The major histocompatibility class (MHC) DQ molecules are dimeric glycoproteins revealing antigen presentation to CD(4+) T cells. In the present study, the exon 2 of the MHC class II DQB gene from 32 yaks (Bos grunniens) was cloned, sequenced and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 25 DQB exon 2 alleles among 32 yaks, all alleles are found to belong to DQB1 loci. These alleles exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites. The DQB loci were analyzed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The yak was observed to be under strong positive selection in the DQB exon 2 peptide-binding sites (d N = 0.15, P < 0.001). It appears that this variability among yaks confers the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens.
The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology.
Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp.
Asian soybean rust is an aggressive foliar disease caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. On susceptible plants, the pathogen penetrates and colonizes leaf tissue, resulting in the formation of necrotic lesions and the development of numerous uredinia. The soybean Rpp2 gene confers resistance to specific isolates of P. pachyrhizi. Rpp2-mediated resistance limits the growth of the pathogen and is characterized by the formation of reddish-brown lesions and few uredinia. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we screened 140 candidate genes to identify those that play a role in Rpp2 resistance toward P. pachyrhizi. Candidate genes included putative orthologs to known defense-signaling genes, transcription factors, and genes previously found to be upregulated during the Rpp2 resistance response. We identified 11 genes that compromised Rpp2-mediated resistance when silenced, including GmEDS1, GmNPR1, GmPAD4, GmPAL1, five predicted transcription factors, an O-methyl transferase, and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. Together, our results provide new insight into the signaling and biochemical pathways required for resistance against P. pachyrhizi.
Potyvirus infection has been reported to cause an increase in the mRNA transcripts of many plant ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). In this study, increased expression of r-protein mRNA transcripts was determined to occur in Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by potyviruses as well as a tobamovirus demonstrating that this response is not unique to potyviruses. Five r-protein genes, RPS6, RPL19, RPL13, RPL7, and RPS2, were silenced in N. benthamiana to test their roles in viral infection. The accumulation of both Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), a potyvirus, and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a tobamovirus, was dependent on RPL19, RPL13, RPL7, and RPS2. However, TMV was able to accumulate in RPS6-silenced plants while accumulation of TuMV and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was abolished. These results demonstrate that cap-independent TuMV and TBSV require RPS6 for their accumulation, whereas accumulation of TMV is independent of RPS6.
Asian soybean rust is a formidable threat to soybean (Glycine max) production in many areas of the world, including the United States. Only five sources of resistance have been identified (Resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi1 [Rpp1], Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4, and Rpp5). Rpp4 was previously identified in the resistant genotype PI459025B and mapped within 2 centimorgans of Satt288 on soybean chromosome 18 (linkage group G). Using simple sequence repeat markers, we developed a bacterial artificial chromosome contig for the Rpp4 locus in the susceptible cv Williams82 (Wm82). Sequencing within this region identified three Rpp4 candidate disease resistance genes (Rpp4C1-Rpp4C3 [Wm82]) with greatest similarity to the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) RGC2 family of coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat disease resistance genes. Constructs containing regions of the Wm82 Rpp4 candidate genes were used for virus-induced gene silencing experiments to silence resistance in PI459025B, confirming that orthologous genes confer resistance. Using primers developed from conserved sequences in the Wm82 Rpp4 candidate genes, we identified five Rpp4 candidate genes (Rpp4C1-Rpp4C5 [PI459025B]) from the resistant genotype. Additional markers developed from the Wm82 Rpp4 bacterial artificial chromosome contig further defined the region containing Rpp4 and eliminated Rpp4C1 (PI459025B) and Rpp4C3 (PI459025B) as candidate genes. Sequencing of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products revealed that Rpp4C4 (PI459025B) was highly expressed in the resistant genotype, while expression of the other candidate genes was nearly undetectable. These data support Rpp4C4 (PI459025B) as the single candidate gene for Rpp4-mediated resistance to Asian soybean rust.
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is increasingly being used as a reverse genetics tool to study functions of specific plant genes. It is especially useful for plants, such as soybean, that are recalcitrant to transformation. Previously, Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) was shown to be an effective VIGS vector for soybean. However, the reported BPMV vector requires in vitro RNA transcription and inoculation, which is not reliable or amenable to high-throughput applications. To increase the efficiency of the BPMV vector for soybean functional genomics, a DNA-based version was developed. Reported here is the construction of a Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-driven BPMV vector that is efficient for the study of soybean gene function. The selection of a mild rather than a severe BPMV strain greatly reduced the symptom interference caused by virus infection. The DNA-based BPMV vector was used to silence soybean homologues of genes involved in plant defense, translation, and the cytoskeleton in shoots and in roots. VIGS of the Actin gene resulted in reduced numbers of Soybean mosaic virus infection foci. The results demonstrate the utility of this new vector as an efficient tool for a wide range of applications for soybean functional genomics.
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop that provides a sustainable source of protein and oil worldwide. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a microscopic roundworm that feeds on the roots of soybean and is a major constraint to soybean production. This nematode causes more than US$1 billion in yield losses annually in the United States alone, making it the most economically important pathogen on soybean. Although planting of resistant cultivars forms the core management strategy for this pathogen, nothing is known about the nature of resistance. Moreover, the increase in virulent populations of this parasite on most known resistance sources necessitates the development of novel approaches for control. Here we report the map-based cloning of a gene at the Rhg4 (for resistance to Heterodera glycines 4) locus, a major quantitative trait locus contributing to resistance to this pathogen. Mutation analysis, gene silencing and transgenic complementation confirm that the gene confers resistance. The gene encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase, an enzyme that is ubiquitous in nature and structurally conserved across kingdoms. The enzyme is responsible for interconversion of serine and glycine and is essential for cellular one-carbon metabolism. Alleles of Rhg4 conferring resistance or susceptibility differ by two genetic polymorphisms that alter a key regulatory property of the enzyme. Our discovery reveals an unprecedented plant resistance mechanism against a pathogen. The mechanistic knowledge of the resistance gene can be readily exploited to improve nematode resistance of soybean, an increasingly important global crop.
Many plant viruses depend on aphids and other phloem feeding insects for transmission within and among host plants. Thus, viruses may promote their own transmission by manipulating plant physiology to attract aphids and increase aphid reproduction. Consistent with this hypothesis, Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) prefer to settle on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and fecundity on virus-infected N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is higher than on uninfected controls. TuMV infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense, and increases the amount of free amino acids, the major source of nitrogen for aphids. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, ten TuMV genes were over-expressed in plants to determine their effects on aphid reproduction. Production of a single TuMV protein, NIa-Pro (Nuclear Inclusion a - Protease domain), increased M. persicae reproduction on both N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Similar to the effects that are observed during TuMV infection, NIa-Pro expression alone increased aphid arrestment, suppressed callose deposition and increased the abundance of free amino acids. Together, these results suggest a function for the TuMV NIa-Pro protein in manipulating the physiology of host plants. By attracting aphid vectors and promoting their reproduction, TuMV may influence plant-aphid interactions to promote its own transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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