Strategies to detect the methylation of site specific DNA and assay of M.SssI methyltransferase (M.SssI MTase) activity are important in determining human cancers due to aberrant methylation linked to cancer initiation and progression. Herein, we report a label-free fluorescence detection method for DNA methylation and MTase activity based on restriction endonuclease HpaII and exonuclease III (Exo III). A label-free probe DNA was designed, which hybridized with target DNA (one 32-mer DNA from the exon 8 promoter region of the Homo sapiens p53 gene) to form double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Upon the cleavage action of HpaII and degradation reaction of Exo III, dsDNA changed to single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and the fluorescence intensity of thiazole orange (TO) is weak. After the resulting dsDNA was methylated by M.SssI MTase, the action of HpaII and Exo III was prevented, then TO intercalates into the dsDNA and emits strong fluorescence. This method can determine DNA methylation at the site of CpG and distinguish a one-base mismatched target sequence. The fluorescence intensity has a linear relationship with M.SssI MTase activities in the range of 1-10 U mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.16 U mL(-1) in terms of 3 times deviation of the blank sample. The methylation of DNA by a hydroxyl radical triggered by DMSO and CH3CHO was also measured. These results show that the proposed method can specifically and selectively detect DNA methylation and M.SssI MTase activity. Human serum has no obvious effects on the assay performance, indicating that the method has great potential for further application in complex samples.
DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological events and is associated with various diseases. Most traditional methods for detection of DNA methylation are based on the complex and expensive bisulfite method. In this paper, we report a novel fluorescence method to detect DNA and DNA methylation based on graphene oxide (GO) and restriction endonuclease HpaII. The skillfully designed probe DNA labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and optimized GO concentration keep the probe/target DNA still adsorbed on the GO. After the cleavage action of HpaII the labeled FAM is released from the GO surface and its fluorescence recovers, which could be used to detect DNA in the linear range of 50 pM-50 nM with a detection limit of 43 pM. DNA methylation induced by transmethylase (Mtase) or other chemical reagents prevents HpaII from recognizing and cleaving the specific site; as a result, fluorescence cannot recover. The fluorescence recovery efficiency is closely related to the DNA methylation level, which can be used to detect DNA methylation by comparing it with the fluorescence in the presence of intact target DNA. The method for detection of DNA and DNA methylation is simple, reliable and accurate.
The effects of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) on the activity, conformation and unfolding process of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), a thermostable low molecular weight protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27, have been studied. Enzymatic activity assays showed both urea and GdnHCl resulted in the inactivation of PTPase in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Inactivation kinetics analysis suggested that the inactivation of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl were both monophasic and reversible processes, and the effects of urea and GdnHCl on PTPase were similar to that of mixed-type reversible inhibitors. Far-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism (CD), Tryptophan and 1-anilinonaphthalene -8-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence spectral analyses indicated the existence of a partially active and an inactive molten globule-like intermediate during the unfolding processes induced by urea and GdnHCl, respectively. Based on the sequence alignment and the homolog Tt1001 protein structure, we discussed the possible conformational transitions of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl and compared the conformations of these unfolding intermediates with the transient states in bovine PTPase and its complex structures in detail. Our results may be able to provide some valuable clues to reveal the relationship between the structure and enzymatic activity, and the unfolding pathway and mechanism of PTPase.
Abundant senescent neutrophils traverse the vascular compartment and may contribute to pathologic conditions. For example, they become procoagulant when undergoing apoptosis and may contribute to thrombosis or inflammation. Our previous studies demonstrated a dominant clearance pathway in which the neutrophils can be phagocytosed by liver macrophages. The aim of this study was to explore an alternate pathway of neutrophil clearance by endothelial cells. Phagocytosis of the neutrophils by endothelial cells was performed using various experimental approaches includingflow cytometry, confocal microscopy and electron microscopy assays in vitro and in vivo. Procoagulant activity of cultured neutrophils was evaluated by coagulation time, factor Xase and prothrombinase assays. Lactadherin functioned as a novel probe for the detection of phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, an opsonin (bridge) between apoptotic cell and phagocyte for promoting phagocytosis, and an efficient anticoagulant for inhibition of factor Xase and thrombin formation. When cultured, purified human neutrophils spontaneously entered apoptosis and developed procoagulant activity that was directly related to the degree of phosphatidylserine exposure. Co-culture of aged neutrophils and endothelial cells resulted in phagocytosis of the neutrophils and prolonged coagulation time. Lactadherin diminished the procoagulant activity and increased the rate of neutrophil clearance. In vivo, neutrophils were sequestered by endothelial cells after blockade of Kupffer cells, a process that was dependent upon both phosphatidylserine exposure and P-selectin expression. Thus, the ability of endothelial cells to clear senescent neutrophils may limit the procoagulant and/or inflammatory impact of these cells.
The development of thrombosis in polycythaemia vera (PV) involves multifactorial processes including pathological activation of blood cells. Release of microparticles (MPs) by activated cells in diseases is associated with thrombotic risk, but relatively few data are available in PV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the increase in MP release and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer membrane of MP-origin cells in patients with PV, and to analyse their procoagulant activity (PCA). PS-positive MPs and cells were detected by flow cytometry, while PCA was assessed with clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PV patients had elevated circulating lactadherin+ MPs, which mostly originating from erythrocytes, platelets, granulocytes, and endothelial cells, as well as increased PS exposing erythrocytes/platelets as compared to secondary polycythaemia patients or healthy controls. These PS-bearing MPs and cells were highly procoagulant. Moreover, lactadherin competed factor V and VIII to PS and inhibited about 90% of the detected PCA in a dose-response manner while anti-TF antibody did no significant inhibition. Treatment with hydroxyurea is associated with a decrease in PS exposure and lactadherin+ MP release of erythrocytes/platelets. Our data demonstrate that PV patients are characterised by increased circulating procoagulant MPs and PS exposing erythrocytes/platelets, which could contribute to the hypercoagulable state in these patients.
The coagulopathy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is mainly related to procoagulant substances and fibrinolytic activators of APL blasts, but the fate of these leukemic cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of APL blasts by macrophages and endothelial cells in vitro and consequent procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of APL cells. We found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells as well as THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages bound, engulfed, and subsequently degraded immortalized APL cell line NB4 and primary APL cells. Lactadherin promoted phagocytosis of APL cells in a time-dependent fashion. Furthermore, factor Xa and prothrombinase activity of phosphatidylserine-exposed target APL cells was time-dependently decreased after incubation with phagocytes (THP-1-derived macrophages or HUVECs). Thrombin production on target APL cells was reduced by 40%-45% after 2 hours of coincubation with phagocytes and 80% by a combination of lactadherin and phagocytes. Moreover, plasmin generation of target APL cells was inhibited 30% by 2 hours of phagocytosis and ? 50% by lactadherin-mediated engulfment. These results suggest that engulfment by macrophages and endothelial cells reduce procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of APL blasts. Lactadherin and phagocytosis could cooperatively ameliorate the clotting disorders in APL.
The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction between puerarin and edaravone, and the effect of borneol on the brain distribution kinetics of puerarin in rats.
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