JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of p48 Ebp1 by CDK2 is required for tumorigenic function of p48.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p48, strongly promotes tumorigenesis of glioblastoma, accelerating cell proliferation and transformation, while the short isoform, p42, which lacks the N-terminal 54 amino acids, inhibits tumor growth. However, it is unclear if the N-terminal domain of p48 regulates the oncogenic function of p48. Here, we show that p48, but not p42, interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) through its N-terminal domain, resulting in the specific phosphorylation of serine 34 of p48. Overexpression of wild-type p48 greatly enhanced tumor cell growth, whereas phospho-ablated mutant S34A of p48, which is mutated at the CDK2 phosphorylation site, antagonizes cell proliferation and transformation. Moreover, phospho-ablated mutant S34A abrogated the ability of p48 to accelerate tumor cell growth in a mouse engraft model. Thus, our findings indicate that p48Ebp1 acts as an oncoprotein through selective interaction and/or modification of the N-terminal domain that does not exist in its short isoform p42. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
P42 Ebp1 functions as a tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the short isoform of ErbB3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p42 has been considered to be a potent tumor suppressor in a number of human cancers, whether p42 suppresses tumorigenesis of lung cancer cells has never been clarified. In the current study we investigated the tumor suppressor role of p42 in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Our data suggest that the expression level of p42 is inversely correlated with the cancerous properties of NSCLC cells and that ectopic expression of p42 is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion as well as tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, p42 suppresses Akt activation and overexpression of a constitutively active form of Akt restores the tumorigenic activity of A549 cells that is ablated by exogenous p42 expression. Thus, we propose that p42 Ebp1 functions as a potent tumor suppressor of NSCLC through interruption of Akt signaling.
Related JoVE Video
EGFR phosphorylation of DCBLD2 recruits TRAF6 and stimulates AKT-promoted tumorigenesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aberrant activation of EGFR in human cancers promotes tumorigenesis through stimulation of AKT signaling. Here, we determined that the discoidina neuropilin-like membrane protein DCBLD2 is upregulated in clinical specimens of glioblastomas and head and neck cancers (HNCs) and is required for EGFR-stimulated tumorigenesis. In multiple cancer cell lines, EGFR activated phosphorylation of tyrosine 750 (Y750) of DCBLD2, which is located within a recently identified binding motif for TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Consequently, phosphorylation of DCBLD2 Y750 recruited TRAF6, leading to increased TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and subsequent activation of AKT, thereby enhancing EGFR-driven tumorigenesis. Moreover, evaluation of patient samples of gliomas and HNCs revealed an association among EGFR activation, DCBLD2 phosphorylation, and poor prognoses. Together, our findings uncover a pathway in which DCBLD2 functions as a signal relay for oncogenic EGFR signaling to promote tumorigenesis and suggest DCBLD2 and TRAF6 as potential therapeutic targets for human cancers that are associated with EGFR activation.
Related JoVE Video
Durable Therapeutic Efficacy Utilizing Combinatorial Blockade against IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 in Mice with Brain Tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma in adults. Although protected by both the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers, GBMs are actively infiltrated by T cells. Previous work has shown that IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 are dominant molecular participants in the suppression of GBM immunity. This includes IDO-mediated regulatory T-cell (Treg; CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) accumulation, the interaction of T-cell-expressed, CTLA-4, with dendritic cell-expressed, CD80, as well as the interaction of tumor- and/or macrophage-expressed, PD-L1, with T-cell-expressed, PD-1. The individual inhibition of each pathway has been shown to increase survival in the context of experimental GBM. However, the impact of simultaneously targeting all three pathways in brain tumors has been left unanswered.
Related JoVE Video
The timing of neural stem cell-based virotherapy is critical for optimal therapeutic efficacy when applied with radiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of glioblastoma.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains fatal despite intensive surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic interventions. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been used as cellular vehicles for the transportation of oncolytic virus (OV) to therapeutically resistant and infiltrative tumor burdens throughout the brain. The HB1.F3-CD human NSC line has demonstrated efficacy as a cell carrier for the delivery of a glioma tropic OV CRAd-Survivin-pk7 (CRAd-S-pk7) in vitro and in animal models of glioma. At this juncture, no study has investigated the effectiveness of OV-loaded NSCs when applied in conjunction with the standard of care for GBM treatment, and therefore this study was designed to fill this void. Here, we show that CRAd-S-pk7-loaded HB1.F3-CD cells retain their tumor-tropic properties and capacity to function as in situ viral manufacturers in the presence of ionizing radiation (XRT) and temozolomide (TMZ). Furthermore, for the first time, we establish a logical experimental model that aims to recapitulate the complex clinical scenario for the treatment of GBM and tests the compatibility of NSCs loaded with OV. We report that applying OV-loaded NSCs together with XRT and TMZ can increase the median survival of glioma bearing mice by approximately 46%. Most importantly, the timing and order of therapeutic implementation impact therapeutic outcome. When OV-loaded NSCs are delivered prior to rather than after XRT and TMZ treatment, the median survival of mice bearing patient-derived GBM43 glioma xenografts is extended by 30%. Together, data from this report support the testing of CRAd-S-pk7-loaded HB1.F3-CD cells in the clinical setting and argue in favor of a multimodality approach for the treatment of patients with GBM.
Related JoVE Video
A preclinical evaluation of neural stem cell-based cell carrier for targeted antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oncolytic adenoviral virotherapy (OV) is a highly promising approach for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In practice, however, the approach is limited by poor viral distribution and spread throughout the tumor mass.
Related JoVE Video
N-acetylcysteine amide augments the therapeutic effect of neural stem cell-based antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current research has evaluated the intrinsic tumor-tropic properties of stem cell carriers for targeted anticancer therapy. Our laboratory has been extensively studying in the preclinical setting, the role of neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles of CRAd-S-pk7, a gliomatropic oncolytic adenovirus (OV). However, the mediated toxicity of therapeutic payloads, such as oncolytic adenoviruses, toward cell carriers has significantly limited this targeted delivery approach. Following this rationale, in this study, we assessed the role of a novel antioxidant thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), to prevent OV-mediated toxicity toward NSC carriers in an orthotropic glioma xenograft mouse model. Our results show that the combination of NACA and CRAd-S-pk7 not only increases the viability of these cell carriers by preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis of NSCs, but also improves the production of viral progeny in HB1.F3.CD NSCs. In an intracranial xenograft mouse model, the combination treatment of NACA and NSCs loaded with CRAd-S-pk7 showed enhanced CRAd-S-pk7 production and distribution in malignant tissues, which improves the therapeutic efficacy of NSC-based targeted antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy. These data demonstrate that the combination of NACA and NSCs loaded with CRAd-S-pk7 may be a desirable strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of MMP14 potentiates the therapeutic effect of temozolomide and radiation in gliomas.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metalloproteinases are membrane-bound proteins that play a role in the cellular responses to antiglioma therapy. Previously, it has been shown that treatment of glioma cells with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) induces the expression of metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). To investigate the role of MMP14 in gliomagenesis, we used several chemical inhibitors which affect MMP14 expression. Of all the inhibitors tested, we found that Marimastat not only inhibits the expression of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells, but also induces cell cycle arrest. To determine the relationship between MMP14 inhibition and alteration of the cell cycle, we used an RNAi technique. Genetic knockdown of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells induced G2/M arrest and decreased proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that TMZ and XRT regulated expression of MMP14 in clinical samples and in vitro models through downregulation of microRNA374. In vivo genetic knockdown of MMP14 significantly decreased tumor growth of glioma xenografts and improved survival of glioma-bearing mice. Moreover, the combination of MMP14 silencing with TMZ and XRT significantly improved the survival of glioma-bearing mice compared to a single modality treatment group. Therefore, we show that the inhibition of MMP14 sensitizes tumor cells to TMZ and XRT and could be used as a future strategy for antiglioma therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein, p48, mediates protein kinase B/Akt-dependent HDM2 stabilization and nuclear localization.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
p48 is a long isoform of the ErbB3 binding protein that has oncogenic functions including promotion of carcinogenesis and induction of malignant transformation through negative regulation of tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that high level of p48 protein expression leads to enhance HDM2 phosphorylation by Akt and inhibits the self-ubiquitination of HDM2 by up-regulation of Akt activity, thereby promoting its protein stability. Moreover, p48 expression leads to accumulated nuclear localization of HDM2, whereas p48 depletion disturbs its nuclear localization. Hence, higher expression of p48 in cancer cells reduces p53 levels through modulation of HDM2 nuclear localization and protein stability via regulation of its Akt-mediated phosphorylation.
Related JoVE Video
Negative regulation of p53 by the long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein Ebp1 in brain tumors.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ErbB3 binding protein Ebp1 has been implicated in a number of human cancers. Ebp1 includes 2 isoforms, p48 and p42, that exhibit different cellular activities. Here we show that the larger p48 isoform is transforming and that it promotes cell growth, clonogenicity, and invasion in human glioblastoma (GBM). P48 overexpression in GBM cells facilitated tumorigenesis and enhanced tumor growth in mouse xenograft models. Human GBM tissues displayed elevated levels of p48 compared with surrounding normal tissues or low-grade tumors. Notably, p48 levels were inversely correlated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. We determined that p48 binds to the p53 E3 ligase HDM2, enhancing HDM2-p53 association and thereby promoting p53 polyubiquitination and degradation to reduce steady-state p53 levels and activity. Together, our findings suggest that p48 functions as an oncogene by promoting glioma tumorigenicity via interactions with HDM2 that contribute to p53 downregulation.
Related JoVE Video
Akt2 and nucleophosmin/B23 function as an oncogenic unit in human lung cancer cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The signaling network of protein kinase B(PKB)/Akt has been implicated in survival of lung cancer cells. However, understanding the relative contribution of the different isoform of Akt network is nontrival. Here, we report that Akt2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells. Suppression of Akt2 expression in A549 cells results in notable inhibition of cell poliferation, soft agar growth, and invasion, accompanying by a decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 protein. Overexpression of Akt1 restores cancerous growth of A549 cells in B23-knockdown (KD) cells while Akt2 overexpression did not restore proliferating potential in cells with downregulated B23, thus suggesting Akt2 requires B23 to drive proliferation of lung cancer cell. Loss of functional Akt2 and B23 has similar defects on cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance and cell cycle regulation, while loss of Akt1 has less defects on cell proliferation, survival and cell cycle progression in A549 cells. Moreover, overexpression of B23 rescues the proliferative block induced as a consequence of loss of Akt2. Thus our data suggest that Akt2/B23 functions as an oncogenic unit to drive tumorigenesis of A549 lung cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroprotection signaling pathway of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor against staurosporine induced apoptosis in hippocampal H19-7/IGF-IR [corrected].
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurotrophins protect neurons against excitotoxicity; however the signaling mechanisms for this protection remain to be fully elucidated. Here we report that activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is critical for protection of hippocampal cells from staurosporine (STS) induced apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation and activation of the caspase cascade. Both nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) prevent STS-induced apoptotic morphology and caspase-3 activity by upregulating phosphorylation of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptor. Inhibition of Trk receptor by K252a altered the neuroprotective effect of both NGF and BDNF whereas inhibition of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) had no effect. Impairment of the PI3K/Akt pathway or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-Akt abolished the protective effect of both neurotrophins, while active Akt prevented cell death. Moreover, knockdown of Akt by si-RNA was able to block the survival effect of both NGF and BDNF. Thus, the survival action of NGF and BDNF against STS-induced neurotoxicity was mediated by the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling through the Trk receptor.
Related JoVE Video
Immunological factors relating to the antitumor effect of temozolomide chemoimmunotherapy in a murine glioma model.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we investigated the potential of combined treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) and the underlying immunological factors of TMZ chemoimmunotherapy with an intracranial GL26 glioma animal model. The combined treatment enhanced the tumor-specific immune responses and prolonged the survival more effectively than either single therapy in GL26 tumor-bearing animals. Apoptosis was induced in the tumors of the animals by the treatment with TMZ. Calreticulin (CRT) surface exposure was detected by immunofluorescence staining of TMZ-treated GL26 cells. TMZ chemotherapy increased tumor antigen cross-priming from tumor cells, leading to cross-priming of tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. This chemotherapy appeared to suppress the frequency of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). Moreover, this combined therapy resulted in an increase in the tumor infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, the findings of this study provide evidence that the combination of TMZ chemotherapy and treatment with DC-based vaccines leads to the enhancement of antitumor immunity through increased tumor-specific immune responses via the cross-priming of apoptotic tumor cell death mediated by CRT exposure and, in part, the suppression of Treg. Therefore, CRT exposure, regulatory T cells, and cross-priming by TMZ chemotherapy may be immunological factors related to the enhancement of the antitumor effects of chemoimmunotherapy in an experimental brain tumor model.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of anti-tumor activity by low-dose combination of the recombinant urokinase kringle domain and celecoxib in a glioma model.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The kringle domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (UK1) has anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2, also suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth. To look for potential additive effects in their activities, we examined the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of the combination of UK1 and celecoxib for malignant gliomas. In vitro, the combination of UK1 and celecoxib enhanced inhibition of proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells, although showing no enhancement of inhibition of U87 cell growth. However, in vivo models, combination treatment of intracerebral U87 malignant glioma xenografts in nude mice with UK1 (10mg/kg/day) and celecoxib (10mg/kg/day) at lower doses resulted in even more potent inhibition of tumor growth than each monotherapy (by 81% compared to untreated tumors), with drastic decrease of the expression of angiogenesis-related factors and increase of apoptosis in the tumor tissues. Interestingly, UK1 inhibited VEGF or bFGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in ECs, whereas celecoxib showed no such effects. However, celecoxib inhibited U87 cell growth and directly suppressed their VEGF production. Therefore, our data suggest that combined use at low doses of UK1 and celecoxib with different anti-angiogenic mechanisms provides a desirable strategy for anti-glioma therapy.
Related JoVE Video
S-nitrosylation of B23/nucleophosmin by GAPDH protects cells from the SIAH1-GAPDH death cascade.
J. Cell Biol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
B23/nucleophosmin is a multifunctional protein that participates in cell survival signaling by shuttling between the nucleolus/nucleoplasm and nucleus/cytoplasm. In this paper, we report a novel neuroprotective function of B23 through regulation of the SIAH1-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) death cascade. B23 physiologically bound to both SIAH1 and GAPDH, disrupting the SIAH1-GAPDH complex in the nucleus in response to nitrosative stress. S-nitrosylation of B23 at cysteine 275 by trans-nitrosylation from GAPDH dramatically reduced the interaction between SIAH1 and GAPDH. S-nitrosylation of B23 enhanced B23-SIAH1 binding and mediated the neuroprotective actions of B23 by abrogating the E3 ligase activity of SIAH1. In mice, overexpression of B23 notably inhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate-mediated neurotoxicity, whereas expression of the C275S mutant, which is defective in binding to SIAH1, did not prevent neurotoxicity. Thus, B23 regulates neuronal survival by preventing SIAH1-GAPDH death signaling under stress-induced conditions in the brain.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.