JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
pH and Ligand Dependent Assembly of Well-Dawson Arsenomolybdate Capped Architectures.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five Well-Dawson-type arsenomolybdates, formulated as [Cu(2,2'-bpy)2][{Cu(2,2'-bpy)}3{As2(V)Mo2(V)Mo16(VI)O62}]·4H2O (1), [H2(4,4'-bpy)]2.5[As(III)(As2(V)Mo2(V)Mo16(VI)O62)]·5H2O (2), (pyr)(imi)(Himi)3[As2(III)(As2(V)Mo3(V)Mo15(VI)O62)]·3H2O (3), [As3(III)(As2(V)Mo3(V)Mo15(VI)O62)]·4H2O (4), and (H2btp)3[As2(V)Mo18(VI)O62]·6H2O (5) (bpy = bipyridine, pyr = pyrazine, imi = imidazole, btp = 1,5-bis(triazol)pentane), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV-vis-NIR, XPS, XRD, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structural analysis indicates that compounds 1-4 contain rare reduced Dawson {As2Mo18O62} (abbreviated as {As2Mo18}) anions as parent cluster unit, which are capped by a certain number of Cu(II) or As(III) species on different coordination positions via altering pH values and organic ligand of the reaction system. Compounds 1 and 2 are asymmetric tricopper and monoarsenate(III) capped assemble by three {Cu(bpy)}(2+) and a {AsO3} fragments, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 are symmetric biarsenate(III) and triarsenate(III) capped cluster by four and six half occupancy {AsO3} units, respectively. Compound 5 is uncapped {As2Mo18} structures. Compounds 1-4 represent infrequent Dawson arsenomolybdate capped architectures, especially 2-4, as arsenate(III) capped Dawson-type assemblies are observed for the first time. Compounds 1-5 display good electrocatalytic activity on reduction of nitrite. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 5 exhibit fluorescent properties in the solid state at room temperature. In addition, magnetic properties of 1-4 have been investigated in detail.
Related JoVE Video
Risk Factors Associated With Abscess Formation in Children 5 Years of Age and Younger.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
From 1997 to 2009, hospitalization rates have doubled for pediatric patients with soft tissue abscesses requiring incision and drainage. Despite this increasing national burden, few studies have been conducted to identify the risk factors associated with abscess formation. Our study evaluates a collection of physiological and lifestyle parameters that may serve as risk factors for abscess formation among pediatric patients 5 years of age or younger. Our results indicate family history and age 2 years and younger are associated with higher risk of abscess formation. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were prevalent pathogens associated with abscess in our study group. Pediatricians may employ these novel parameters to educate parents and/or guardians of high-risk groups on preventing abscess formation to alleviate the burden of incision & dragining requiring abscess on health care costs.
Related JoVE Video
Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on the generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement of polarization and orbital angular momentum with a type II optical parametric oscillator. By compensating for the astigmatism between spatial modes, we produce an entangled pair of Hermite-Gauss beams. From correlations measurements, we verify the existence of continuous-variable hyperentanglement by the general entanglement criterion as well as by the continuous-variable version of the Peres-Horodecki criterion visualized on an equivalent Poincaré sphere.
Related JoVE Video
Rotenone Induction of Hydrogen Peroxide Inhibits mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1/eIF4E Pathways, Leading to Neuronal Apoptosis.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rotenone, a common pesticide and inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, induces loss of dopaminergic neurons and consequential aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact mechanism of rotenone neurotoxicity is not fully elucidated. Here, we show that rotenone induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Pretreatment with catalase (CAT), a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme, attenuated rotenone-induced ROS and neuronal apoptosis, implying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) involved, which was further verified by imaging intracellular H2O2 using a peroxide-selective probe H2DCFDA. Using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, or Mito-TEMPO, we further demonstrated rotenone-induced mitochondrial H2O2-dependent neuronal apoptosis. Rotenone dramatically inhibited mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1, which was also attenuated by CAT in the neuronal cells. Of interest, ectopic expression of wild-type mTOR or constitutively active S6K1, or downregulation of 4E-BP1 partially prevented rotenone-induced H2O2 and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we noticed that rotenone-induced H2O2 was linked to the activation of caspase-3 pathway. This was evidenced by the finding that pretreatment with CAT partially blocked rotenone-induced cleavages of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Of note, zVAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor, only partially prevented rotenone-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Expression of mTOR-wt, S6K1-ca, or silencing 4E-BP1 potentiated zVAD-fmk protection against rotenone-induced apoptosis in the cells. The results indicate that rotenone induction of H2O2 inhibits mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1/eIF4E pathways, resulting in caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in neuronal cells. Our findings suggest that rotenone-induced neuronal loss in PD may be prevented by activating mTOR signaling and/or administering antioxidants.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient Blockwise Permutation Tests Preserving Exchangeability.
Int J Stat Med Res
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we present a new blockwise permutation test approach based on the moments of the test statistic. The method is of importance to neuroimaging studies. In order to preserve the exchangeability condition required in permutation tests, we divide the entire set of data into certain exchangeability blocks. In addition, computationally efficient moments-based permutation tests are performed by approximating the permutation distribution of the test statistic with the Pearson distribution series. This involves the calculation of the first four moments of the permutation distribution within each block and then over the entire set of data. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated through simulated experiment on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data, specifically the multi-site voxel-based morphometry analysis from structural MRI (sMRI).
Related JoVE Video
Intra- and post-operational changes in pupils induced by local application of cisternal papaverine during cerebral aneurysm operations.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of locally administered intracisternal papaverine on the pupils during cerebral aneurysm clipping.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamics of endogenous endothelial progenitor cells homing modulated by physiological ischemia training.
J Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: To locate and trace endogenous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in rabbits subjected to myocardial ischaemia and/or physiological ischaemia training. Methods: Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: a myocardial ischaemia group (subjected to myocardial ischaemia only); a physiological ischaemia training group (subjected to physiological ischaemia training only); a physiological ischaemia training-myocardial ischaemia group (subjected to both myocardial ischaemia and physiological ischaemia training); and a sham-operated group. Myocardial ischaemia was induced experimentally by a 2-min ischaemia, followed by a 1-h reperfusion. Physiological ischaemia training involved a 4-min isometric contraction elicited by electrical stimulation (biphase square wave, 40 Hz, 1 ms), which generated a contraction force at 40% of the maximal isometric contraction force. Myocardial ischaemia I and/or physiological ischaemia training were performed twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Capillary densities and EPC levels in both blood and the ischaemic heart region were then measured. EPCs were traced by double-labelling with super paramagnetic iron oxide and chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine. Results: EPC levels in the blood and the ischaemic heart region both improved significantly in the physiological ischaemia training-myocardial ischaemia group (mean 0.046% (standard deviation (SD) 0.007), 0.013% (SD 0.005)) and group myocardial ischaemia (mean 0.038% (SD 0.016), 0.008% (SD 0.004)). For the physiological ischaemia training group, moderately raised EPCs were found in the blood (0.026?±?0.010%), but not in the heart. Capillary density increased in the physiological ischaemia training-myocardial ischaemia and myocardial ischaemia groups. The dual-labelled EPCs were confirmed in the ischaemic heart region. Pearson's analysis demonstrated that there is a positive correlation between EPC levels in the blood and the heart region (p?
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of chondrosarcoma invasion by MMP26.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molecular mechanism underlying metastasis of chondrosarcoma (CS) remains unclarified. Here, we show that matrix metalloproteinase-26 (MMP26) level is significantly higher in the resected CS than in the adjacent healthy chondral tissue from the patients. To examine the role of MMP26 in CS invasion, we used a human CS line SW1353 and we either overexpressed or inhibited MMP26 in these cells. We found that overexpression of MMP26 in SW1353 cells increased cell invasiveness, while inhibition of MMP26 decreased cell invasiveness. To define the signal transduction cascades downstream of MMP26 activation, we applied specific inhibitors for PI3K, ERK/MAPK, JNK, and Wnt signaling, respectively, to the MMP26-overexpressing SW1353 cells. We found that only inhibition of Wnt signaling by either metformin or IWP-2 significantly decreased the effect of MMP26 on cancer cell invasion, possibly through increasing ?-catenin phosphorylation. Further, a strong correlation was detected between MMP26 levels and the ratio of phosphorylated/total ?-catenin in CS from the patients. Taken together, our study highlights MMP26-regulated Wnt signaling as a novel therapeutic target for CS.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis for treatment of 1 080 cases of infantile hemangiomas with oral propranolol].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the indications of hemangiomas of different types by observing the clinical efficacy of oral propranolol.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical observations in mesh suture treatment for infants of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of the mesh suture treatment for infants of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon and to report our treatment experience.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the antitumor effects of c-Myc-Max heterodimerization inhibitor 100258-F4 in ovarian cancer cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological cancer due to its silent onset and recurrence with resistance to chemotherapy. Overexpression of oncogene c-Myc is one of the most frequently encountered events present in ovarian carcinoma. Disrupting the function of c-Myc and its downstream target genes is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Our objective was to evaluate the potential effects of small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4, on ovarian carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms by which 10058-F4 exerts its actions. Using MTT assay, colony formation, flow cytometry and Annexin V FITC assays, we found that 10058-F4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation of both SKOV3 and Hey ovarian cancer cells in a dose dependent manner through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest. Treatment with 10058-F4 reduced cellular ATP production and ROS levels in SKOV3 and Hey cells. Consistently, primary cultures of ovarian cancer treated with 10058-F4 showed induction of caspase-3 activity and inhibition of cell proliferation in 15 of 18 cases. The response to 10058-F4 was independent the level of c-Myc protein over-expression in primary cultures of ovarian carcinoma. These novel findings suggest that the growth of ovarian cancer cells is dependent upon c-MYC activity and that targeting c-Myc-Max heterodimerization could be a potential therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
The effects of genetic variation in FTO rs9939609 on obesity and dietary preferences in Chinese Han children and adolescents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association of the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism in FTO gene with obesity has been extensively investigated in studies of populations of European, African, and Asian ancestry. However, inconsistent results have been reported in Asian populations, and the relationship of FTO variation and dietary behaviors has only rarely been examined in Chinese children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the association of rs9939609 with obesity and dietary preferences in childhood in a Chinese population. Epidemiological data including dietary preferences were collected in interviews using survey questionnaires, and rs9939609 genotype was determined by real-time PCR. The associations of rs9939609 genotypes with obesity and dietary preferences were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression using both additive and dominant models. The results showed that subjects with a TA or AA genotype had an increased risk of obesity compared with the TT participants; the odds ratios (ORs) were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.25-1.71, P?=?1.73×10-6), and 3.32 (95% CI: 2.01-5.47, P?=?2.68×10-6), respectively. After adjusting for age and gender, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in TA and AA participants than in those with the TT genotype. After additionally controlling for body mass index, the association remained significant only for systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.005). Compared with TT participants, those with the AA genotype were more likely to prefer a meat-based diet (OR?=?2.81, 95% CI: 1.52-5.21). The combined OR for obesity in participants with TA/AA genotypes and preference for a meat-based diet was 4.04 (95% CI: 2.8-5.81) compared with the TT participants who preferred a plant-based diet. These findings indicate the genetic variation of rs9939609 is associated with obesity and dietary preferences in Chinese children and adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Antenna Allocation in MIMO Radar with Widely Separated Antennas for Multi-Target Detection.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes.
Related JoVE Video
Commentary on "Asymptomatic prostatic inflammation in men with clinical BPH and erectile dysfunction affects the positive predictive value of prostate-specific antigen." Agnihotri S, Mittal RD, Kapoor R, Mandhani A, Department of Urology & Renal Transplantation, Sanjay
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To test the hypothesis that sexual dysfunction in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia leads to prostatic inflammation, diagnosed by prostatic fluid interleukin-8 (IL-8), which lowers the positive predictive value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
Related JoVE Video
Muscle mri in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction: We describe the clinical and thigh MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Methods: Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Results: The siblings showed similarity in fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Conclusions: Compared with previously reported NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
CREPT/RPRD1B, a recently identified novel protein highly expressed in tumors, enhances the ?-catenin·TCF4 transcriptional activity in response to Wnt signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CREPT (cell cycle-related and expression elevated protein in tumor)/RPRD1B (regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain-containing protein 1B), highly expressed during tumorigenesis, was shown to enhance transcription of CCND1 and to promote cell proliferation by interacting with RNA polymerase II. However, which signaling pathway is involved in CREPT-mediated activation of gene transcription remains unclear. In this study, we reveal that CREPT participates in transcription of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling activated genes through the ?-catenin and the TCF4 complex. Our results demonstrate that CREPT interacts with both ?-catenin and TCF4, and enhances the association of ?-catenin with TCF4, in response to Wnt stimulation. Furthermore, CREPT was shown to occupy at TCF4 binding sites (TBS) of the promoters of Wnt-targeted genes under Wnt stimulation. Interestingly, depletion of CREPT resulted in decreased occupancy of ?-catenin on TBS, and over-expression of CREPT enhances the activity of the ?-catenin·TCF4 complex to initiate transcription of Wnt target genes, which results in up-regulated cell proliferation and invasion. Our study suggests that CREPT acts as an activator to promote transcriptional activity of the ?-catenin·TCF4 complex in response to Wnt signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of CSE/ H2S in high glucose induced aberrant secretion of adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deregulated secretion of adipokines contributes to subclinical systemic inflammation associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as an endogenous gasotransmitter, possesses an anti-inflammation activity. The aim of this study was to examine the possible involvement of H2S in high glucose induced adipokine secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Related JoVE Video
The subcellular distribution and function of MTA1 in cancer differentiation.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The functions and mechanisms of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in cancer progression are still unclear due to a lagged recognition of the subcellular localization. In the present study, using multiple molecular technologies we confirmed for the first time that MTA1 localizes to the nucleus, cytoplasm and nuclear envelope. MTA1 is primarily localized in the nucleus of normal adult tissues but in the cytoplasm of embryonic tissues. While in colon cancer, both distributions have been described. Further investigation revealed that MTA1 localizes on the nuclear envelope in a translocated promoter region (TPR)-dependent manner, while in the cytoplasm, MTA1 shows an obvious localization on microtubules. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1 are associated with cancer progression. However, these functions may be associated with different mechanisms because only nuclear MTA1 has been associated with cancer differentiation. Overexpression of MTA1 in HCT116 cells inhibited differentiation and promoted proliferation, whereas MTA1 knockdown resulted in cell differentiation and death. Theses results not only suggest that nuclear MTA1 is a good marker for cancer differentiation diagnosis and a potential target for the treatment of cancers but also reveal the necessity to differentially examine the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1.
Related JoVE Video
Global gene expression profiling identifies ALDH2, CCNE1 and SMAD3 as potential prognostic markers in upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current knowledge about the molecular properties and prognostic markers of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is sparse and often based on bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), which is thought to share common risk factors with UTUC. However, studies have suggested that differences exist regarding tumor behavior and molecular biology of these cancers, comprehensive investigations are needed to guide the clinical management of UTUC. In recent years, massively parallel sequencing has allowed insights into the biology of many cancers, and molecular prognostic markers based on this approach are rapidly emerging. The goal of this study was to characterize the gene expression patterns of UTUC using massively parallel sequencing, and identify potential molecular markers for prognosis in patients with UTUC.
Related JoVE Video
A Nuclear Transport Inhibitor That Modulates the Unfolded Protein Response and Provides In Vivo Protection Against Lethal Dengue virus Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dengue virus (DENV) is estimated to cause 390 million infections each year, but there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic currently available.
Related JoVE Video
Overlapping binding sites for importin ?1 and suppressor of fused (SuFu) on glioma-associated oncogene homologue 1 (Gli1) regulate its nuclear localization.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A key factor in oncogenesis is the transport into the nucleus of oncogenic signalling molecules, such as Gli1 (glioma-associated oncogene homologue 1), the central transcriptional activator in the Hedgehog signalling pathway. Little is known, however, how factors such as Gli are transported into the nucleus and how this may be regulated by interaction with other cellular factors, such as the negative regulator suppressor of fused (SuFu). In the present study we show for the first time that nuclear entry of Gli1 is regulated by a unique mechanism through mutually exclusive binding by its nuclear import factor Imp?1 (importin ?1) and SuFu. Using quantitative live mammalian cell imaging, we show that nuclear accumulation of GFP-Gli1 fusion proteins, but not of a control protein, is specifically inhibited by co-expression of SuFu. Using a direct binding assay, we show that Imp?1 exhibits a high nanomolar affinity to Gli1, with specific knockdown of Imp?1 expression being able to inhibit Gli1 nuclear accumulation, thus implicating Imp?1 as the nuclear transporter for Gli1 for the first time. SuFu also binds to Gli1 with a high nanomolar affinity, intriguingly being able to compete with Imp?1 for binding to Gli1, through the fact that the sites for SuFu and Imp?1 binding overlap at the Gli1 N-terminus. The results indicate for the first time that the relative intracellular concentrations of SuFu and Imp?1 are likely to determine the localization of Gli1, with implications for its action in cancer, as well as in developmental systems.
Related JoVE Video
An ephaptic transmission model of CA3 pyramidal cells: an investigation into electric field effects.
Cogn Neurodyn
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracellular electric fields existing throughout the living brain affect the neural coding and information processing via ephaptic transmission, independent of synapses. A two-compartment whole field effect model (WFEM) of pyramidal neurons embedded within a resistive array which simulates the extracellular medium i.e. ephapse is developed to study the effects of electric field on neuronal behaviors. We derive the two linearized filed effect models (LFEM-1 and LFEM-2) from WFEM at the stable resting state. Through matching these simplified models to the subthreshold membrane response in experiments of the resting pyramidal cells exposed to applied electric fields, we not only verify our proposed model's validity but also found the key parameters which dominate subthreshold frequency response characteristic. Moreover, we find and give its underlying biophysical mechanism that the unsymmetrical properties of active ion channels results in the very different low-frequency response of somatic and dendritic compartments. Following, WFEM is used to investigate both direct-current (DC) and alternating-current field effect on the neural firing patterns by bifurcation analyses. We present that DC electric field could modulate neuronal excitability, with the positive field improving the excitability, the modest negative field suppressing the excitability, but interestingly, the larger negative field re-exciting the neuron back into spiking behavior. The neuron exposed to the sinusoidal electric field exhibits abundant firing patterns sensitive to the input frequency and intensity. In addition, the electrical properties of ephapse can modulate the efficacy of field effect. Our simulated results are qualitatively in line with the relevant experimental results and can explain some experimental phenomena. Furthermore, they are helpful to provide the predictions which can be tested in future experiments.
Related JoVE Video
Endoscopic upper airway evaluation in obstructive sleep apnea: Mueller's maneuver versus simulation of snoring.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to compare fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy during Mueller's maneuver (FNMM) with fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with simulation of snoring (FNSS) for upper airway (UA) assessment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between daytime endoscopic examinations and nocturnal pressure measurements.
Related JoVE Video
Complement 5a receptor mediates angiotensin II-induced cardiac inflammation and remodeling.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced cardiac damage and fibrotic remodeling. Complement activation produces anaphylatoxins, which are major inflammatory effectors. Here, we investigated the role of complement anaphylatoxins in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac remodeling.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) populations during alcoholic fermentation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various molecular approaches have been applied as culture-independent techniques to monitor wine fermentations over the last decade. Among them, those based on RNA detection have been widely used for yeast cell detection, assuming that RNA only exists in live cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting intracellular rRNA is considered a promising technique for the investigation of wine ecology. For the present study, we applied the FISH technique in combination with epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to directly quantify populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Starmerella bacillaris during alcoholic fermentations. A new specific probe that hybridizes with eight species of Hanseniaspora genus and a second probe specific for Starm. bacillaris were designed, and the conditions for their application to pure cultures, mixed cultures, and wine samples were optimized. Single and mixed fermentations were performed with natural, concentrated must at two different temperatures, 15°C and 25°C. The population dynamics revealed that the Sacch. cerevisiae population increased to 10(7)-10(8)cells/ml during all fermentations, whereas H. uvarum and Starm. bacillaris tended to increase in single fermentations but remained at levels similar to their inoculations at 10(6)cells/ml in mixed fermentations. Temperature mainly affected the fermentation duration (slower at the lower temperature) but did not affect the population sizes of the different species. The use of these probes in natural wine fermentations has been validated.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of post-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction in men.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common solid neoplasm diagnosed in developed countries. Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NS-RP) has been widely accepted as the best choice treatment for localised PCa. However, erectile dysfunction (ED) and urinary incontinence are commonly observed after NS-RP. Using meta-analysis, we examined if phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) could improve the symptoms of ED in patients undergoing NS-RP. This review contained seven randomised placebo-controlled trials with a total of 2,655 male patients. Patients in PDE5-Is group showed significant improvement in the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF-EF), Global Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ), Sexual Encounter Profile question 2 (SEP-2) and SEP-3. Although the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were high in both groups (56.44% vs. 40.63%), the safety profile were acceptable, with low incidence of discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Therefore, PDE5-Is are recommended for the treatment of post-NS-RP ED. Patients should be informed of possible adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and efficacy of transurethral laser therapy for bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transurethral laser therapy techniques are increasingly being used in the management of bladder tumors. It has reportedly been associated with good outcomes in small case series. The objective of the present study was to review the published literature and compare transurethral laser therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and conventional transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).
Related JoVE Video
Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, exhibits anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic effects in endometrial cancer.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our goal was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Investigating dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) nuclear import.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) plays a central role in viral replication in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Despite this, NS5 is predominantly located in the nucleus of infected cells where it is thought to play a role in suppression of the host antiviral response. We have investigated the nuclear localization of NS5 using immunofluorescent staining for NS5 in infected cells, showing that NS5 nuclear localization is significantly inhibited by Ivermectin, a general inhibitor of nuclear transport mediated by the cellular nuclear transport proteins importin ?/? (IMP?/?). Experiments in living mammalian cells transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NS5 protein confirm that NS5 is predominantly nuclear and that this localization is inhibited by Ivermectin, demonstrating that NS5 contains an Ivermectin-sensitive IMP?/?-recognized nuclear localization signal [Pryor et al. Traffic 8:795-807, 2007]. Consistent with this observation, mutation of critical residues within the nuclear localization signal (the A2 mutant; [Pryor et al. Traffic 8:795-807, 2007]) results in an 80 % reduction in nuclear localization of NS5. Finally we demonstrate direct, high-affinity binding of NS5 to IMP?/? using an AlphaScreen protein-protein binding assay.
Related JoVE Video
Significant association between the Axin2 rs2240308 single nucleotide polymorphism and the incidence of prostate cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Wnt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in human cancer development, and axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2) is a master scaffold protein involved in Wnt signaling. Axin2 negatively regulates Wnt signaling and acts as a tumor suppressor protein. The present study evaluated the association between the Axin2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2240308 [guanine (G)/adenine (A)] and the incidence of prostate cancer. In total, 103 patients with prostate cancer and 100 cancer-free control males were included in this case-control study, and were genotyped using the genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples. The results revealed a higher incidence of prostate cancer in the subjects with the homozygous GG genotype and a reduced cancer incidence in the patients with the GA genotype of the rs2240308 SNP (G/A) in the Axin2 gene. The adjusted odds ratio for carriers with the GA genotype was 0.377 (95% CI, 0.206-0.688; P=0.001) and that for the AA genotype was 0.830 (95% CI, 0.309-2.232; P=0.712) compared with the GG genotype. Therefore, the GA genotype was found to exhibit a protective effect that decreased the risk of prostate cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the significant association between this SNP (rs2240308, G/A) and the risk of prostate cancer. This association indicates the possibility that the variations in the Axin2 gene in this position may play a significant role in promoting the development of cancer in the prostate. We believe that the Axin2 SNP (rs2240308) could be a useful biomarker for the predisposition and early diagnosis of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity increases tumor aggressiveness in a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is associated with increased risk and worse outcomes for ovarian cancer. Thus, we examined the effects of obesity on ovarian cancer progression in a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Even mildly elevated TSH is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in postmenopausal women with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Endocr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Postmenopausal women, a population with increased risk of atherosclerosis, also have an appreciable risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The current study sought an association between serum thyrotropin (TSH), the biomarker of SCH and atherosclerosis lipid profile changes. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with SCH and 27 healthy women matched by age and body mass index were enrolled in this observational study. Serum lipid profiles and thyroid function were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in SCH were increased by ?22.8%, 29.6%, 30.5% and 23.2%, respectively. TSH was positively correlated with TC, LDL-c and oxLDL in all of the study subjects after adjusting for age and BMI. In particular, the positive correlation remained significant after adjusting for serum FT3 and FT4. When further stratified by TSH levels, both the subgroup of mildly elevated TSH (4.78-9.99?mU/L) and overtly elevated TSH (>10.00?mU/L) exhibited significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxLDL compared to the normal TSH subgroup. Path analysis revealed that the total effects of TSH on TC (total effectsTC,TSH?=?0.4323) included a significant direct effect (direct effectTC,TSH?=?0.4932) and an indirect effect via an intermediary variable (FT3, FT4). Furthermore, TC exhibited a direct effect on LDL-c, as did LDL-c on oxLDL. In conclusion, even with a mild elevation of serum TSH, SCH is associated with atherogenic lipid profiles in postmenopausal women independent of thyroid hormones.
Related JoVE Video
Sequence analysis and expression regulation of rbp4 by 9-cis-RA in Megalobrama amblycephala.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinol-binding protein 4 (rbp4) is mainly synthesized in the liver, where it binds retinol and then enters the bloodstream, delivering retinol to cells. The full-length cDNA coding rbp4 was cloned from Megalobrama amblycephala. The amino acid sequence showed strong homology with the homologues of other vertebrates, and all structural and functional domains were highly conserved. The mRNA levels in different tissues and development stages detected by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that M. amblycephala rbp4 was highly expressed in liver (P < 0.001), but the lower levels were also detected in eyes, kidney, intestine, and spleen. During the different development stages, the rbp4 mRNA appeared until 28 hours post-fertilization (hpf), underwent a slight drop, and then gradually increased after 50 hpf. In addition, the promoter sequence of M. amblycephala rbp4 was obtained using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Two single nucleotide polymorphism sites (-385A>G and -329C>T) were found in the promoter. Transfection with recombinant plasmids of two different haplotypes (GT, AC) showed that 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) increased the promoter activity, but the AC haplotype was more sensitive to RA.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between bladder cancer and total fluid intake: a meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological findings regarding the association between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded varying results. Our objective is to examine the possible associations between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
?-cypermethrin-induced acute neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of mice.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract A Type II pyrethroid pesticide ?-cypermethrin is widely used in agriculture and domestic applications for pest control. However, the effect of ?-cypermethrin on the glutamate neurotransmitter has not been well-documented. In the current study, mice were treated with 20, 40, or 80?mg/kg ?-cypermethrin by a single oral gavage, with corn oil as a vehicle control. Four hours after treatment, we investigated glutamate levels and glutamate-metabolizing enzyme (phosphate-activated glutaminase, PAG; glutamine synthetase, GS) activities in the cerebral cortex of mice, using a HPLC system with ultraviolet detectors and a colorimetric assay. Glutamate uptake levels in the synaptosomes of cerebral cortex and mRNA expression levels of PAG, GS, and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in the cerebral cortex were detected by a radioactive labeling method and qRT-PCR, respectively. Toxic symptoms were observed in mice treated with 40 or 80?mg/kg ?-cypermethrin. Compared with the control, significant decreases in glutamate level and GS activity, and an obvious increase in synaptosomal glutamate uptake, were found in the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 80?mg/kg ?-cypermethrin. No significant changes were found among groups in PAG activity or PAG, GS, and GLT-1 mRNA expression levels. These results suggest that ?-cypermethrin treatment may reduce the glutamate level in the mouse cerebral cortex, which is associated with decreased GS activity and increased synaptosomal glutamate uptake. Our findings provide a partial explanation for the neurotoxic effects of synthetic ?-cypermethrin insecticides.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of AMPK and inactivation of Akt result in suppression of mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 pathways leading to neuronal cell death in in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Dysregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. However, the underlying mechanism is incompletely elucidated. Here, we show that PD mimetics (6-hydroxydopamine, N-methyl-4-phenylpyridine or rotenone) suppressed phosphorylation of mTOR, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, reduced cell viability, and activated caspase-3 and PARP in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Overexpression of wild-type mTOR or constitutively active S6K1, or downregulation of 4E-BP1 in PC12 cells partially prevented cell death in response to the PD toxins, revealing that mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 pathways due to the PD toxins were inhibited, leading to neuronal cell death. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of mTOR signaling contributing to neuronal cell death was attributed to suppression of Akt and activation of AMPK. This is supported by the findings that ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt or dominant negative AMPK?, or inhibition of AMPK? with compound C partially attenuated inhibition of phosphorylation of mTOR, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, activation of caspase-3, and neuronal cell death triggered by the PD toxins. The results indicate that PD stresses activate AMPK and inactivate Akt, causing neuronal cell death via inhibiting mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 pathways. Our findings suggest that proper co-manipulation of AMPK/Akt/mTOR signaling may be a potential strategy for prevention and treatment of PD.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulated aquaporin 5 inhibits proliferation and migration of human epithelial ovarian cancer 3AO cells.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies suggested that aquaporins 5 (AQP5) was associated with many kinds of cancers and regulated many processes of various kinds of cancer cells. Our previous studies also demonstrated that AQP5 was highly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and contributed to the progress of ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by folate receptor ? ligand-targeted PCR in bladder transitional cell carcinoma and its potential diagnostic significance.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous attempts for detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been made to develop reliable assays for early diagnosis of cancers. In this study, we validated the application of folate receptor ? (FR?) as the tumor marker to detect CTC through tumor-specific ligand PCR (LT-PCR) and assessed its utility for diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Immunohistochemistry for FR? was performed on ten bladder TCC tissues. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FR? was performed on both urine and serum specimens from bladder TCC patients (n = 64 and n = 20, respectively) and healthy volunteers (n = 20 and n = 23, respectively). Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were performed to confirm the expression of FR? in bladder TCC cells. CTC values in 3-mL peripheral blood were measured in 57 bladder TCC patients, 48 healthy volunteers, and 15 subjects with benign urologic pathologies by the folate receptor ? ligand-targeted PCR. We found that FR? protein was overexpressed in both bladder TCC cells and tissues. The levels of FR? mRNA were also much higher in bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and SW780 than those of leukocyte. Values of FR? were higher in both serum and urine specimens of bladder TCC patients than those of control. CTC values were also higher in 3-mL peripheral blood of bladder TCC patients than those of control (median 26.5 Cu/3 mL vs 14.0 Cu/3 mL). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for bladder TCC detection was 0.819, 95 % CI (0.738-0.883). At the cutoff value of 15.43 Cu/3 mL, the sensitivity and the specificity for detecting bladder cancer are 82.14 and 61.9 %, respectively. We concluded that quantitation of CTCs through FR? ligand-PCR could be a promising method for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder TCC.
Related JoVE Video
Rescue of Hippo coactivator YAP1 triggers DNA damage-induced apoptosis in hematological cancers.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oncogene-induced DNA damage elicits genomic instability in epithelial cancer cells, but apoptosis is blocked through inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53. In hematological cancers, the relevance of ongoing DNA damage and the mechanisms by which apoptosis is suppressed are largely unknown. We found pervasive DNA damage in hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia, which leads to activation of a p53-independent, proapoptotic network centered on nuclear relocalization of ABL1 kinase. Although nuclear ABL1 triggers cell death through its interaction with the Hippo pathway coactivator YAP1 in normal cells, we show that low YAP1 levels prevent nuclear ABL1-induced apoptosis in these hematologic malignancies. YAP1 is under the control of a serine-threonine kinase, STK4. Notably, genetic inactivation of STK4 restores YAP1 levels, triggering cell death in vitro and in vivo. Our data therefore identify a new synthetic-lethal strategy to selectively target cancer cells presenting with endogenous DNA damage and low YAP1 levels.
Related JoVE Video
An insertion/deletion polymorphism within the proximal promoter of EGLN2 is associated with susceptibility for gastric cancer in the Chinese population.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer (GC) is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Accumulated evidence from molecular genetics indicates that an individual's genetic factors are involved in their susceptibility to GC. Hypoxia is a common feature of cancer and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor that regulates oxygen homeostasis, plays key roles in the growth of solid tumors and regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. Prolyl hydroxylase (PHD1, also known as EGLN2) is one of the three enzymes capable of hydroxylating the alpha subunit of HIF and results in polyubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation of HIF. A case-control study, including 415 GC patients and 830 healthy controls, was conducted to investigate the association between GC susceptibility with a 4-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs10680577) in the proximal promoter of EGLN2. Logistic regression analysis showed that the heterozygote and the homozygote 4-bp del/del confer a significantly increased risk of GC after controlling for other covariates (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.75, p=0.017; OR=2.19, 95% CI 1.15-4.18, p=0.009, respectively). Carriage of the 4-bp deletion allele was associated with a greatly increased risk of developing the disease (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.70, p=0.002). Moreover, stratification analysis showed that the association was more prominent in smokers (adjusted OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.40-3.12, p for heterogeneity=0.01). Our data suggested that common genetic polymorphisms in EGLN2 may influence GC risk in the Chinese population. Considering the relative small sample size, replication in other populations with a larger sample size and further functional analysis are required for fully understanding the roles of EGLN2 polymorphisms in predisposition for GC.
Related JoVE Video
Expression profiles of six circulating microRNAs critical to atherosclerosis in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a clinical study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence shows that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with atherosclerosis (ATH), but the association remains controversial. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to be involved in atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia as gene regulators.
Related JoVE Video
Thyroid-stimulating hormone maintains bone mass and strength by suppressing osteoclast differentiation.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been suggested that pituitary hormone might be associated with bone metabolism. To investigate the role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in bone metabolism, we designed the present study as follows. After weaning, TSH receptor (TSHR) null mice (Tshr(-/-)) were randomly divided into a thyroxine treatment group (n=10) or non-treatment group (n=10); the treatment group received a dose of desiccated thyroid extract at 100 ppm daily for 5 weeks. Age-matched wild-type (Tshr(+/+), n=10) and heterozygote mice (Tshr(+/-), n=10) served as controls. After 5 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the femurs were collected for histomorphometrical and biomechanical analyses. In addition, the effect of TSH on osteoclastogenesis was examined in the RAW264.7 osteoclast cell line. We found that compared with Tshr(+/+) mice, Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/-) mice had lower bone strength. The histomorphometric results showed that trabecular bone volume, osteoid surface, osteoid thickness and osteoblast surface were significantly decreased, whereas the osteoclast surface was significantly increased in both Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/-) mice compared with Tshr(+/+) mice. Bone resorption and formation in Tshr(-/-) mice were further enhanced by thyroxine replacement. bTSH inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced development of TRAP-positive cells and down-regulation of differentiation markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, matrix metallo-proteinase-9 and cathepsin K in RAW264.7 cells. Our results confirm that TSH increased bone volume and improved bone microarchitecture and strength at least partly by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a novel CC chemokine CCL4 in immune response induced by nitrite and its expression differences among three populations of Megalobrama amblycephala.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel CC chemokine gene, chemokine CC motif ligand 4 (CCL4), was isolated from Megalobrama amblycephala. The full-length cDNA was 913 bp, encoding 94 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence possessed the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines. The expression of M. amblycephala CCL4 during the early development showed the mRNA levels before hatching and at 62 h post fertilized (hpf) were significantly higher than other post-hatching stages (P < 0.05). Besides, it was widely expressed in all detected tissues with the highest transcription in liver, followed by intestine, spleen and gill, where a larger number of immune cells including lymphocytes and macrophages are present. Our findings had fully confirmed that CCL4 expression was strongly induced in vitro and quickly up-regulated after nitrite stress, then substantially altered in all tested tissues, supporting a potential pro-inflammatory function. We also indicated that inflammation effect might firstly happen in blood after nitrite stress. Furthermore, the tissue expression differences of CCL4 among three natural populations revealed that CCL4 mRNA in Yuni Lake population was obviously higher than the other two populations, Liangzi Lake population and Poyang Lake population, which will provide valuable insights into breeding strategies for selecting population with better immune property of M. amblycephala.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of Lkb1 and Pten leads to lung squamous cell carcinoma with elevated PD-L1 expression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a deadly disease for which current treatments are inadequate. We demonstrate that biallelic inactivation of Lkb1 and Pten in the mouse lung leads to SCC that recapitulates the histology, gene expression, and microenvironment found in human disease. Lkb1;Pten null (LP) tumors expressed the squamous markers KRT5, p63 and SOX2, and transcriptionally resembled the basal subtype of human SCC. In contrast to mouse adenocarcinomas, the LP tumors contained immune populations enriched for tumor-associated neutrophils. SCA1(+)NGFR(+) fractions were enriched for tumor-propagating cells (TPCs) that could serially transplant the disease in orthotopic assays. TPCs in the LP model and NGFR(+) cells in human SCCs highly expressed Pd-ligand-1 (PD-L1), suggesting a mechanism of immune escape for TPCs.
Related JoVE Video
Reducing the risk of infection for transrectal prostate biopsy with povidone-iodine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of povidone-iodine (PI) in reducing the risk of infectious complications following transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB).
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS.
Related JoVE Video
Antagonist of C5aR prevents cardiac remodeling in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammatory responses mediate the development of perivascular fibrosis and heart dysfunction induced by hypertension. Complement is an important inflammatory system, and we aimed to evaluate the effect of a specific C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRA), PMX53, on inflammation and perivascular fibrosis in the hypertensive heart of the mouse.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0T using 0.15mmol/kg of contrast agent for the assessment of chronic myocardial infarction.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recent international, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized trial shows delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) using contrast doses of ?0.2mmol/kg is effective in the detection and assessment of myocardial infarction (MI), and 0.1mmol/kg is not enough; intermediate doses between 0.1 and 0.2mmol/kg have not been tested. The aim of this study was to prospectively test the performance of DE-MRI using 0.15mmol/kg of contrast agent for the detection of MI.
Related JoVE Video
Redesigning the procaspase-8 dimer interface for improved dimerization.
Protein Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Caspase-8 is a cysteine directed aspartate-specific protease that is activated at the cytosolic face of the cell membrane upon receptor ligation. A key step in the activation of caspase-8 depends on adaptor-induced dimerization of procaspase-8 monomers. Dimerization is followed by limited autoproteolysis within the intersubunit linker (IL), which separates the large and small subunits of the catalytic domain. Although cleavage of the IL stabilizes the dimer, the uncleaved procaspase-8 dimer is sufficiently active to initiate apoptosis, so dimerization of the zymogen is an important mechanism to control apoptosis. In contrast, the effector caspase-3 is a stable dimer under physiological conditions but exhibits little enzymatic activity. The catalytic domains of caspases are structurally similar, but it is not known why procaspase-8 is a monomer while procaspase-3 is a dimer. To define the role of the dimer interface in assembly and activation of procaspase-8, we generated mutants that mimic the dimer interface of effector caspases. We show that procaspase-8 with a mutated dimer interface more readily forms dimers. Time course studies of refolding also show that the mutations accelerate dimerization. Transfection of HEK293A cells with the procaspase-8 variants, however, did not result in a significant increase in apoptosis, indicating that other factors are required in vivo. Overall, we show that redesigning the interface of procaspase-8 to remove negative design elements results in increased dimerization and activity in vitro, but increased dimerization, by itself, is not sufficient for robust activation of apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide epoxiconazole bioaccumulation in tubifex based on HPLC-MS/MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, the enantioselective bioaccumulation of epoxiconazole enantiomers in tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificida) was investigated in two uptake pathways. A sensitive and rapid chiral method was developed for the determination of epoxiconazole enantiomers in tubifex and soil based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In the spiked-water or spiked-soil treatments, enantioselective bioaccumulation of epoxiconazole in tubifex was obersved. For spiked-water treatment, (-)-epoxiconazole accumulated in tubifex to a greater extent than (+)-epoxiconazole, leading to enrichments with a composition (-) > (+). However, for spiked-soil treatment, the enantioselectivity in tubifex was reversed with a preferential accumulation of (+)-epoxiconazole. Calculated accumulation factors (AFs) indicated that epoxiconazole in spiked-water treatment had higher bioaccumulation potential than that in spiked-soil treatment. The results from the spiked-soil treatment also revealed that the dissipation of epoxiconazole in soil was enantioselective, and tubifex has positive effects on epoxiconazole diffusion from soil to overlying water.
Related JoVE Video
Thyrotropin increases hepatic triglyceride content through upregulation of SREBP-1c activity.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hallmarks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increased triglyceride accumulation within hepatocytes. The prevalence of NAFLD increases steadily with increasing thyrotropin (TSH) levels. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of TSH on the hepatic triglyceride content.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: A meta-analysis.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), approximately 22% to 47% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) develop a subsequent intravesical recurrence (IVR). Considering this high incidence of occurrence, several risk factors were reported as predictive of IVR after RNU. Until recently, most of the risk factors were still under debate. The aim of study was to conduct a meta-analysis based on the recent literature to explore the risk factors for IVR after RNU for UTUC.
Related JoVE Video
Infection and dissemination of West Nile virus in China by the potential vector, Culex pipiens pallens.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The distribution of the West Nile virus (WNV) in the organs and tissues of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens, a potential vector of WNV in China, was investigated up to 14 days after oral infection. The WNV antigen was detected in paraffin-embedded mosquitoes using immunocytochemistry and viral titers of post-infected mosquitoes determined by plaque assay. Viral titers sharply decreased 24 h post-infection, were undetectable for the first few days, then rose over the course of infection. The first midgut infection appeared after one day, and the overall infection rate (based on midgut infection) was 43.9%. Other tissues, including hindgut, foregut, ovarian follicles, Malpighian tubules, and ommatidia, showed weak WNV antigens as early as three days post-infection. Staining in the salivary glands first appeared after seven days, and the salivary gland infection rate on the 14th day was 37.5%. Specimens with no detectable WNV antigens in any tissues, and with positive results confined to the midgut, anterior midgut, and hindgut, were observed on the 14th day. The route of viral dissemination from the midgut, and the relative importance of amplifying tissues in mosquitoes' susceptibility to infection, were evaluated. The results indicate that Cx. p. pallens has the ability to harbor WNV throughout its alimentary system and that midgut epithelial cells may be the initial site of the replication of this virus in this species.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of sequence polymorphisms in the mitochondrial displacement loop as risk factors for sporadic and familial breast cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the displacement loop (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described for different types of cancers, and the association of these SNPs with cancer risk and disease outcome has been exhaustively studied. We sequenced a region of approximately 1 kb flanking the majority of the D-Loop in the DNA from the blood of breast cancer patients and the controls to identify cancer risk-associated D-loop SNPs. The D-loop region of mtDNA was sequenced from 92 sporadic breast cancer patients, 60 familial breast cancer patients and 41 relatives, and 93 healthy controls. Paired and unpaired Student's t tests were used as appropriate to determine the differences in SNP distribution within the D-loop region and in the number of SNPs per patient among the groups. The ? (2) test was used to analyze dichotomous values, such as the presence or absence of an individual SNP among each group, and the clinical characteristics between every two groups. The distribution frequencies of 315C/Cinsert, 524C/del, 16247A/del, 16248C/del, 16249T/C, 16257C/A, 16258A/del, 16259C/del, 16262C/del, 16268C/del, 16279C/del, 16280A/del, 16297T/C, and 16300A/del were significantly different between sporadic breast cancer patients and the normal controls. The SNP sites at nucleotides 310, 315, and 16362 were identified as cancer risk-associated SNPs specific for familial breast cancer. The N haplogroup, defined as 489T, was identified as a specific risk-associated SNP for families of breast cancer patients by comparing familial breast cancer patients with their relatives. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the D-loop may help to predict cancer risk for familial breast cancer and thereby help to detect and refine therapeutic decisions earlier.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and predictors for periodontitis among adults in China, 2010.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the interrelationship between poor oral health and chronic diseases is well established, few related studies are available in China. In this study, the prevalence of severe periodontitis and its association with chronic diseases among adults in China have been explored.
Related JoVE Video
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation induces hepatic steatosis, suggesting an adverse effect.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs on NAFLD remain controversial. Clinical studies have reported that PPAR? activation does not improve hepatic steatosis. In the present study, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of PPAR? activation on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice, Ppar?-null mice and HepG2 cells were treated with fenofibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrate drugs. Both low and high doses of fenofibrate were administered. Hepatic steatosis was detected through oil red O staining and electron microscopy. Notably, in fenofibrate-treated mice, the serum triglyceride levels were reduced and the hepatic triglyceride content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining of liver sections demonstrated that fenofibrate-fed mice accumulated abundant neutral lipids. Fenofibrate also increased the intracellular triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and the key genes associated with lipogenesis were increased in fenofibrate-treated mouse livers and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect was strongly impaired in Ppar?-null mice treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate treatment induced mature SREBP-1c expression via the direct binding of PPAR? to the DR1 motif of the SREBP-1c gene. Taken together, these findings indicate the molecular mechanism by which PPAR? activation increases liver triglyceride accumulation and suggest an adverse effect of fibrates on the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis.
Related JoVE Video
A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Point mutations associated with organophosphate and carbamate resistance in Chinese strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase resistance has been well documented in many insects, including several mosquito species. We tested the resistance of five wild, Chinese strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to two kinds of pesticides, dichlorvos and propoxur. An acetylcholinesterase gene (ace1) was cloned and sequenced from a pooled sample of mosquitoes from these five strains and the amino acids of five positions were found to vary (V185M, G247S, A328S, A391T, and T682A). Analysis of the correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance levels (LC50) suggests that two point mutations, G247S (r2?=?0.732, P?=?0.065) and A328S (r2?=?0.891, P?=?0.016), are associated with resistance to propoxur but not to dichlorvos. Although the V185M mutation was not associated with either dichlorvos or propoxur resistance, its RS genotype frequency was correlated with propoxur resistance (r2?=?0.815, P?=?0.036). And the HWE test showed the A328S mutation is linked with V185M, also with G247S mutation. This suggested that these three mutations may contribute synergistically to propoxur resistance. The T682A mutation was negatively correlated with propoxur (r2?=?0.788, P?=?0.045) resistance. Knowledge of these mutations may help design strategies for managing pesticide resistance in wild mosquito populations.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between endogenous testosterone and lipid profile in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) level and lipid profile after adjusting for some traditional confounding factors, free thyroid hormones and TSH in Chinese men.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro characterization of stem cell-like properties of drug-resistant colon cancer subline.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the stem cell-like properties of drug-resistant colon cancer cells. Oxaliplatin was used to induce the drug-resistant subline of HCT116(p53+/+) cell line. The stem cell-like characteristics of the drug-resistant subline were assayed for the proliferation capacity, cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, multiple drug resistance, and clone sphere formation capacity. The expression of ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2) and "stemness" indicators SOX2 (SRY-related HMG box-containing transcription factor-2) and OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) was determined by Western blot. We established the HCT116(p53+/+)-oxaliplatin subline (HCT116(p53+/+)OXA), which was resistant to oxaliplatin with a resistance index (RI) of 3.03 ± 0.14. The HCT116(p53+/+)OXA was also resistant to Taxol, showing lower proliferation, higher adhesion and invasion ability, greater proportion of G0/G1 phase, and higher sphere-forming capacity than its parental cells. SOX2, OCT4, and ABCG2 were expressed at higher levels in drug-resistant cells than in their parental cells. We verified that the HCT116(p53+/+)OXA was enriched with cancer stem cell properties and provided an ideal cell model for drug-resistance study.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the response of a conductance-based neuron model.
Int J Neural Syst
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To provide insights into the modulation of neuronal activity by extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF), we present a conductance-based neuron model and introduce ELF sinusoidal MF as an additive voltage input. By analyzing spike times and spiking frequency, it is observed that neuron with distinct spiking patterns exhibits different response properties in the presence of MF exposure. For tonic spiking neuron, the perturbations of MF exposure on spike times is maximized at the harmonics of neuronal intrinsic spiking frequency, while it is maximized at the harmonics of bursting frequency for burst spiking neuron. As MF intensity increases, the perturbations also increase. Compared with tonic spiking, bursting dynamics are less sensitive to the perturbations of ELF MF exposure. Further, ELF MF exposure is more prone to perturb neuronal spike times relative to spiking frequency. Our finding suggests that the resonance may be one of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of the low-intensity ELF MFs on neuronal activities. The results highlight the impacts of ELF MFs exposure on neuronal activity from the single cell level, and demonstrate various factors including ELF MF properties and neuronal spiking characteristics could determine the outcome of exposure. These insights into the mechanism of MF exposure may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity magnetic stimulus protocols, and may even contribute to the interpretation of MF effects on the central nervous systems.
Related JoVE Video
Acquired resistance to dasatinib in lung cancer cell lines conferred by DDR2 gatekeeper mutation and NF1 loss.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has evolved dramatically over the past decade with the adoption of widespread use of effective targeted therapies in patients with distinct molecular alterations. In lung squamous cell carcinoma (lung SqCC) recent studies have suggested that DDR2 mutations are a biomarker for therapeutic response to dasatinib and clinical trials are underway testing this hypothesis. While targeted therapeutics are typically quite effective as initial therapy for patients with lung cancer, nearly all patients develop resistance with long-term exposure to targeted drugs. Here, we use DDR2-dependent lung cancer cell lines to model acquired resistance to dasatinib therapy. We perform targeted exome sequencing to identify two distinct mechanisms of acquired resistance: acquisition of the T654I gatekeeper mutation in DDR2 and loss of NF1. We show that NF1 loss activates a bypass pathway which confers ERK dependency downstream of RAS activation. These results indicate that acquired resistance to dasatinib can occur via both second-site mutations in DDR2 and by activation of bypass pathways. These data may help to anticipate mechanisms of resistance which may be identified in upcoming clinical trials of anti-DDR2 therapy in lung cancer and suggest strategies to overcome resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Multiplexed Target Detection Using DNA-Binding Dye Chemistry in Droplet Digital PCR.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two years ago, we described the first droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) system aimed at empowering all researchers with a tool that removes the substantial uncertainties associated with using the analogue standard, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This system enabled TaqMan hydrolysis probe-based assays for the absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Due to significant advancements in droplet chemistry and buoyed by the multiple benefits associated with dye-based target detection, we have created a "second generation" ddPCR system compatible with both TaqMan-probe and DNA-binding dye detection chemistries. Herein, we describe the operating characteristics of DNA-binding dye based ddPCR and offer a side-by-side comparison to TaqMan probe detection. By partitioning each sample prior to thermal cycling, we demonstrate that it is now possible to use a DNA-binding dye for the quantification of multiple target species from a single reaction. The increased resolution associated with partitioning also made it possible to visualize and account for signals arising from nonspecific amplification products. We expect that the ability to combine the precision of ddPCR with both DNA-binding dye and TaqMan probe detection chemistries will further enable the research community to answer complex and diverse genetic questions.
Related JoVE Video
[Pulmonary expression of Nr1d1 in rats with ventilation-induced lung injury].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the changes in the expression of nuclear receptor subfamily1 (Nr1d1) in the lungs of rats with ventilation-induced lung injury and explore the molecular mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
[A training model for laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To introduce a training model for laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty.
Related JoVE Video
The Presence of Adenosine A2a Receptor in Thyrocytes and Its Involvement in Graves IgG-Induced VEGF Expression.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Goitrogenesis in Graves disease (GD) has been attributed to anti-TSH receptor antibody stimulation. Recently, a role for adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in goiter formation was reported in the thyroglobulin-A2aR transgenic mice. However, it is unclear whether A2aR is expressed in the thyroid and whether it is associated with the pathogenesis of goiter in GD. Here, we confirmed the expression of A2aR in FRTL-5 cells, primary normal human thyrocytes (both sexes were used without regard to sex), and thyroid tissue (both sexes were used without regard to sex) by PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. After treatments with A2aR-specific agonist 2-p-(2-Carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or GD IgG, the mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a growth factor related to goitrogenesis, were evaluated along with upstream signaling pathways. A2aR activation and GD IgG promoted the expression of VEGF in thyrocytes, which was accompanied by the activation of cAMP/protein kinase A/phosphorylated-cAMP-response element-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1?, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1?. The changes induced by GD IgG were partially abrogated by A2aR small interfering RNA and an A2aR antagonist. These results were supported by data on the goiter samples from the thyrotropin receptor adenovirus-induced GD mouse model (female). These data demonstrate that GD IgG could up-regulate the VEGF expression through A2aR, indicating a potential mechanism for goitrogenesis in GD.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical planning and manual image fusion based on 3D model facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for intrarenal tumors.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Construction of three-dimensional (3D) model of renal tumor facilitated surgical planning and imaging guidance of manual image fusion in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for intrarenal tumors.
Related JoVE Video
A randomized trial comparing diode laser enucleation of the prostate with plasmakinetic enucleation and resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the safety and efficacy of diode laser enucleation of the prostate (DiLEP) with plasmakinetic enucleation and resection of the prostate (PKERP).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.