Laron syndrome (LS) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The most frequent GHR mutation is E180splice (rs121909360), which was initially found in an inbred population of Spanish descent in Ecuador and subsequently in Israel, Brazil, Chile, and the United States. The aim of the present study is to determine if the E180splice mutation arose from a common origin. We studied 22 patients with LS from Ecuador, Israel (of Moroccan origin), Brazil, Chile, and the United States (of Mexican origin) who were homozygous for the E180splice mutation and compared them to control individuals for markers surrounding the GHR, intragenic polymorphisms, and Y-chromosome STR. An identical haplotype was found in all but one of the subjects carrying the E180splice mutation: D5S665: 150/150; D5S2082: 192/192; D5S2087: 246/246; rs6179 G/G; and rs6180 C/C. One patient differed from the others only at D5S2082 (168/192). This haplotype is rare (~1%) in control individuals and confirmed that the E180splice-associated haplotype was not derived from independent origins but represented recombination from a common ancestor. The analysis of paternal lineage markers showed that 50% belong to haplogroup R1b (found in Portugal and Spain) and 40% to haplogroups J and E (typical in the Middle East and in Eastern European Jews). The germline E180Splice mutation appears to have originated from a single common ancestor. The presence of Y-chromosome markers associated with Sephardic populations in persons harboring the E180splice mutation provides genetic evidence in support of the historical tracking of the exodus of this specific population.
MYH9 polymorphisms have been described to be associated with the risk of CKD in non-diabetic nephropathy, HIV nephropathy and FSGS. Predominating in black descendants, MHY9 genetic variants could partially explain the excess risk of CKD associated with African ancestry. However, recent data suggests that APOL1 gene co-segregate with MYH9, and could be the gene truly associated with CKD risk. In this study, we evaluated the role of MYH9 and APOL1 gene polymorphisms in the risk of CKD in Brazilian patients with lupus nephritis (LN). A retrospective analysis of 196 LN patients was done. MYH9 rs4821480, rs2032487, rs4821481 and rs3752462, APOL 1rs73885319, rs16996616, rs60910145, rs71785313, and APOL3 rs11089781 gene polymorphisms were determined. Genetic ancestry was ascertained both by autossomal ancestry and mitochondrial haplogroup. Primary outcome was defined as doubling of serum creatinine (DC) or end stage renal disease (ESRD). Sixty-two patients presented the PO. In our population, MYH9 and APOL1 were not in LD. None APOL polymorphism was associated with the PO, whereas rs3752462 MYH9 polymorphism showed a positive association (HR3.72, 95%CI 1.47-9.38, p?=?0.005). When we analyzed the MYH9 E1 haplotype, the GCCT carriers (1 or 2 alelles present in 29.7% in the PO group vs. 18.5% in controls) showed a significant association to the risk of PO, even after adjustments for baseline estimated creatinine clearance and autossomal ancestry (HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.2-3.4, p?=?0.01). Our results show that in our population MYH9, but not APOL1, gene polymorphisms confer an increased risk of CKD in LN patients, independently of race.
In populations that have a high degree of admixture, such as in Brazil, the sole use of ethnicity self-declaration information is not a good method for classifying individuals regarding their ethnicity. Here, we evaluate the relationship of self-declared ethnicities with genomic ancestry and mitochondrial haplogroups in 492 individuals from southeastern Brazil. Mitochondrial haplogroups were obtained by analyzing the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the genomic ancestry was obtained using 48 autosomal insertion-deletion ancestry informative markers (AIM). Of the 492 individuals, 74.6% self-declared as White, 13.8% as Brown and 10.4% as Black. Classification of the mtDNA haplogroups showed that 46.3% had African mtDNA, and the genomic ancestry analysis showed that the main contribution was European (57.4%). When we looked at the distribution of mtDNA and genomic ancestry according to the self-declared ethnicities from 367 individuals who self-declared as White, 37.6% showed African mtDNA, and they had a high contribution of European genomic ancestry (63.3%) but also a significant contribution of African ancestry (22.2%). Of the 68 individuals who self-declared as Brown, 25% showed Amerindian mtDNA and similar contribution of European and African genomic ancestries. Of the 51 subjects who self-declared as black, 80.4% had African mtDNA, and the main contribution of genomic ancestry was African (55.6%), but they also had a significant proportion of European ancestry (32.1%). The Brazilian population had a uniform degree of Amerindian genomic ancestry, and it was only with the use of genetic markers (autosomal or mitochondrial) that we were able to capture Amerindian ancestry information. Additionally, it was possible to observe a high degree of heterogeneity in the ancestry for both types of genetic markers, which shows the high genetic admixture that is present in the Brazilian population. We suggest that in epidemiological studies, the use of these methods could provide complementary information.
One of the main obstacles for understanding biological events involved in cancer is the lack of experimental models for in vitro studies especially for prostate cancer (PC). There are a limited number of PC cell lines being the majority originated from metastatic tumors mostly acquired from American Tissue Cell Culture which demands importation an expensive and bureaucratic process. Also it is well known that there are ethnic differences between populations concerning the behavior of tumors and the research based on cell lines derived from Brazilians should be interesting. Our aim was to develop tumor cell lines from primary PC.
Mitochondria provide an environment conducive to mutations in DNA molecules (mtDNA). Analyses of mtDNA have shown mutations potentially leading to many cardiovascular traits. Here, we describe a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and new mtDNA duplication. The patient presented symptoms of heart failure New York Heart Association functional class III and was diagnosed with non-familial dilated cardiomyopathy with important left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Sequencing of mtDNA control region was done, and a 15 bp duplication was observed between nucleotides 16,018 and 16,032. Part of this duplication is localized within the tRNA proline gene (tRNA(Pro)) that has an important role in cell protection against oxidative stress and is considered an important regulatory factor for cellular reactive oxygen species balance. This duplication could alter the stability or secondary structure of tRNA(Pro), affecting mt-protein synthesis. In turn, the presence of duplication in tRNA(Pro) could cause some oxidative stress imbalance and, so, mitochondrial dysfunction could result in the pathogenicity.
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