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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis and Steatosis Are Associated with Persistently Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Negative for HCV RNA During Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin Therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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?Clinical implications of persistently alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation and associated factors in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients who achieved undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy remain unknown.
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Dendritic cells respond to nasopharygeal carcinoma cells through annexin A2-recognizing DC-SIGN.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor.
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SNP rs7770370 in HLA-DPB1 loci is the major genetic determinant of response to booster hepatitis B vaccination-results of a genome-wide association study.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is highly effective to reduce the risks of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, breakthrough and chronic HBV infections in vaccinated subjects raised concern about its' long-term efficacy. The specific aim of the study was to explore host genetic determinants of long-term immunological memory against HB vaccination.
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6-Dehydrogingerdione restrains lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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6-Dehydrogingerdione (6-DG), one important component of ginger, has been reported to possess some medical effects, such as antitumor and antiatherosclerosis. Herein, the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-DG against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced pro-inflammation mediators in RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. Results show that 6-DG significantly attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the LPS-mediated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). 6-DG inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of both p38 and nuclear factor of ? light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-? (I?B?), which further prevented p-p65 nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B-p65) translocation to the nucleus. Moreover, 6-DG increased the ratio of phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (p-STAT1)/p-STAT3 and down-regulated the gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10.
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Antioxidant and Anticancer Aporphine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Fifteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena. These compounds include liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) cepharadione B (11), ?-sitostenone (12), stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one (13) and two chlorophylls: pheophytin-a (14) and aristophyll-C (15). The anti-oxidation activity of the compounds was examined by antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power assays. The results have shown that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the antiproliferation activity of the isolated compounds against human melanoma, prostate and gastric cancer cells. The results shown that 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma, prostate and gastric cancer cells. Together, these findings suggest that leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena are a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances with antioxidant properties.
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Increasing Biopsy Number and Sampling from Gastric Body Improve the Sensitivity of Rapid Urease Test in Patients with Peptic Ulcer Bleeding.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Previous studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of rapid urease test (RUT) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection decreased during peptic ulcer bleeding.
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Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Saliva is considered as the best source of biological material for biomarker discovery studies since it is noninvasive in comparison to other body sources. Usually buffalo cannot precisely express estrus signals. Hence, there is a need for concise methods to detect the time of estrus to ensure the success of artificial insemination. Therefore, we have established a reference proteome map on the whole saliva of buffalo during their estrous cycle with special reference to estrus. Nearly 12 bands have been observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole saliva. Collectively, 179 proteins are identified with respect to different phases of the estrous cycle using mass spectrometry. On the whole, 37 proteins are exclusively expressed in the estrus phase, which include ?-enolase, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, clusterin, lactoperoxidase, serotransferrin, TGM3, UBA6, and transducin. Among the proteins, ?-enolase and TLR 4 were validated, and their specific expression was found during estrus as compared to other phases using immunoblot. The functional annotation reveals many as binding proteins in the estrus saliva when compared to the other phases. The present findings conclude that the proteomic approach adopted to identify the proteins from buffalo saliva around the estrous cycle may provide a new tool for screening the estrus phase. The results further conclude that the specific expression of ?-enolase and TLR 4 can be taken as the indicator of estrus in buffalo.-Muthukumar, S., Rajkumar, R., Rajesh, D., Saibaba, G., Liao, C.-C., Archunan, G., Padmanabhan, P., Gulyas, B. Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus.
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Adjuvant valproate therapy for patients with suspected mixed-depressive features.
Ther Adv Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Mixed-depressive features imply an occult bipolarity and might be linked to resistance to antidepressant therapy and a higher risk of suicide. Currently, there is no consensus about or any clinical guidelines available for this ill-defined clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of mood stabilizers, such as valproate, for adjuvant therapy in patients suspected of having mixed-depressive features.
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Short-term glutamine supplementation decreases lung inflammation and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products expression in direct acute lung injury in mice.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Glutamine (GLN) has been reported to improve clinical and experimental sepsis outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of GLN remain unclear, and may depend upon the route of GLN administration and the model of acute lung injury (ALI) used. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term GLN supplementation had an ameliorative effect on the inflammation induced by direct acid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in mice.
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Investigation of the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in mononuclear cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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BackgroundThis study aimed to explore the role of apoptosis initiators, caspase-9, caspase-10, mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS), and interferon regulatory factor 7 (pIRF7), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).MethodsLeukocyte apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, including annexin V, APO2.7, and 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) on each subtype of leukocyte in 35 patients with SLE, 15 disease controls, and 17 volunteer normal controls. Levels of caspase-9, caspase-10, MAVS, and pIRF7 in mononuclear cells and the disease activity index (SLEDAI) in the SLE patients were determined. Correlation among intracellular adaptor proteins and caspase levels were calculated.ResultsThe SLE patients had higher APO2.7 in total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocytes, and higher late apoptosis markers in total leukocytes and neutrophils than normal controls (all p¿<¿0.05). Disease activity was positively associated with the APO2.7 of CD19+ cells in SLE, but negatively associated with MAVS and caspase-9 levels (all p¿<¿0.05). Markers of viral infection and anti-virus transcription factors like MDA5, MAVS, and pIRF7 were significantly higher in SLE patients than in disease controls (p¿<¿0.05). Caspase-9 and caspase-10 levels positively correlated with MAVS and pIRF7 in SLE patients (p¿<¿0.05).ConclusionsThe disease activity of SLE is positively associated with APO2.7 level of CD19+ cells but negatively associated with MAVS and caspase-9 levels, which all point to a mitochondrial pathway.
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Reduced structural integrity and functional lateralization of the dorsal language pathway correlate with hallucinations in schizophrenia: A combined diffusion spectrum imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Recent studies suggest that structural and functional alterations of the language network are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. However, the ways in which the underlying structure and function of the network are altered and how these alterations are related to each other remain unclear. To elucidate this, we used diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) to reconstruct the dorsal and ventral pathways and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic task to obtain information about the functional activation in the corresponding regions in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls. The results demonstrated decreased structural integrity in the left ventral, right ventral and right dorsal tracts, and decreased functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway in schizophrenia. There was a positive correlation between the microstructural integrity of the right dorsal pathway and the functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, both functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway and microstructural integrity of the right dorsal pathway were negatively correlated with the scores of the delusion/hallucination symptom dimension. Our results suggest that impaired structural integrity of the right dorsal pathway is related to the reduction of functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway, and these alterations may aggravate AVHs in schizophrenia.
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Aberrant Toll-like receptor 2 promoter methylation in blood cells from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a major mediator of innate immunity against tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to determine if TLR2 promoter DNA methylation is associated with pulmonary TB.
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Altered integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus as a trait marker of schizophrenia: A sibling study using tractography-based analysis of the whole brain.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Trait markers of schizophrenia aid the dissection of the heterogeneous phenotypes into distinct subtypes and facilitate the genetic underpinning of the disease. The microstructural integrity of the white matter tracts could serve as a trait marker of schizophrenia, and tractography-based analysis (TBA) is the current method of choice. Manual tractography is time-consuming and limits the analysis to preselected fiber tracts. Here, we sought to identify a trait marker of schizophrenia from among 74 fiber tracts across the whole brain using a novel automatic TBA method. Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia, 31 unaffected siblings and 31 healthy controls were recruited to undergo diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), an index reflecting tract integrity, was computed for each tract and compared among the three groups. Ten tracts were found to exhibit significant differences between the groups with a linear, stepwise order from controls to siblings to patients; they included the right arcuate fasciculus, bilateral fornices, bilateral auditory tracts, left optic radiation, the genu of the corpus callosum, and the corpus callosum to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral temporal poles, and bilateral hippocampi. Posthoc between-group analyses revealed that the GFA of the right arcuate fasciculus was significantly decreased in both the patients and unaffected siblings compared to the controls. Furthermore, the GFA of the right arcuate fasciculus exhibited a trend toward positive symptom scores. In conclusion, the right arcuate fasciculus may be a candidate trait marker and deserves further study to verify any genetic association. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation induces kidney injury and fibrosis in rat offspring.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Background:Maternal tobacco smoke exposure adversely affected fetal kidney development. Nicotine stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in the renal epithelium. We hypothesized that maternal nicotine exposure would induce kidney fibrosis and involve CTGF in newborn rats.Methods:Nicotine was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 6?mg/kg/d from gestational days 7-21 and gestational day 7 to postnatal day 14. A control group was injected with normal saline. Neonatal kidney tissues underwent histological analysis, collagen measurement, and western blot analysis.Results:Tubular injury scores and total collagen contents were significantly higher in rats born to nicotine-treated dams than in rats born to normal saline-treated dams on postnatal days 7 and 21. Masson's trichrome staining further verified the presence of kidney fibrosis. Prenatal and/or postnatal nicotine exposure increased CTGF expression on postnatal days 7 and 21.Conclusion:Maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation induces neonatal kidney fibrosis, and CTGF may be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis. These results may be relevant to premature low-birth-weight infants who are conveyed a high risk of developing chronic kidney disease and exposed to breast milk of smoking mothers during the neonatal period.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.148.
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Antiphospholipid antibodies and cerebellar ataxia: a clinical analysis and literature review.
Neuroimmunomodulation
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Although it has been established that antiphospholipid antibodies (APAbs) bind to and modulate the signaling of cerebellar neurons in vitro, the clinical correlation between increased APAbs and cerebellar ataxia has rarely been investigated.
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Maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation induces cardiac remodeling in rat offspring.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal nicotine exposure on heart morphology and fibrosis in rat offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats by using a subcutaneous osmotic mini-pump at a dose of 6mg/kg/day from Gestational Days 7-21 or Gestational Day 7 to Postnatal Day 14. A control group received an equal volume of saline by the same route as nicotine. Rats born to prenatal nicotine-treated dams exhibited significantly greater cell width of cardiomyocytes, fewer cardiomyocyte nuclei number, higher ?-myosin heavy chain and transforming growth factor (TGF-?1) expression, and higher collagen deposition in heart compared with rats born to normal saline-treated dams on Postnatal Days 7 and 21. Postnatal nicotine exposure further enhances these effects. We conclude that TGF-?1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling induced by maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation in rat offspring.
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Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in attenuated variants of Lesch-Nyhan disease.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Lesch-Nyhan disease and its attenuated variants are caused by deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt). All patients exhibit excessive production of uric acid, which increases the risk for nephrolithiasis, renal failure, gouty arthritis and tophi. The mildest phenotype includes only problems related to overproduction of uric acid. The most severe clinical phenotype includes prominent neurological abnormalities and the universal feature is self-injurious behavior. In between the mildest and most severe syndromes is a broad spectrum of phenotypes with varying degrees of neurological, neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities. The effect of HPRT1 gene mutations on residual HGprt enzyme activity is the most relevant factor contributing to disease phenotype. Attenuated clinical phenotypes are associated with residual enzyme function, whereas the most severe phenotype is usually associated with null activity. In cases of gouty arthritis with urate overproduction, a careful evaluation for motor impairments or neurocognitive abnormalities may help to identify attenuated variants of Lesch-Nyhan disease for better management.
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Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10?M [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200?M [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-? and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal agents against H. nana.
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A systematic study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the A4GALT gene suggests a molecular genetic basis for the P1 /P2 blood groups.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The molecular mechanism for the formation of the P1 /P2 blood groups remains unsolved. It has been shown that the P1 /P2 polymorphism is connected to the different A4GALT gene expression levels in P1 and P2 red blood cells.
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The association among antioxidant enzymes, autoantibodies, and disease severity score in systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison of neuropsychiatric and nonneuropsychiatric groups.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Antioxidative capacity plays an important role in the severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is characterized by autoantibodies. This study aimed to determine the relationship among autoantibody titers, antioxidative stress reserve, and severity of SLE.
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Antioxidant and anticancer constituents from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+)-Norstephalagine (2) (an aporphine) and scopoletin (8) (a coumarin) were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera leaves from the first time. The identified compounds were screened for their antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power activities. The results have showed that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the chemopreventive property of the isolated compounds against human melanoma cells A375. The results shown that (-)-anonaine (1), (-)-liridinine (3), (+)-lirinidine (6), lysicamine (7) and epitulipinolide diepoxide (9) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells. These results revealed that these compounds have antioxidative activity and chemopreventive activity in skin melanoma cells.
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Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.
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Purification and characterization of plantaricin Y, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Lactobacillus plantarum 510, previously isolated from a koshu vineyard in Japan, was found to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance which was purified and characterized. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mass of this bacteriocin is 4,296.65 Da. A partial sequence, NH2- SSSLLNTAWRKFG, was obtained by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. A BLAST search revealed that this is a unique sequence; this peptide is thus a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510 and was termed plantaricin Y. Plantaricin Y shows strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14845, but no activity against other pathogens tested. Bacteriocin activity decreased slightly after autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min), but was completely inactivated by protease K. Furthermore, trypsin-digested bacteriocin product fragments retained activity against L. monocytogenes BCRC 14845 and exhibited a different inhibitory spectrum.
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Predicting HLA genotypes using unphased and flanking single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Han Chinese population.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Genetic variation associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes has immunological functions and is associated with autoimmune diseases. To date, large-scale studies involving classical HLA genes have been limited by time-consuming and expensive HLA-typing technologies. To reduce these costs, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to predict HLA-allele types. Although HLA allelic distributions differ among populations, most prediction model of HLA genes are based on Caucasian samples, with few reported studies involving non-Caucasians.
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A recently-discovered NMDA receptor gene, GRIN3B, is associated with duration mismatch negativity.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The study explored associations between mismatch negativity and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit genes, GRIN1, GRIN2B and GRIN3B in healthy subjects and schizophrenia. Nineteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 138 schizophrenia patients and 103 healthy subjects. Rs2240158 of GRIN3B was significantly associated with mismatch negativity in healthy subjects.
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An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.
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Effect of Surfactant and Budesonide on the Pulmonary Distribution of Fluorescent Dye in Mice.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Surfactant is a useful vehicle for the intratracheal delivery of medicine to the distal lung. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of intratracheal surfactant and budesonide instillation on the pulmonary distribution of fluorescent dye in mice.
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Critical roles of mitochondria in brain activities of torpid Myotis ricketti bats revealed by a proteomic approach.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Bats are the only mammals that fly and hibernate. Little is known about their overall metabolism in the brain during hibernation. In this study, brain proteins of torpid and active Myotis ricketti bats were fractionated and compared using a proteomic approach. Results showed that 21% (23 proteins) of identified proteins with significant expression changes were associated with amino acid metabolism and proteostasis. The expression levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism (15 proteins), cytoskeletal structure (18 proteins), and stress response (13 proteins) were also significantly altered in torpid bats. Over 30% (34 proteins) of differentially expressed proteins were associated with mitochondrial functions. Various post-translational modifications (PTMs) on PDHB, DLD, and ARG1 were detected, suggesting that bats use PTMs to regulate protein functions during torpor. Antioxidation and stress responses in torpid bats were similar to those of hibernated squirrels, suggesting a common strategy adopted by small hibernators against brain dysfunction. Since many amino acids that metabolize in mitochondria modulate neuronal transmissions, results of this study reveal pivotal roles of mitochondria in neural communication, metabolic regulation, and brain cell survival during bat hibernation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms.
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Virulence Diversity among Bacteremic Aeromonas Isolates: Ex Vivo, Animal, and Clinical Evidences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections.
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Urotensin II inhibits doxorubicin-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell death by modulating ATF expression and via the ERK and Akt pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Regulation of the homeostasis of vascular endothelium is critical for the processes of vascular remodeling and angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Urotensin II (U-II), a potent vasoactive peptide, participates in vascular and myocardial remodeling after injury. We investigated the protective effect of U-II on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential mechanisms involved in this process.
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The impact of inadequate terminal disinfection on an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate an outbreak caused by imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional hospital.
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Buffalo cervico-vaginal fluid proteomics with special reference to estrous cycle: heat shock protein (HSP)-70 appears to be an estrus indicator.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF) plays significant roles in coitus, sperm transport, and implantation. It is believed to be a good noninvasive biomarker for various diagnostic purposes. In this study, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of buffalo CVF was performed during the estrous cycle in order to document the protein expressions, utilizing SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and immunoblot. The main objective was to screen the CVF of buffalo for one or more estrus-specific proteins. A total of 416 proteins were identified in the CVF of both estrus and diestrus phases. Out of these proteins, 68 estrus-specific proteins have been extensively reviewed in the protein database. The major physiological functions of estrus CVF proteins appeared to be stress response, immune response, and metabolic. Eventually, the expression level of heat shock protein-70 in the CVF during the estrus phase, as revealed in SDS-PAGE analysis, was higher than during diestrus. The identity of the protein was confirmed by immunoblot analysis as heat shock protein-70. The findings provide a potential lead for the evaluation of these proteins for estrus detection in buffalo because CVF biomarker detection is a noninvasive technique. The mass spectrometric data of identified proteins have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000620.
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Consumption of purple sweet potato affects post-translational modification of plasma proteins in hamsters.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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A high level of intake of vegetables is strongly associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. Because post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been shown to be the important biomarkers of the change in physiological functions, this study aimed to explore the changes in PTMs of plasma proteins when purple sweet potato (PSP), a root vegetable, was incorporated into the daily diet. Male Syrian hamsters were maintained on a rice diet (50% rice) or PSP diet (25% rice and 25% PSP) for 12 weeks. Plasma proteins were fractionated by electrophoresis, digested by trypsin, and then separated by nano-liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The TurboSequest algorithm was used to identify peptide sequence against the hamster database in Universal Proteins Resource Knowledgebase, and in-house PTM finder programs were used for identification and quantification of PTMs. The results indicated that 95 plasma proteins were identified and 28 PTM sites on 26 of these 95 proteins were affected by consumption of PSP (p < 0.05). Methylation accounted for the largest percentage of affected modifications (35.71%). This study also showed that incorporation of purple sweet potato into the diet significantly lowered blood and liver lipids (p < 0.05). The results of this study provide a basis for prospective studies evaluating the effects of dietary intervention on modifications of proteins.
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Stable signatures of schizophrenia in the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network using fMRI of verbal working memory.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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A dysfunction in working memory (WM) is a core cognitive impairment in schizophrenia that involves the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network. We propose that in addition to other often-referred markers, the signal reduction in the network during verbal working memory (VWM) is a stable and intrinsic indicator of illness. We presented a Sternberg VWM task to 46 patients with schizophrenia and 46 healthy controls matched on performance accuracy during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Reduced activation was demonstrated in the thalamus, cerebellar vermis, pons and the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the patient group. We also found a "failure of deactivation" in the default mode network (DMN) in patients as represented by a low versus high load VWM. In addition, a reduced left lateralization in the triangular and opercular parts of the IFG was observed in the patient group replicating previous "failure of lateralization" findings in schizophrenia. A comparison of long (10 to 19years) and short (3 to 9years) durations of illness (DoIs) demonstrated that the DoI was only associated with the activation changes in the middle frontal gyrus and lateral temporal cortex but not with the IFG-subcortico-cerebellar regions observed. These alterations were consistent with the cognitive dysmetria described in the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network in schizophrenia. In conclusion, the combination of reduced activation in the cortical-subcortical-cerebellar network during VWM in particular, reduced deactivation in the DMN and reduced lateralization in the IFG is thought to be stable neuroimaging signatures of schizophrenia.
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OMICS in Ecology: Systems Level Analyses of Halobacterium salinarum Reveal Large-scale Temperature-Mediated Changes and a Requirement of CctA for Thermotolerance.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Abstract Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic archaeon that inhabits high-salinity aqueous environments in which the temperature can range widely, both daily and seasonally. An OMICS analysis of the 37°C and 49°C proteomes and transcriptomes for revealing the biomodules affected by temperature is reported here. Analysis of those genes/proteins displaying dramatic changes provided a clue to the coordinated changes in the expression of genes within five arCOG biological clusters. When proteins that exhibited minor changes in their spectral counts and insignificant p values were also examined, the apparent influence of the elevated temperatures on conserved chaperones, metabolism, translation, and other biomodules became more obvious. For instance, increases in all eight conserved chaperones and three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and reductions in most tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and ribosomal proteins suggest that complex system responses occurred as the temperature changed. When the requirement for the four proteins that showed the greatest induction at 49°C was analyzed, only CctA (chaperonin subunit ?), but not Hsp5, DpsA, or VNG1187G, was essential for thermotolerance. Environmental stimuli and other perturbations may induce many minor gene expression changes. Simultaneous analysis of the genes exhibited dramatic or minor changes in expression may facilitate the detection of systems level responses.
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Bioengineering radioresistance by overproduction of RPA, a mammalian-type single-stranded DNA-binding protein, in a halophilic archaeon.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is a wild-type extremophilic microbe that is naturally tolerant to high levels of ionizing radiation. Mutants of strain NRC-1 with even higher levels of resistance to ionizing radiation, named RAD, were previously isolated after selecting survival to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation. These RAD mutants displayed higher transcription levels for the rfa3 operon, coding two subunits of the RPA-like putative single-stranded binding protein, rfa3 and rfa8, and a third downstream gene, ral. In order to bioengineer cells with increased tolerance to ionizing radiation and further explore the genetic basis of the RAD phenotype, we placed the rfa3 operon under control of the gvpA promoter in a Halobacterium expression plasmid, pDRK1. When pDRK1 was introduced into the wild-type NRC-1 strain, overproduction of the Rfa3 and Rfa8 proteins was observed by Western blotting and proteomic analysis. The Halobacterium strains expressing Rfa3 and Rfa8 also displayed improved survival after exposure to ionizing radiation, similar to the RAD mutants, when compared to wild-type strain NRC-1. The Rfa3 and Rfa8 proteins co-purified by affinity chromatography on single-stranded DNA cellulose columns, confirming the ability of the proteins to bind to single-stranded DNA as well as their relative abundance in the wild-type, RAD mutants, and rfa3 operon overexpression strains. These results clearly establish that overexpression of haloarchaeal RPA promotes ionizing radiation resistance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and that the Rfa3 and Rfa8 subunits bind single-stranded DNA. Bioengineering cells with increased levels of ionizing radiation resistance may have potential value in medical and environmental applications.
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Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. taiwanensis subsp. nov., isolated from broccoli.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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A coccal strain isolated from fresh broccoli was initially identified as Enterococcus saccharolyticus; however, molecular identification and phenotypic traits did not support this identification. DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of E. saccharolyticus (76.4?% relatedness), DNA G+C content (35.7 mol%), phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences, rep-PCR fingerprinting and profiles of cellular fatty acids, whole-cell proteins and enzyme activities, together with carbohydrate metabolism characteristics, indicated that this strain is distinct and represents a novel subspecies, for which the name Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. taiwanensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 812(T) (?=?NBRC 109476(T)?=?BCRC 80575(T)). Furthermore, we present an emended description of Enterococcus saccharolyticus and proposal of Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. saccharolyticus subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 43076(T)?=?CCUG 27643(T)?=?CCUG 33311(T)?=?CIP 103246(T)?=?DSM 20726(T)?=?JCM 8734(T)?=?LMG 11427(T)?=?NBRC 100493(T)?=?NCIMB 702594(T)).
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In vitro efficacies and resistance profiles of rifampin-based combination regimens for biofilm-embedded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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To compare the in vitro antibacterial efficacies and resistance profiles of rifampin-based combinations against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a biofilm model, the antibacterial activities of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, minocycline, linezolid, fusidic acid, fosfomycin, and tigecycline alone or in combination with rifampin against biofilm-embedded MRSA were measured. The rifampin-resistant mutation frequencies were evaluated. Of the rifampin-based combinations, rifampin enhances the antibacterial activities of and even synergizes with fusidic acid, tigecycline, and, to a lesser extent, linezolid, fosfomycin, and minocycline against biofilm-embedded MRSA. Such combinations with weaker rifampin resistance induction activities may provide a therapeutic advantage in MRSA biofilm-related infections.
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EBV-encoded small RNA1 and nonresolving inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by perpetuated inflammation in multiple joints. To date, there is no cure for RA, and the causal factor for non-resolving inflammation in RA remains unclear. In this study, we initially observed expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA1 (EBER1) in the synovial tissue of all five patients who showed nonresolving RA inflammation. By contrast, EBER1 was detected in the synovial tissue of only one out of seven patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA; p < 0.01, Fishers exact test). To confirm this finding, we conducted a second study on synovial tissue samples taken from 23 patients with nonresolving RA inflammation and 13 patients with OA. All synovial samples from patients with nonresolving inflammation of RA showed positive expression of EBER1 (23/23, 100%), whereas none of the synovial samples from patients with OA showed expression of EBER1 (0/13, 0%; p < 0.001, by Fishers exact test). In vitro, transfection of RA synovial fibroblasts with EBER1 induced the production of interleukin-6. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that nonresolving RA inflammation is strongly related to the presence of EBER1, which might be, at least partially, responsible for synovial fibroblast interleukin-6 production.
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The effect of butanolides from Cinnamomum tenuifolium on platelet aggregation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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This study investigated the effects of isotenuifolide and tenuifolide B from the stems of Cinnamomum tenuifolium on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced human platelet aggregation. Treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (1 and 2 ?g/?L) and tenuifolide B (1, 2 and 4 ?g/?L) did not have any significant effect on human platelet aggregation in vitro, however, treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (4 ?g/?L) resulted in an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, suggesting the potential of this compound as an anti-atherosclerogenic agent in humans. Isotenuifolide is a new butanolide compound, whose structure was characterized by spectral analyses.
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The association among leukocyte apoptosis, autoantibodies and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Both apoptosis and autoantibodies are important factors associated with disease activity in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study tested the hypothesis that increased leukocyte apoptosis is associated with elevated levels of autoantibodies and the disease activity of SLE.
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Oligohydramnios increases the risk of respiratory hospitalization in childhood: a population-based study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Background:Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with reduced lung function in infancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that children exposed to oligohydramnios display an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness by using a population-based matched cohort design.Methods:We used 3 nationwide population-based data sets to identify 5228 women who gave birth during 2004 to 2007, and were diagnosed with oligohydramnios during the third trimester of pregnancy. A cohort of 20912 unaffected pregnant women was matched with these cases, according to neonatal sex and gestational age, maternal age and education, and level of prenatal care. Respiratory hospitalization and respiratory failure were defined using discharge diagnostic codes.Results:Oligohydramnios-exposed children had an 8% higher incidence rate of respiratory hospitalization, and an 80% higher incidence rate of respiratory failure, compared with children without oligohydramnios exposure. This risk remained after adjusting for all potential risk factors. Cox regression analyses indicated that the adjusted hazard ratios of respiratory hospitalization and respiratory failure were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.15, P = 0.030) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.26-3.84, P = 0.005), respectively.Conclusion:Children exposed to oligohydramnios during the third trimester of pregnancy display an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.247.
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The pharmacological activities of (-)-anonaine.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (-)-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (-)-anonaine.
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The Effectiveness and Mechanism of Toona sinensis Extract Inhibit Attachment of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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TSL-1 is a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toona sinensis Roem, a nutritious vegetable. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus is a recently described, rapidly contagious respiratory pathogen which can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and poses a major public health threat. In this study, we found that TSL-1 inhibited viral yields on MDCK plaque formation by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus on infected A549 cells with high selectivity index. Meanwhile, TSL-1 also suppressed viral genome loads in infected A549 cells, quantified by qRT-PCR. This study further demonstrated that TSL-1 inhibited pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus activity through preventing attachment of A549 cells but not penetration. TSL-1 inhibited viral attachment through significant downregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-8, and fractalkine) compared to Amantadine. Our results suggest that TSL-1 may be used as an alternative treatment and prophylaxis against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.
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Tigecycline salvage therapy for necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus: Case report in a child.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is rarely reported in children. We describe a 12-year-old immunocompetent boy with necrotizing fasciitis caused by V. vulnificus. He was cured by radical and serial debridement and salvage therapy with intravenous cefpirome plus tigecycline. The in vitro antibacterial activity of combination regimens and a literature review of pediatric V. vulnificus infection are described.
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In vitro efficacy of fosfomycin-based combinations against clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Vancomycin-resistant (VR) enterococci (VRE) are increasingly important nosocomial pathogens, commonly causing catheter-related urinary tract infections or vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections. In this study, 10 Enterococcus faecium and 9 Enterococcus faecalis different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genome-type VR clinical isolates were detected. The potential role of fosfomycin-based combination regimens for biofilm-related VRE infection is in vitro evaluated. Anti-VRE activities of fosfomycin, ampicillin, linezolid, minocycline, rifampicin, tigecycline, teicoplanin, vancomycin alone, or fosfomycin-based combinations were studied by time-kill method and a biofilm model. Of the fosfomycin-based combinations, a synergistic effect was particularly noted for teicoplanin against 89% of the VR E. faecalis isolates. In a biofilm model, only linezolid alone was able to reduce the bacterial loads, and the use of fosfomycin-based combinations, excluding rifampicin (40%), failed to enhance antibacterial activity against VR E. faecium. For E. faecalis, an inhibitory effect was evident using ampicillin alone or fosfomycin plus rifampicin (100%), tigecycline (56%), or teicoplanin (44%). However, an antagonistic effect was found for ampicillin plus fosfomycin against 2 of 3 of the VR E. faecalis isolates. The antibacterial activities of the drugs tested against VRE in vitro varied by species. Ampicillin exhibited potential activity against planktonic- and biofilm-embedded VR E. faecalis. Fosfomycin-based combinations may have enhanced antibacterial effects against VRE even in the biofilm model, and this observation warrants further clinical studies.
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Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization with the Combination of Bevacizumab and Plasmid Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor-Synthetic Amphiphile INTeraction-18 (p-PEDF-SAINT-18) Vector in a Rat Corneal Experimental Angiogenesis Model.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Chien-Neng Kuo 1,2,3,4, Chung-Yi Chen 5, San-Ni Chen 6,7, Lin-Cheng Yang 8, Li-Ju Lai 1,2,3, Chien-Hsiung Lai 1,2,3, Miao-Fen Chen 2,3,9, Chia-Hui Hung 2,3,10 and Ching-Hsein Chen 11,* 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No.6, W. Sec., Jiapu Rd., Puzi City, Chiayi County 61363, Taiwan; E-Mails: k771376@adm.cgmh.org.tw (C.-N.K.); lynnlai@cgmh.org.tw (L.-J.L.); oph4557@adm.cgmh.org.tw (C.-H.L.) 2 Chang Gung University College of Medicine, No.259, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan Township, Taoyuan County 33302, Taiwan; E-Mails: miaofen@adm.cgmh.org.tw (M.-F.C.); q22016@yahoo.com.tw (C.-H.H.) 3 Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, No.2, W. Sec., Jiapu Rd., Puzi City, Chiayi County 61363, Taiwan 4 Department of Ophthalmology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Yun Lin Branch, No.375, Shichang S. Rd., Xiluo Township, Yunlin County 64866, Taiwan 5 School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, No.151, Jinxue Rd., Daliao Dist., Kaohsiung City 83102, Taiwan; E-Mail: xx377@fy.edu.tw 6 Department of Ophthalmology, Changhua Christian Hospital. No.135, Nanxiao St., Changhua City, Changhua County 50006, Taiwan; E-Mail: 108562@cch.org.tw 7 School of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung City 50000, Taiwan 8 Gene Therapy Laboratory, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, No.1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu District, Kaohsiung City 84001, Taiwan; E-Mail: lcyang1@ms13.hinet.net 9 Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No.6, W. Sec., Jiapu Rd., Puzi City, Chiayi County 61363, Taiwan 10 Department of Dermatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No.6, W. Sec., Jiapu Rd., Puzi City, Chiayi County 61363, Taiwan 11 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: chench@mail.ncyu.edu.tw; Tel.: +886-5-362-1000 (ext. 2580); Fax: +886-5-362-3002.
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Responses to booster hepatitis B vaccination are significantly correlated with genotypes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 in neonatally vaccinated adolescents.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP loci that were significantly correlated with outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We performed a case-control study nested in a well-characterized cohort of booster recipients to assess whether genetic variants of HLA-DPB1 are also associated with response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccination. The cases and controls were 171 and 510 booster recipients whose post-booster titers of antibodies against HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) were undetectable and detectable, respectively. The HLA-DPB1 genotype was determined using sequence-based techniques. The frequencies of HLA-DPB1 alleles were significantly different between cases and controls (p = 1.7 × 10(-8)). The HLA-DPB1 05:01 and 09:01 alleles were significantly more frequent in the cases, and 02:01:02, 02:02, 03:01:01, 04:01:01, and 14:01, were significantly more frequent in the controls. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of undetectable post-booster anti-HBs titers was significantly correlated with the number of risk alleles (p for trend = 3.8 × 10(-5)). For the number of protective alleles, the trend was significantly inversed (p for trend = 1.3 × 10(-5)). As compared with subjects with two risk alleles, adjusted OR were 0.34 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.55) and 0.20 (95 % CI 0.08-0.48) for subjects with 1 and 2 protective alleles, respectively. The HLA-DPB1 02:02, 04:01:01, 05:01 and 09:01 alleles were also significantly correlated with the likelihoods of undetectable pre-booster anti-HBs titers. Our results indicated that HLA-DPB1 is significantly correlated with response to booster HB vaccination in adolescent who had received postnatal active HB vaccination. HLA-DBP1 may also determine the long-term persistence of response to HB vaccination.
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Antipsychotic interventions in prodromal psychosis: safety issues.
CNS Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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In recent years, psychopharmacological intervention in prodromal psychosis, also known as the ultra-high risk (UHR) mental state for psychosis, has attracted much attention. Whilst it has been shown that antipsychotic use in UHR individuals may be effective in potentially delaying or even averting progression to frank psychosis, their use in subjects that do not necessarily convert to psychosis has raised considerable ethical concerns because of their adverse effects. Recent treatment guidelines for patients at UHR for psychosis recommend the use of antipsychotics only in exceptional conditions and with great precautions. To date only a few studies have investigated the use of antipsychotic medications in UHR patients and the potential benefits and risks related to their use in prodromal psychosis remain unclear. We review here all published studies that included UHR patients treated with antipsychotics, regardless of study design. These studies were all of second-generation antipsychotics, given that first-generation antipsychotics cannot be recommended because of their adverse drug reactions. We specifically examine the available descriptions of adverse reactions of the individual antipsychotic medication in each study and discuss the potential effects of various demographic and clinical factors that may impact on safety issues of pharmacological interventions in UHR patients. Clinical trials to date investigating potential benefits of antipsychotic treatments in preventing transition to psychosis were of relatively short duration and have involved a small number of patients. Whilst it appears that pharmacological intervention at this stage may be effective in both reducing the psychopathology and decreasing transition rates, and is potentially safe, in the absence of sufficient evidence-based knowledge to guide treatment, definitive clinical recommendations and guidelines cannot be derived. Certain adverse events take time to develop, such as metabolic syndrome and endocrine-related effects, thus longer term clinical trials with a larger number of patients are needed to determine the effectiveness of antipsychotic intervention and the relationship of its duration to emergence of adverse events. This can inform the development of timely strategies to prevent serious negative impacts and thus maximize the benefits of antipsychotic intervention in UHR patients that outweigh the risks associated with their use.
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Screening for precancerous lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract: from the endoscopists viewpoint.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are one of the most important leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Diagnosis at late stages always brings about poor outcome of these malignancies. The early detection of precancerous or early cancerous lesions of gastrointestinal tract is therefore of utmost importance to improve the overall outcome and maintain a good quality of life of patients. The desire of endoscopists to visualize the invisibles under conventional white-light endoscopy has accelerated the advancements in endoscopy technologies. Nowadays, image-enhanced endoscopy which utilizes optical- or dye-based contrasting techniques has been widely applied in endoscopic screening program of gastrointestinal tract malignancies. These contrasting endoscopic technologies not only improve the visualization of early foci missed by conventional endoscopy, but also gain the insight of histopathology and tumor invasiveness, that is so-called optical biopsy. Here, we will review the application of advanced endoscopy technique in screening program of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers.
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Comparative proteomics, network analysis and post-translational modification identification reveal differential profiles of plasma Con A-bound glycoprotein biomarkers in gastric cancer.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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In the study, we used Con A affinity chromatography, 1-D gel electrophoresis, and nano-LC-MS/MS to screen biomarker candidates in plasma samples obtained from 30 patients with gastric cancer and 30 healthy volunteers. First, we pooled plasma samples matched by age and sex. We identified 17 differentially expressed Con A-bound glycoproteins, including 10 upregulated proteins and 7 downregulated proteins; these differences were significant (Students t-test, p-value<0.05). Furthermore, 2 of the upregulated proteins displayed expression levels that were increased by 2-fold or more in gastric cancer samples when compared with normal control samples. These proteins included leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1) and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 (ITIH3), and the expression levels were validated by Western blot analysis. Pathway and network analysis of the differentially expressed proteins by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed vital canonical pathways involving acute phase response signaling, the complement system, LXR/RXR activation, hematopoiesis from pluripotent stem cells, and primary immunodeficiency signaling. Our results suggest that Con A-bound LRG1 and ITIH3 may not be practically applicable as a robust biomarker for the early detection of gastric cancer. Additionally, three novel PTMs in ITIH3 were identified and include hexose-N-acetyl-hexosamine at asparagine-(41), trimethylation at aspartic acid-(290), and flavin adenine dinucleotide at histidine-(335).
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Subamolide B Isolated from Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum subavenium Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial and CHOP-Dependent Cell Death Pathways.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Subamolide B is a butanolide isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments including carcinomatous swelling. We herein reported for the first time that subamolide B potently induced cytotoxicity against diverse human skin cancer cell lines while sparing nonmalignant cells. Mechanistic studies on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line SCC12 highlighted the involvement of apoptosis in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by the activation of caspases-8, -9, -4, and -3, the increase in annexin V-positive population, and the partial restoration of cell viability by cotreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Additionally, subamolide B evoked cell death pathways mediated by FasL/Fas, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as supported by subamolide B-induced FasL upregulation, BCL-2 suppression/cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and UPR activation/CHOP upregulation, respectively. Noteworthy, ectopic expression of c-FLIPL or dominant-negative mutant of FADD failed to impair subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, whereas BCL-2 overexpression or CHOP depletion greatly rescued subamolide B-stimulated cells. Collectively, these results underscored the central role of mitochondrial and CHOP-mediated cell death pathways in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity. Our findings further implicate the potential of subamolide B for cutaneous SCC therapy or as a lead compound for developing novel chemotherapeutic agents.
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Resveratrol protects against physical fatigue and improves exercise performance in mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known phytocompound and food component which has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities. However, there is limited evidence for the effects of RES on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of trans-RES on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered RES for 21 days at 0, 25, 50, and 125 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, RES-25, RES-50, and RES-125 groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The exhaustive swimming time of the RES-25 group (24.72 ± 7.35 min) was significantly (p = 0.0179) longer than that of vehicle group (10.83 ± 1.15 min). A trend analysis revealed that RES treatments increased the grip strength. RES supplementation also produced dose-dependent decreases in serum lactate and ammonia levels and CK activity and also an increase in glucose levels in dose-dependent manners after the 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was related to the increased energy utilization (as blood glucose), and decreased serum levels of lactate, ammonia, and CK. Therefore, RES could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological effect.
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Enhancements of skin cell proliferations and migrations via 6-dehydrogingerdione.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Human skin protects the body from mechanical and chemical damages, and skin wound healing is a costly procedure and worldwide issue. A Zingiber officinale compound, 6-dehydrogingerdione (6-DG), is presented as a novel biofunctional healing agent for human skin wound repair. The effectiveness on cell growth/migration, growth factor, collagen amount, and enzymatic activity was assessed. 6-DG treatment accelerated cellular proliferation and migration dose-dependently. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 6-DG brought about higher growth factor productions on transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), platelet-derived growth factor-?? (PDGF-??), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). Under phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) incubation, 6-DG increased fibroblast collagen yield obviously, reduced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression, and recovered tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) secretion. 6-DG also blocked the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by suppressing c-Jun protein levels and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in fibroblasts. From all of the above, 6-DG has potential to be a novel agent for human skin repair.
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Subamolide a induces mitotic catastrophe accompanied by apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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This study investigated the anticancer effects of subamolide A (Sub-A), isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, on human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460. Treatment of cancer cells with Sub-A resulted in decreased cell viability of both lung cancer cell lines. Sub-A induced lung cancer cell death by triggering mitotic catastrophe with apoptosis. It triggered oxidant stress, indicated by increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased glutathione level. The elevated ROS triggered the activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation (ATM), which further enhanced the ATF3 upregulation and subsequently enhanced p53 function by phosphorylation at Serine 15 and Serine 392. The antioxidant, EUK8, significantly decreased mitotic catastrophe by inhibiting ATM activation, ATF3 expression, and p53 phosphorylation. The reduction of ATM and ATF3 expression by shRNA decreased Sub-A-mediated p53 phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe. Sub-A also caused a dramatic 70% reduction in tumor size in an animal model. Taken together, cell death of lung cancer cells in response to Sub-A is dependent on ROS generation, which triggers mitotic catastrophe followed by apoptosis. Therefore, Sub-A may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer.
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Frequency dependent alterations in regional homogeneity of baseline brain activity in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5:0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4:0.027-0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01-0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent.
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A diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests for schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Endophenotypes in schizophrenia research is a contemporary approach to studying this heterogeneous mental illness, and several candidate neurophysiological markers (e.g. P50 sensory gating) and neuropsychological tests (e.g. Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)) have been proposed. However, the clinical utility of a single marker appears to be limited. In the present study, we aimed to construct a diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating with other neuropsychological tests in order to improve the clinical utility.
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Peripheral immune cell gene expression changes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with first line combination chemotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Increasing evidence has shown that immune surveillance is compromised in a tumor-promoting microenvironment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and can be restored by appropriate chemotherapy.
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Acid aspiration provokes the pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in BALB/c mice.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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To determine whether acid aspiration provokes the development of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) pneumonia in its host.
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Measuring the environmental efficiency of countries: a directional distance function metafrontier approach.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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This paper measures environmental efficiency (EE) in 63 countries over the period 1981-2005 and analyzes whether the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol is accompanied by an increase in environmental efficiency during the same period. Differences in EE across countries under distinct country-specific production frontiers are measured using a directional distance function model, which incorporates a desirable output (GDP) and an undesirable output (CO2 emissions). It is further assumed that a stochastic meta-technology-frontier exists and represents potential outputs available to all countries given inputs. The metafrontier for four country groups, high income countries, upper-middle income countries, low-middle income countries, and low income countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. The overall results indicate that the four country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that high income countries achieved the highest progress in their average environmental efficiency relative to the metafrontier, while lower-middle income countries and low income countries recorded negative growth in their average EE relative to the metafrontier.
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Biofunctional Constituents from Liriodendron tulipifera with Antioxidants and Anti-Melanogenic Properties.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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From the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera, seventeen known compounds have been extracted, isolated and purified. By using spectroscopic analysis, the structures of these pure constituents were determined as three lignans, four steroids and ten benzenoids. Identified compounds were screened for antioxidant abilities using: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazul (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging free radical activity assays; metal chelating power test; and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) examination. The result revealed that seventeen compounds had potential anti-oxidative capabilities. In addition, the anti-tyrosinase effect was determined by calculating the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa and the oxidization of L-dopa to dopaquinone, according to in vitro mushroom tyrosinase evaluation platform. Furthermore, based on assays on B16F10 cell line, our data suggest that five compounds isolated from L. tulipifera would be able to inhibit tyrosinase activity and reduce the melanin content in animal cells. Therefore, some of the examined compounds could be potentially used in the cosmetic skin whitening business, therapeutic applications or the food industry.
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Non-adherence to anti-osteoporotic medications in Taiwan: physician specialty makes a difference.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Adherence to anti-osteoporotic regimens gradually decreases over time. We hypothesized that the determinants of non-compliance or non-persistence at different times vary and identified these differences. We used an outpatient database to retrieve information on anti-osteoporotic medications prescribed by a medical centre in southern Taiwan during 2001-2007. Compliance was defined as a medication possession ratio (MPR) ?80 %. Persistence was determined as continuous use, allowing for a refill gap of 30 days. A multivariate Cox regression model evaluated potential predictors of non-adherence. A total of 3589 patients were included. In the multivariate analyses, non-compliance for both year 1 and year 2 was more likely in patients with non-vertebral non-hip fractures, respiratory disorders, prescription of the first anti-osteoporotic regimen by an orthopedist; and less likely in patients with follow-up bone densitometry and switched regimens. Risks for non-persistence at year 1 and year 2 were generally similar to those for non-compliance; insurance coverage and malignancy were associated with a lower risk of non-persistence at year 1 and year 2, respectively. In the subgroup with an MPR ?80 % at year 1, an index prescription by an orthopedist was the only independent predictor of non-compliance and non-persistence at year 2. In conclusion, the positive or negative determinants of non-adherence were different at year 1 and year 2, which indicated that clinicians might deliver effective interventions to improve adherence via different precautions annually. This study also provided evidence that physician specialty had a significant effect on adherence to osteoporosis care.
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Aripiprazole for drug-naive or antipsychotic-short-exposure subjects with ultra-high risk state and first-episode psychosis: an open-label study.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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This study aimed to observe treatment response using aripiprazole for subjects with ultra-high risk (UHR) state of psychosis or at their first-episode psychosis (FEP) who were drug-naive or only have received antipsychotic therapy temporarily.
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Facial and prosodic emotion recognition deficits associate with specific clusters of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patients with schizophrenia perform significantly worse on emotion recognition tasks than healthy participants across several sensory modalities. Emotion recognition abilities are correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms, particularly negative symptoms. However, the relationships between specific deficits of emotion recognition across sensory modalities and the presentation of psychotic symptoms remain unclear. The current study aims to explore how emotion recognition ability across modalities and neurocognitive function correlate with clusters of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
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Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), fumarylacetoacetase (FAH), involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.
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The impact of second primary malignancies on head and neck cancer survivors: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with a high rate of developing second primary malignancies(SPMs). But the impact on survival remains poorly understood before. Therefore, we want to estimate the impact of SPMs on HNC survivors.
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Cytotoxic activity and cell cycle analysis of hexahydrocurcumin on SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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The cytotoxicity of hexahydrocurcumin and its effect on the cell cycle in human colorectal cancer cells SW480 has been studied for the first time. The compound, extracted from Zingiber officinale, was shown to be cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells. Treatment of SW480 cells with hexahydrocurcumin (100 microM) resulted in a massive accumulation of the cells in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The cytotoxic effect of hexahydrocurcumin may prove useful in cancer prevention.
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Gout and type 2 diabetes have a mutual inter-dependent effect on genetic risk factors and higher incidences.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To explore the causal relationship between gout and Type 2 diabetes based on genetic evidence and national outpatient database.
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A new phenylalkanoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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A new phenylalkanoid, (E)-3-hydroxy-1-(4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-dodecan-6-en-5-one (1) was isolated from the rhizomes of Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)). The structure of this new phenylalkanoid was elucidated by chemical and physical evidences.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.