysosome-MR signalosomes contribute to redox regulation of coronary endothelial function.
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meso-3,6-Dioxopiperazine-2,5-diacet-amide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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The title compound, C(8)H(12)N(4)O(4), was obtained by cyclization of the two l-asparagine mol-ecules and reveals a crystallographic inversion symmetry, and accordingly the two stereogenic centres are of opposite chirality. Thus, an asymmetric unit comprises a half of a mol-ecule. The mol-ecules are assembled into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network by N-H?O hydrogen bonds.
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[Clinical study on surgical treatment for thoracolumbar burst fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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To explore the choice of operative approach for thoracolumbar burst fractures and evaluate its clinical effects.
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Low-power SoC design for ligament balance measuring system in total knee arthroplasty.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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A design of a low-power wireless System-on-Chip (SoC) for the Ligament Balance Measuring System (LBMS) in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is presented in this paper. It includes a signal conditioning circuit that can support up to 15 force sensors, a 433 MHz RF front-end for data transmission, an 8-bit low-power microprocessor, and a FIFO with a digital filter. Idle and wake-up modes are well designed to reduce the power consumption since the device should be used for the whole surgical procedure. Test results show that the signal conditioning circuit with 16-bit single line output can operate under a wide voltage range, which is from 1.2V to 3.6V. The minimal power consumption is 139?.W@1.2V with a 200 KHz clock. Experimental results demonstrated in static and body tests are given in the paper also. The chip will be used in an aided monitoring system for Total Knee Arthroplasty in the future work.
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Adsorption of gas molecules on transition metal embedded graphene: a search for high-performance graphene-based catalysts and gas sensors.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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We report an investigation on the adsorption of small gas molecules (O(2), CO, NO(2) and NH(3)) on pristine and various transition metal embedded graphene samples using a first-principles approach based on density-functional theory (DFT). The most stable adsorption geometry, energy, charge transfer, and magnetic moment of these molecules on graphene embedded with different transition metal elements are thoroughly discussed. Our calculations found that embedded transition metal elements in general can significantly enhance the interactions between gas molecules and graphene, and for applications of graphene-based catalysis, Ti and Au may be the best choices among all transition metal elements. We also expect a detailed analysis of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of these systems to shed light on future applications of graphene-based gas sensing and spintronics.
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?-Oxalato-bis-[bis-(2,2-bipyridine)-manganese(II)] bis(perchlorate) 2,2-bipyridine solvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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The unit cell of the title compound, [Mn(2)(C(2)O(4))(C(10)H(8)N(2))(4)](ClO(4))(2)·C(10)H(8)N(2), consists of a binuclear cation, two perchlor-ate anions, and one solvent 2,2-bipyridine (bpy) mol-ecule. In the complex cation [Mn(2)(C(2)O(4))(C(10)N(2)H(8))(4)](2+), two Mn(II) atoms are bridged by a bis-(bidentate) oxalate ligand, each Mn(II) atom being further coordinated by two bpy ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The distance between the two six-coordinated metal atoms is 5.583?(1)?Å. ?-? stacking inter-actions [inter-planar distances between bpy rings = 3.739?(1)?Å] are essential to the supramolecular assembly. There are extensive inter-ionic C-H?O inter-actions between the cations and between the cation and anion. Three of the four perchlorate O atoms are disordered over two sets of sites with occupancy ratios of 0.852?(6):0.148?(6).
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Ammonia plasma modification towards a rapid and low temperature approach for tuning electrical conductivity of ZnO nanowires on flexible substrates.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Though the fabrication of ZnO nanostructures is economical and low temperature, the lack of a facile, reliable and low temperature methodology to tune its electrical conductivity has prevented it from competing with other semiconductors. Here, we carried out surface modification of ZnO nanowires using ammonia plasma with no heat treatment, and studied their electrical properties over an extended time frame of more than a year. The fabrication of flexible devices was demonstrated via various methods of transferring and aligning as-synthesized ZnO nanowires onto plastic substrates. Hall measurements of the plasma modified ZnO nanowires revealed p-type conductivity. The N1s peak was present in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum of the surface modified ZnO, showing the presence of ammonia complexes. Low temperature photoluminescence showed evidence of acceptor-bound exciton emission. The resulting electrical devices, a chemical sensor and p-n homojunction, show the tunable electrical response of the surface modified ZnO nanowires.
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Triptolide-induced apoptosis by inactivating nuclear factor-kappa B apoptotic pathway in multiple myeloma in vitro.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2011
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The effect of triptolide on proliferation and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 cells in vitro, as well as the roles of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B? was investigated. The effect of tritptolide on the growth of RPMI-8226 cells was studied by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechest 33258 staining and Annexin V/PI double staining assay. The expression of NF-?B and I?B? was observed by Western blot and confocal microscopy. The results showed that triptolide inactivated NF-?B apoptotic pathway in human multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 cells. Triptolide at nM range induced proliferation inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner and apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion in RPMI-8226 cells. Besides, we observed the inhibition of NF-?B /p65 in the nuclear fraction was correlated with the increase in the protein expression of I?B? in the cytosol. These results suggested that triptolide might exhibit its strong anti-tumor effects via inactivation of NF-?B/p65 and I?B?.
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