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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Leishmania infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 is an Apyrase Involved in Macrophage Infection and Expressed in Infected Dogs.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Visceral leishmaniasis is an important tropical disease, and Leishmania infantum chagasi (synonym of Leishmania infantum) is the main pathogenic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Recently, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) were identified as enablers of infection and virulence factors in many pathogens. Two putative E-NTPDases (?70 kDa and ?45 kDa) have been found in the L. infantum genome. Here, we studied the ?45 kDa E-NTPDase from L. infantum chagasi to describe its natural occurrence, biochemical characteristics and influence on macrophage infection.
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Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Delayed Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in a Midsized City of Brazil.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Patients treated in the specialized service at a midsized city in Brazil participated in a cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the risk factors for delayed diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. Through interviews and review of medical records, information was collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and diagnoses. The study included 403 patients, of whom 216 (53.6%) were male and 311 (77.1%) had ?8 years of education. According to the criteria adopted in this study, 162 (40.2%) of the participants had a late diagnosis of AIDS. Only 19 (4.7%) were diagnosed by routine examinations and 45 (11.2%) presented with AIDS-defining disease at the time of diagnosis. After adjustments, the results showed that having more education was protective against a late diagnosis for women. With the advance of the AIDS epidemic to small town and rural Brazil, vulnerable populations now include low-income and less educated women, most of whom have had monogamous relationships throughout their lives.
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Hepatocellular Carcinoma Management in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: Applicability of the BCLC Staging System.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as an important cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system is the preferred staging system to evaluate patients with HCC and links prognosis assessment with treatment recommendation. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether the BCLC staging system and its treatment algorithm are suitable for patients with HCC arising from NAFLD.
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Effect of transcranial direct-current stimulation combined with treadmill training on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Cerebral palsy refers to permanent, mutable motor development disorders stemming from a primary brain lesion, causing secondary musculoskeletal problems and limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of gait training combined with transcranial direct-current stimulation over the primary motor cortex on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy.
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Recent advances in characterization of nonviral vectors for delivery of nucleic acids: impact on their biological performance.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Introduction: Nucleic acid delivery is a complex process that requires transport across numerous extracellular and intracellular barriers, whose impact is often neglected during optimization studies. As such, the development of nonviral vectors for efficient delivery would benefit from an understanding of how these barriers relate to the physicochemical properties of lipoplexes and polyplexes. Areas covered: This review focuses on the evaluation of parameters associated with barriers to delivery such as blood and immune cells compatibility which, as a collective, may serve as a useful prescreening tool for the advancement of nonviral vectors in vivo. An outline of the most relevant rationally developed polyplexes and lipoplexes for clinical application is also given. Expert opinion: The evaluation of scientifically recognized parameters enabled the identification of systemic delivered nonviral vectors' behavior while in blood as one of the key determinants of vectors function and activity both in vitro and in vivo. This multiparametric approach complements the use of in vitro efficacy results alone for prescreening and improves in vitro-in vivo translation by minimizing false negatives. Further, it can aid in the identification of meaningful structure-function-activity relationships, improve the in vitro screening process of nonviral vectors before in vivo use and facilitate the future development of potent and safe nonviral vectors.
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Adipose-derived stem cells incorporated into platelet-rich plasma improved bone regeneration and maturation in vivo.
Dent Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Some cases of tooth loss related to dental trauma require bone-grafting procedures to improve the aesthetics before prosthetic rehabilitation or to enable the installation of dental implants. Bone regeneration is often a challenge and could be largely improved by mesenchymal stem cells therapy. However, the appropriate scaffold for these cells still a problem. This study evaluated the in vivo effect of human adipose-derived stem cells incorporated into autogenous platelet-rich plasma in bone regeneration and maturation.
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Transcranial direct current stimulation during treadmill training in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Impaired gait constitutes an important functional limitation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Treadmill training has achieved encouraging results regarding improvements in the gait pattern of this population. Moreover, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is believed to potentiate the results achieved during the motor rehabilitation process. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the administration of tDCS during treadmill training on the gait pattern of children with spastic diparetic CP. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out involving 24 children with CP allocated to either an experimental group (active anodal tDCS [1mA] over the primary motor cortex of the dominant hemisphere) or control group (placebo tDCS) during ten 20-min sessions of treadmill training. The experimental group exhibited improvements in temporal functional mobility, gait variables (spatiotemporal and kinematics variables). The results were maintained one month after the end of the intervention. There was a significant change in corticospinal excitability as compared to control group. In the present study, the administration of tDCS during treadmill training potentiated the effects of motor training in children with spastic diparetic CP.
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Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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[Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12?years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS.
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Correlation between the expression of vegf and survival in osteosarcoma.
Acta Ortop Bras
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To present a series of 50 consecutive patients with non-metastatic extremity osteosarcoma, and attempt to correlate expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in biopsy tissue to their prognosis regarding overall survival, disease-free survival and local recurrence.
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Effect of pre-irradiation with different doses, wavelengths, and application intervals of low-level laser therapy on cytochrome c oxidase activity in intact skeletal muscle of rats.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Modulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity has been pointed as a possible key mechanism for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in unhealthy biological tissues. But recent studies by our research group with LLLT in healthy muscles before exercise found delayed skeletal muscle fatigue development and improved biochemical status in muscle tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different LLLT doses and wavelengths in cytochrome c oxidase activity in intact skeletal muscle. In this animal experiment, we irradiated the tibialis anterior muscle of rats with three different LLLT doses (1, 3, and 10 J) and wavelengths (660, 830, and 905 nm) with 50 mW power output. After irradiation, the analyses of cytochrome c oxidase expression by immunohistochemistry were analyzed at 5, 10, 30 min and at 1, 2, 12, and 24 h. Our results show that LLLT increased (p?
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Effect of a single session of transcranial direct-current stimulation on balance and spatiotemporal gait variables in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized sham-controlled study.
Braz J Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders.
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Effect of a single session of transcranial direct-current stimulation on balance and spatiotemporal gait variables in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized sham-controlled study.
Braz J Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single session of tDCS regarding immediate changes in spatiotemporal gait and oscillations of the center of pressure (30 seconds) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A randomized controlled trial with a blinded evaluator was conducted involving 20 children with CP between six and ten years of age. Gait and balance were evaluated three times: Evaluation 1 (before the stimulation), Evaluation 2 (immediately after stimulation), and Evaluation 3 (20 minutes after the stimulation). The protocol consisted of a 20-minute session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group - anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex; and control group - placebo transcranial stimulation. Results: Significant reductions were found in the experimental group regarding oscillations during standing in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and eyes closed in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). In the intra-group analysis, the experimental group exhibited significant improvements in gait velocity, cadence, and oscillation in the center of pressure during standing (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the control group among the different evaluations. Conclusion: A single session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex promotes positive changes in static balance and gait velocity in children with cerebral palsy.
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Music students: conventional hearing thresholds and at high frequencies.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments.
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Syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazonas State, Brazil: an evaluation using database linkage.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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This study analyzes notification of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Amazo- nas State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009 and verifies underreporting in databases in the National Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN) and the occurrence of perinatal deaths associated with congenital syphilis and not reported in the Mortality Information System (SIM). This was a cross-sectional study with probabilistic record linkage between the SINAN and SIM. There were 666 reports of syphilis in pregnant women, including 224 in 2007 (3.8/1,000), 244(4.5/1,000) in 2008, and 198(4.0/1,000) in 2009. The study found 486 cases of congenital syphilis, of which 153 in 2007 (2.1/1,000), 193 in 2008 (2.6/1,000), and 140 in 2009 (2.0/1,000). After linkage of the SINAN databases, 237 pregnant women (35.6%) had cases of congenital syphilis reported. The SIM recorded 4,905 perinatal deaths, of which 57.8% were stillbirths. Probabilistic record linkage between SIM and SINAN-Congenital Syphilis yielded 13 matched records. The use of SINAN and SIM may not reflect the total magnitude of syphilis, but provide the basis for monitoring and analyzing this health problem, with a view towards planning and management.
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Canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban setting of Southeastern Brazil: an ecological study involving spatial analysis.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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BackgroundThe physical characteristics of the environment influence the composition, distribution and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), thereby affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, urbanization of human VL is a recent phenomenon and represents an issue of particular concern to local health authorities. The present study aimed to establish the degree of spatial dependency between canine and human VL in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify priority risk areas in which stricter control measures should be implemented.MethodsThe selected canine population comprised 3,652 dogs distributed within 11 strata and 1,247 urban blocks. Serum samples were collected between March 2013 and February 2014. Serodiagnosis of dogs was performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. The blocks sampled for canine VL and the addresses of the 16 confirmed cases of human VL notified in Divinópolis during the period 2007¿2013 were georeferenced. Spatial analysis of the data was performed using Kernel density estimation, Ripley¿s bivariate K-function and directional distribution methods.ResultsThe overall prevalence of seropositive animals was 4.63% (range 3.95 - 5.31) (n =169) and varied in different strata between 0.9 (range 0.0 - 1.91) and 8.73% (range 5.65 - 11.81). A positive spatial dependency was detected between human and canine VL in which the occurrence of human cases of the disease tended to concentrate in locations that were close to areas with a higher incidence of canine VL. The priority risk area could be clearly distinguished from Kernel density estimation and standard deviational ellipse plots in which the human VL ellipse was totally enclosed within the canine VL ellipse.ConclusionsThe results presented herein will enable the Municipal Health Office of Divinópolis to devise a more effective management plan for human VL in which specific strategies would be applied to areas presenting different levels of risk. This spatial evaluation of leishmaniasis model could be applied in other urban areas of Brazil.
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Serum crosslinked-N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) has prognostic implications for patients with initial prostate carcinoma (PCa): a pilot study.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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NTx is a type I collagen metabolite previously shown to be increased in patients with bone metastasis. We evaluate NTx potential prognostic role in PCa at diagnosis, when most of the patients have no overt bone involvement.
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Test-retest reliability of electromyographic variables of masseter and temporal muscles in patients with cerebral palsy.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of surface electromyography of the masticatory muscles in patients with cerebral palsy.
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Significant Variations in Elastometry Measurements Made Within Short-term in Patients With Chronic Liver Diseases.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Transient elastometry is a noninvasive procedure used to measure fibrosis when patients are diagnosed with liver disease; it might be used to monitor changes over time. We investigated whether there are short-term variations in stiffness measurements that are not attributable to changes in fibrosis by studying patients with stable liver disease.
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Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.
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Effectiveness of (PhSe)2 in protect against the HgCl2 toxicity.
J Trace Elem Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This work investigated the preventive effect of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] on renal and hepatic toxicity biomarkers and oxidative parameters in adult mice exposed to mercury chloride (HgCl2). Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) determination was also carried out. Mice received a daily oral dose of (PhSe)2 (5.0mg/kg/day) or canola oil for five consecutive days. During the following five days, the animals were treated with a daily subcutaneous dose of HgCl2 (5.0mg/kg/day) or saline (0.9%). Twenty-four hours after the last HgCl2 administration, the animals were sacrificed and biological material was obtained. Concerning toxicity biomarkers, Hg exposure inhibited blood ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and also increased serum creatinine levels. (PhSe)2 partially prevented blood ?-ALA-D inhibition and totally prevented the serum creatinine increase. Regarding the oxidative parameters, Hg decreased kidney TBARS levels and increased kidney non-protein thiol levels, while (PhSe)2 pre-treatment partially protected the kidney thiol levels increase. Animals exposed to HgCl2 presented Hg content accumulation in blood, kidney and liver. The (PhSe)2 pre-treatment increased Hg accumulation in kidney and decreased in blood. These results show that (PhSe)2 can be efficient in protecting against these toxic effects presented by this Hg exposure model.
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Characterization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the dengue vector population established in urban areas of Fernando de Noronha, a Brazilian oceanic island.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Aedes aegypti has played a major role in the dramatic expansion of dengue worldwide. The failure of control programs in reducing the rhythm of global dengue expansion through vector control suggests the need for studies to support more appropriated control strategies. We report here the results of a longitudinal study on Ae. aegypti population dynamics through continuous egg sampling aiming to characterize the infestation of urban areas of a Brazilian oceanic island, Fernando de Noronha. The spatial and temporal distribution of the dengue vector population in urban areas of the island was described using a monitoring system (SMCP-Aedes) based on a 103-trap network for Aedes egg sampling, using GIS and spatial statistics analysis tools. Mean egg densities were estimated over a 29-month period starting in 2011 and producing monthly maps of mosquito abundance. The system detected continuous Ae. aegypti oviposition in most traps. The high global positive ovitrap index (POI=83.7% of 2815 events) indicated the frequent presence of blood-fed-egg laying females at every sampling station. Egg density (eggs/ovitrap/month) reached peak values of 297.3 (0 - 2020) in May and 295 (0 - 2140) in August 2012. The presence of a stable Ae. aegypti population established throughout the inhabited areas of the island was demonstrated. A strong association between egg abundance and rainfall with a 2-month lag was observed, which combined with a first-order autocorrelation observed in the series of egg counts can provide an important forecasting tool. This first description of the characteristics of the island infestation by the dengue vector provides baseline information to analyze relationships between the spatial distribution of the vector and dengue cases, and to the development of integrated vector control strategies.
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National Policy on Health Care Hearing: an evaluative study from covering services and diagnostic procedures.
Codas
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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To evaluate the National Policy on Hearing Health Care (PNASA) based on the coverage of specialized services and diagnostic procedures in hearing health care in Brazil.
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Antiherpetic Mechanism of a Sulfated Derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis Fruiting Bodies Polysaccharide.
Intervirology
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Objective: To study the anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of a (1?6)-(1?3)-?-D-glucan isolated from Agaricus brasiliensis fruiting bodies (FR) as well as its chemically sulfated derivative (FR-S). Methods: The antiherpetic activity and mechanism of action was studied by viral plaque assay applying different methodological strategies. Results: Although FR presented no in vitro antiherpetic action at 1 mg/ml, FR-S displayed promising anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activities in both simultaneous and postinfection treatments, resulting in selectivity indices (CC50/EC50) higher than 393. FR-S had no virucidal effect, but significantly suppressed HSV-1 (EC50 = 0.32 µg/ml) and HSV-2 (EC50 = 0.10 µg/ml) adsorption. FR-S was less effective on adsorption inhibition of mutant virus strains devoid of gC (HSV-1 gC(-)39 and HSV-2 gCneg1), indicating a possible interaction with this glycoprotein. The reduction of viral adsorption upon cell pretreatment with FR-S also suggests its interaction with cellular components. FR-S inhibited HSV-1 (EC50 = 8.39 µg/ml) and HSV-2 (EC50 = 2.86 µg/ml) penetration more efficiently than heparin. FR-S reduced HSV-1 and HSV-2 cell-to-cell spread. A synergic effect between FR-S and acyclovir was also detected. Conclusions: FR-S displays an interesting mechanism of antiviral action and represents a promising candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of herpetic infections, to be used as a single therapeutic agent or in combination with acyclovir. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Dominant contribution of the proteasome and metalloproteinases to TAP-independent MHC-I peptide repertoire.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Tumors frequently display defects in the MHC-I antigen processing machinery, such as deficiency of the peptide transporter TAP. Interestingly, the residual peptide repertoire contains neo-antigens which are not presented by processing-proficient cells. We termed these immunogenic peptides TEIPP ('T-cell epitopes associated with impaired peptide processing') and were interested to unravel their TAP-independent processing pathways. With an array of chemical inhibitors we assessed the participation of numerous proteases to TAP-independent peptides and found that the previously described catalytic enzymes signal peptidase and furin contributed in a cell-type and MHC-I allele-specific way. In addition, a dominant role for the proteasome and metallopeptidases was observed. These findings raised the question how these proteasome products get access to MHC-I molecules. A novel TEIPP peptide-epitope that represented this intracellular route revealed that the lysosomal peptide transporter ABCB9 ('TAP-like') was dispensable for its presentation. Interestingly, prevention of endolysosomal vesicle acidification by bafilomycin enhanced the surface display of this TEIPP peptide, suggesting that this proteasome-dependent pathway intersects endolysosomes and that these antigens are merely destroyed there. In conclusion, the proteasome has a surprisingly dominant role in shaping the TAP-independent MHC-I peptide repertoire and some of these antigens might be targeted to the endocytic vesicular pathway.
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[The experience of a public institution in the training of health professionals to work in primary care].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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This scope of this paper is to analyze the training of nurses and physicians to work in primary care at a public institution in the municipality of Marilia, duly identifying the concepts of professors, coordinators and graduates in relation to the formation of health professionals. It is a qualitative, exploratory study with interviews conducted with 21 individuals. The results revealed that according to the individuals interviewed, both courses prepare professionals to work in primary care, albeit with limitations in relation to actions in management collective and care. The interviewees believe that the use of active methodologies has been important in the teaching and learning process. Also, the fact that from the first year of undergraduate studies the students participate in primary health care broadens their knowledge of this reality. The study highlights the need to enhance the teaching-service partnership and strategies to improve the training physicians to work in primary health care.
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Effects of gastrocnemius fascia lengthening on gait pattern in children with cerebral palsy using the gait profile score.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of the GPS regarding the quantification of changes in gait following the gastrocnemius fascia lengthening in children with CP. Nineteen children with CP were selected and evaluated in the preoperative period (PRE session) and approximately one year postoperatively (POST session; mean 13.1 ± 5.1 months) using 3D gait analysis and computing the GPS and GVSs. As the GPS represents the difference between the patient's data and the average from the reference dataset, the higher the value of GPS is, more compromised gait of the subject. A statistically significant improvement in mean GPS was found in the POST session (PRE: 13.38 ± 5°; POST: 10.26 ± 2.41°; p<0.05), with an improvement close to 23%. Moreover, the GVSs demonstrated statistically significant improvements in ankle dorsi-plantarflexion (PRE: 22.20 ± 16.36°; POST: 11.50 ± 6.57°; p<0.05) and pelvic rotation (PRE: 9.53 ± 3.87°; POST: 6.47 ± 2.98°; p<0.05). A strong correlation (r=0.75; p<0.05) was found between the preoperative GPS and the percentage of GPS improvement. The results demonstrated that the gastrocnemius fascia lengthening produced a global gait pattern improvement, as showed by the GPS value, which decreased after surgery. Besides this, the GVS permitted to better evidence the joints more compromised by the pathology and their improvement due to the surgery, in this case not only the GVS of the ankle joint but also of the pelvis were characterized by higher GVS values.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is increasing worldwide in recent years. Most HCC cases develop in the presence of advanced chronic liver disease related to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection, and alcohol abuse. Approximately 15-50% of HCC cases are classified as idiopathic, suggesting that other risk factors are responsible for its rising incidence. Recent studies suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be associated with these "idiopathic" cases. NAFLD progresses slowly and can develop into liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and HCC. In the last few years, NAFLD has received more attention because of its high prevalence worldwide.
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Pro-atherosclerotic markers and cardiovascular risk factors one year after liver transplantation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To investigate pro-atherosclerotic markers (endothelial dysfunction and inflammation) in patients one year after liver transplantation.
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The effect of simvastatin on the regeneration of surgical cavities in the femurs of rabbits.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To evaluate the effect of a local application of simvastatin gel in repairing bone defects in the femurs of rabbits.
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Association between age at diagnosis and degree of liver injury in hepatitis C.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A population-based survey conducted in Brazilian capital cities found that only 16% of the population had ever been tested for hepatitis C. These data suggest that much of the Brazilian population with HCV infection remains undiagnosed. The distribution of age ranges at diagnosis and its association with the degree of hepatitis C are still unknown in Brazilian patients.
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Distinct response of lactating and nonlactating rats exposed to inorganic mercury on hepatic ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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This study investigated if lactating and nonlactating rats presented differences in relation to hepatic sensitivity to HgCl2 and the potential preventive role of ZnCl2. Lactating (days 3-12 of lactation) and nonlactating rats received 27 mg/kg ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5 mg/kg HgCl2 for five subsequent days. Lactating and nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 presented a decrease in food intake, a decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and an increase in hepatic Hg levels when compared to the control group. Only lactating rats exposed to HgCl2 presented an increase in hepatic ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. On the other hand, only nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 presented an increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST). ZnCl2 pre-exposure partially protected the increase in plasma AST activity presented by nonlactating rats and potentiated the liver Hg accumulation in lactating rats. Pups from the Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups showed a decrease in absolute liver weight and an increase in liver Hg levels. Summarizing, this study demonstrated that lactating rats presented distinct biochemical responses compared to nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 when hepatic parameters were evaluated.
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Effect of a hyperbolide mastication apparatus for the treatment of severe sleep bruxism in a child with cerebral palsy: long-term follow-up.
J Bodyw Mov Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Sleep bruxism is common among the various oromotor alterations found in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Few studies have investigated the use of the mastication device denominated "hyperbola" (HB) and none was found describing the use of such a device for the treatment of bruxism in children with CP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the HB on electromyographic (EMG) activity in the jaw-closing muscles and the reduction in sleep bruxism in a child with CP using surface EMG analysis before and after nine months of treatment.
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Lactating and nonlactating rats differ to renal toxicity induced by mercuric chloride: the preventive effect of zinc chloride.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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This study evaluated the effects of HgCl2 on renal parameters in nonlactating and lactating rats and their pups, as well as the preventive role of ZnCl2 . Rats received 27 mg kg(-1) ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5 mg kg(-1) HgCl2 for five subsequent days (s.c.). A decrease in ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activity in the blood and an increase in urine protein content in renal weight as well as in blood and urine Hg levels were observed in lactating and nonlactating rats from Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups. ZnCl2 prevented partially the ?-ALA-D inhibition and the proteinuria in nonlactating rats. Renal Hg levels were increased in all HgCl2 groups, and the ZnCl2 exposure potentiated this effect in lactating rats. Nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 exhibited an increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels, ?-ALA-D activity inhibition and histopathological alterations (necrosis, atrophic tubules and collagen deposition) in the kidneys. ZnCl2 exposure prevented the biochemical alterations. Hg-exposed pups showed lower body and renal weight and an increase in the renal Hg levels. In conclusion, mercury-induced nephrotoxicity differs considerably between lactating and nonlactating rats. Moreover, prior exposure with ZnCl2 may provide protection to individuals who get exposed to mercury occupationally or accidentally.
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Impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhea-related hospitalizations in São Paulo State, Brazil.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Following introduction of routine infant rotavirus vaccination, severe diarrhea hospitalization rates declined among children aged <5 years throughout Brazil. Ensuring equity of rotavirus vaccine impact is important in countries that self-finance immunization programs. The objective of this study was to examine rotavirus vaccine impact on diarrhea admission rates among children aged <5 years in Brazil's public health system, according to area-based measures of human development in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
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Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Treadmill Gait Training in Delayed Neuro-psychomotor Development.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to describe the results of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with treadmill training in a child with delayed neuro-psychomotor development. [Subject and Methods] Transcranial direct current stimulation (intensity: 1 mA) was applied over the primary motor cortex for 20 minutes during simultaneous treadmill training (2.5?km/h) in ten sessions. [Results] Clinically significant improvement was found in motor development (fine motor subscale, 23 to 25; gross motor subscale, 32 to 41). Reductions in mean oscillation of the center of pressure were found in the anteroposterior (239.2 to 146.5?mm) and mediolateral (177.4 to 149.2?mm) directions. Increases occurred in cadence (106 to 123 steps/minute), step length (0.16 to 0.23 m), step width (0.09 to 0.14 m) and gait velocity with support (0.3 to 0.7 m/s). [Conclusion] After treatment, the child was able to initiate the standing position for the first time and walk without support.
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Correlation between Pediatric Balance Scale and Functional Test in Children with Cerebral Palsy.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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[Purpose] To investigate the correlation of functional balance with the functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study of children with cerebral palsy with mild to moderate impairment. The children were divided into 3 groups based on motor impairment. The evaluation consisted of the administration of the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) and the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory. Correlations between the instruments were determined by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficients. [Results] In Group 1, a strong positive correlation was found between the PBS and the mobility dimension of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (r=0.82), and a moderate correlation was found between the PBS and self-care dimension of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (r=0.51). In Group 2, moderate correlations were found between the PBS and both the self-care dimension (r=0.57) and mobility dimension (r=0.41) of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory. In Group 3, the PBS was weakly correlated with the self-care dimension (r=0.11) and moderately correlated with the mobility dimension (r=0.55). [Conclusion] The PBS proved to be a good auxiliary tool for the evaluation of functional performance with regard to mobility, but cannot be considered a predictor of function in children with cerebral palsy.
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Antimutagenic and antiherpetic activities of different preparations from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Uncaria tomentosa have been used to treat viral diseases such as herpes due to multiple pharmacological effects, but its therapeutic efficacy against this virus have not been reported yet. Thus, in vitro antiherpetic activity of hydroethanolic extract from barks, purified fractions of quinovic acid glycosides and oxindole alkaloids was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, including mechanistic studies (virucidal, attachment and penetration action). Once exposure to physical agents might lead to reactivation of the herpetic infection, antimutagenic effect (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols) was also evaluated by Comet assay. The antiherpetic activity from the samples under investigation seemed to be associated with the presence of polyphenols or their synergistic effect with oxindole alkaloids or quinovic acid glycosides, once both purified fractions did not present activity when evaluated alone. Inhibition of viral attachment in the host cells was the main mechanism of antiviral activity. Although both purified fractions displayed the lowest antimutagenic activity in pre and simultaneous treatment, they provided a similar effect to that of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract in post-treatment. Given that purified fractions may result in a reduced antiherpetic activity, the use of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract from barks should be prioritized in order to obtain a synergistic effect.
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Lactating and non-lactating rats differ in sensitivity to HgCl(2): Protective effect of ZnCl(2).
J Trace Elem Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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This work investigated zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) effects on oxidative parameters, markers of toxicity and metal levels in different tissues from non-lactating rats (NLR) and lactating rats (LR). Adult NLR and LR received ZnCl2 (27mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) subcutaneously and after 24h they received HgCl2 (5mg/kg) or saline (0.9%). Twenty four hours later, they were sacrificed and the preparation of biological material and biochemical analyses were performed. With respect to oxidative parameters, Hg exposure decreased kidney total SH levels from NLR and LR and hepatic catalase activity (not statistically significant) in NLR. Zinc pre-treatment partly prevented the decrease of kidney total SH levels in LR. Zinc per se increased hepatic non-protein SH levels of NLR and LR. Regarding toxicity markers, Hg exposure inhibited the ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activity from kidney and liver of NLR, inhibited serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity of LR and increased serum creatinine and urea levels of NLR and LR. Zinc pre-exposure prevented the enzymatic alterations caused by Hg. NLR and LR Hg exposed presented accumulation of mercury in the kidney, liver, blood and urine. Zinc pre-treatment prevented this accumulation partly in NLR liver and blood and completely in LR kidney and liver. These results show that NLR and LR are differently sensitive to HgCl2 and that ZnCl2 showed a promising effect against Hg toxicity.
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Factorial design applied to the optimization of lipid composition of topical antiherpetic nanoemulsions containing isoflavone genistein.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to optimize topical nanoemulsions containing genistein, by means of a 23 full factorial design based on physicochemical properties and skin retention. The experimental arrangement was constructed using oil type (isopropyl myristate or castor oil), phospholipid type (distearoylphosphatidylcholine [DSPC] or dioleylphosphaditylcholine [DOPC]), and ionic cosurfactant type (oleic acid or oleylamine) as independent variables. The analysis of variance showed effect of third order for particle size, polydispersity index, and skin retention of genistein. Nanoemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine showed the smallest diameter and highest genistein amount in porcine ear skin whereas the formulation composed of isopropyl myristate/DSPC/oleylamine exhibited the lowest polydispersity index. Thus, these two formulations were selected for further studies. The formulations presented positive ? potential values (>25 mV) and genistein content close to 100% (at 1 mg/mL). The incorporation of genistein in nanoemulsions significantly increased the retention of this isoflavone in epidermis and dermis, especially when the formulation composed by isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine was used. These results were supported by confocal images. Such formulations exhibited antiherpetic activity in vitro against herpes simplex virus 1 (strain KOS) and herpes simplex virus 22 (strain 333). Taken together, the results show that the genistein-loaded nanoemulsions developed in this study are promising options in herpes treatment.
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G?i2- and G?i3-deficient mice display opposite severity of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most abundant receptors in the heart and therefore are common targets for cardiovascular therapeutics. The activated GPCRs transduce their signals via heterotrimeric G-proteins. The four major families of G-proteins identified so far are specified through their ?-subunit: G?i, G?s, G?q and G12/13. G?i-proteins have been reported to protect hearts from ischemia reperfusion injury. However, determining the individual impact of G?i2 or G?i3 on myocardial ischemia injury has not been clarified yet. Here, we first investigated expression of G?i2 and G?i3 on transcriptional level by quantitative PCR and on protein level by immunoblot analysis as well as by immunofluorescence in cardiac tissues of wild-type, G?i2-, and G?i3-deficient mice. G?i2 was expressed at higher levels than G?i3 in murine hearts, and irrespective of the isoform being knocked out we observed an up regulation of the remaining G?i-protein. Myocardial ischemia promptly regulated cardiac mRNA and with a slight delay protein levels of both G?i2 and G?i3, indicating important roles for both G?i isoforms. Furthermore, ischemia reperfusion injury in G?i2- and G?i3-deficient mice exhibited opposite outcomes. Whereas the absence of G?i2 significantly increased the infarct size in the heart, the absence of G?i3 or the concomitant upregulation of G?i2 dramatically reduced cardiac infarction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that the genetic ablation of G?i proteins has protective or deleterious effects on cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury depending on the isoform being absent.
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[Contribution of hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions to the profile of admissions in the public health care system].
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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To describe the epidemiological profile of hospitalizations in the city of Divinópolis, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions (HPCSC), and to evaluate the factors associated with the occurrence of HPCSC.
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Antimalarial Activity of 4-Metoxychalcones: Docking Studies as Falcipain/Plasmepsin Inhibitors, ADMET and Lipophilic Efficiency Analysis to Identify a Putative Oral Lead Candidate.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of nine 4-methoxychalcone derivatives 1a-i and an initial analysis of their ADMET properties. All compounds showed potent activity against the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant clone W2, with IC50 values ranging from 1.96 µM to 10.99 µM, with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The compound 1a (IC50 = 2.06 µM) had the best selectivity index (9.0). All the sulfonamide 4-metychalcone derivatives synthesized had cLogP values between 2 and 5 (mean value 3.79) and molecular weights (MWs) below 500. The substitution of the pyrrolidine group in 1i by a morpholine group in 1a reduced the cLogP value from 3.05 in compound 1i to 2.34 in compound 1a. Indeed, compound 1a had the highest LipE value. The binding free energy of compound 1a showed it to be the most optimal chalcone derivative for plasmepsin-2 (-7.3 Kcal/mol). The physicochemical properties and LipE analysis of the dataset allowed us to establish that compound 1a is the highest quality compound of the series and a potential oral lead candidate.
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New role of signal peptide peptidase to liberate C-terminal peptides for MHC class I presentation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane cleaving aspartyl protease involved in release of leader peptide remnants from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, hence its name. We now found a new activity of SPP that mediates liberation of C-terminal peptides. In our search for novel proteolytic enzymes involved in MHC class I (MHC-I) presentation, we found that SPP generates the C-terminal peptide-epitope of a ceramide synthase. The display of this immunogenic peptide-MHC-I complex at the cell surface was independent of conventional processing components like proteasome and peptide transporter TAP. Absence of TAP activity even increased the MHC-I presentation of this Ag. Mutagenesis studies revealed the crucial role of the C-terminal location of the epitope and "helix-breaking" residues in the transmembrane region just upstream of the peptide, indicating that SPP directly liberated the minimal 9-mer peptide. Moreover, silencing of SPP and its family member SPPL2a led to a general reduction of surface peptide-MHC-I complexes, underlining the involvement of these enzymes in Ag processing and presentation.
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Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with gait and mobility training on functionality in children with cerebral palsy: study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The project proposes three innovative intervention techniques (treadmill training, mobility training with virtual reality and transcranial direct current stimulation that can be safely administered to children with cerebral palsy. The combination of transcranial stimulation and physical therapy resources will provide the training of a specific task with multiple rhythmic repetitions of the phases of the gait cycle, providing rich sensory stimuli with a modified excitability threshold of the primary motor cortex to enhance local synaptic efficacy and potentiate motor learning.
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Anti HSV-1 activity of halistanol sulfate and halistanol sulfate C isolated from Brazilian marine sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae).
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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The n-butanol fraction (BF) obtained from the crude extract of the marine sponge Petromica citrina, the halistanol-enriched fraction (TSH fraction), and the isolated compounds halistanol sulfate (1) and halistanol sulfate C (2), were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the viral plaque number reduction assay. The TSH fraction was the most effective against HSV-1 replication (SI = 15.33), whereas compounds 1 (SI = 2.46) and 2 (SI = 1.95) were less active. The most active fraction and these compounds were also assayed to determine the viral multiplication step(s) upon which they act as well as their potential synergistic effects. The anti-HSV-1 activity detected was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment and by the penetration into Vero cells, the virucidal effect on virus particles, and by the impairment in levels of ICP27 and gD proteins of HSV-1. In summary, these results suggest that the anti-HSV-1 activity of TSH fraction detected is possibly related to the synergic effects of compounds 1 and 2.
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Effect of Moringa oleifera lectins on survival and enzyme activities of Aedes aegypti larvae susceptible and resistant to organophosphate.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes aegypti has led to emergence of resistant populations. Moringa oleifera seeds contain the lectins WSMoL and cMoL. WSMoL has larvicidal activity on fourth-stage of A. aegypti organophosphate-susceptible larvae (Rockefeller L4). This study reports on the effects of cMoL on the survival of Rockefeller L4 as well as of WSMoL and cMoL on L4 from an organophosphate-resistant population (Rec-R). The effects of lectins on digestive (amylase, trypsin, and protease) and detoxifying (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ?- and ?-esterases) enzymes from larvae were also determined. cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) did not kill Rockefeller L4 as well as WSMoL and cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) were not larvicidal for Rec-R L4. WSMoL stimulated protease, trypsin-like, and ?-amylase from Rockefeller L4 while cMoL inhibited these enzymes. WSMoL had no effect on trypsin-like activity from Rec-R L4 but inhibited protease and ?-amylase. Among digestive enzymes of Rec-R L4, cMoL inhibited only trypsin-like activity. cMoL inhibited SOD activities from Rockefeller and Rec-R L4 in a higher level than WSMoL while ?-esterase from Rockefeller L4 was more inhibited by WSMoL. The lectins promoted low stimulation or inhibition of ?-esterase activities from both populations. In conclusion, Rockefeller and Rec-R larvae were distinctly affected by M. oleifera lectins, and larvicidal mechanism of WSMoL on Rockefeller L4 may involve deregulation of digestive enzymes. cMoL interfered mainly on SOD activity and thus it can be investigated as a synergistic agent for controlling populations whose resistance is linked to an increased detoxifying process mediated by this enzyme.
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The function of male sperm whale slow clicks in a high latitude habitat: communication, echolocation, or prey debilitation?
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Sperm whales produce different click types for echolocation and communication. Usual clicks and buzzes appear to be used primarily in foraging while codas are thought to function in social communication. The function of slow clicks is less clear, but they appear to be produced by males at higher latitudes, where they primarily forage solitarily, and on the breeding grounds, where they roam between groups of females. Here the behavioral context in which these vocalizations are produced and the function they may serve was investigated. Ninety-nine hours of acoustic and diving data were analyzed from sound recording tags on six male sperm whales in Northern Norway. The 755 slow clicks detected were produced by tagged animals at the surface (52%), ascending from a dive (37%), and during the bottom phase (11%), but never during the descent. Slow clicks were not associated with the production of buzzes, other echolocation clicks, or fast maneuvering that would indicate foraging. Some slow clicks were emitted in seemingly repetitive temporal patterns supporting the hypothesis that the function for slow clicks on the feeding grounds is long range communication between males, possibly relaying information about individual identity or behavioral states.
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P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rats hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rats hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rats behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist ??meATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of ??meATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory mediators via interaction with TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors in the peripheral tissue.
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Chitosan-decorated polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) polymersomes as novel carriers for topical delivery of finasteride.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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In view of the fact that the oral administration of finasteride (FIN) has resulted in various undesirable systemic side effects, the topical application of polystyrene and poly(acrylic acid)-based polymersomes (underexplored system) was investigated. Undecorated PS139-b-PAA17 and PS404-b-PAA63 vesicles (C3 and C7, respectively) or vesicles decorated with chitosan samples of different molecular weight (C3/CS-oligo, C7/CS-oligo, C3/CS-37 and C7/CS-37) were prepared by the co-solvent self-assembly method and characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering,transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. In vitro release experiments and ex vivo permeation using Franz diffusion cells were carried out (through comparison with hydroethanolic finasteride solution). The ideal system should provide high finasteride retention in the dermis and epidermis while allowing some control of the drug release. The particle size and in vitro release were negatively correlated with the permeation coefficient and skin retention in both the epidermis and dermis. The findings that the longest lag time was obtained for the hydroethanolic drug solution and lowest permeation for the systems able to release the drug faster support the hypothesis that nanostructured systems may be required to enhance the penetration and permeation of the drug. Chitosan-decorated polymersomes interacted more strongly with the skin components than non-decorated samples, probably due to the positive surface charge, which increased the FIN retention and reduced the lag time. C7 polymersomes decorated with chitosan were more appropriate for topical applications (high retention in the dermis and epidermis and controlled drug delivery).
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CD200 has an important role in the differential diagnosis of mature B-cell neoplasms by multiparameter flow cytometry.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Multiparameter flow cytometry is a useful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of mature B-cell neoplasms (MBN). Recently, it has been shown that CD200 may improve the distinction between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; CD200+) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL; CD200-), but the role of CD200 expression in atypical CLL and other MBN remains to be established.
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CD200 has an important role in the differential diagnosis of mature B-cell neoplasms by multiparameter flow cytometry.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Background: Multiparameter flow cytometry is a useful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of mature B-cell neoplasms (MBN). Recently, it has been shown that CD200 may improve the distinction between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; CD200+) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL; CD200-), but the role of CD200 expression in atypical CLL and other MBN remains to be established. Methods: To address this issue, we investigated the expression of CD200 in 159 consecutive cases of MBN. Results: CD200 was strongly expressed in CLL and was revealed to be an excellent marker to distinguish CLL from MCL, even in cases of atypical CLL. However, lack of CD200 was not an exclusive finding of MCL, being also observed in other MBNs. Furthermore, CD200 was highly expressed in hairy cell leukemia, being useful in the differential diagnosis of lymphomas with villous lymphocytes. Herein, we propose an algorithm to classify CD5+ MBNs based on the expression of CD200, CD11c, heavy chain immunoglobulins and Matutes score. Conclusions: These results expand the understanding of the CD200 expression in MBNs, giving further support for the inclusion of this marker in the routine investigation by flow cytometry. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.
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Susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to the chemical insecticide temephos in Pernambuco, Brazil.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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BACKGROUND: Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of many agents of human diseases, including Wuchereria bancrofti, the parasite that causes bancroftian filariasis, an endemic disease in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Although temephos is not currently used to control C. quinquefasciatus, the species might be under a selection process from incidental exposure to this compound. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility status of C. quinquefasciatus to temephos, using bioassays, and to investigate its putative resistance mechanisms through biochemical assays and screening of the G119S mutation in the acetylcholinesterase gene, which is associated with organophosphate resistance, carried out by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The results showed that only mosquitoes from Santa Cruz do Capibaribe (SC) had an alteration in their susceptibility status (RR?=?7.2-fold), while the other populations were all susceptible to the insecticide. Biochemical assays showed increased activity for all esterases in SC, as well as evidence of acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. The G119S mutation was detected in this population with a frequency of 0.11, but it was not found in the remaining populations. CONCLUSION: These data show that mechanisms of temephos resistance have been selected in natural C. quinquefasciatus populations from Pernambuco, which could undermine future control actions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Treadmill training following orthopedic surgery in lower limbs of children with cerebral palsy.
Pediatr Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To determine the effect of treadmill training on gross motor function and functional mobility in children with cerebral palsy (CP) receiving physical therapy following orthopedic surgery for the lower limbs.
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Effect of treadmill gait training on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.
Braz J Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Treadmill gait training as a therapeutic resource in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy has recently been the focus of many studies; however, little is still known regarding its effect on static and functional balance in children.
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Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and its relation with socio-demographic variables and quality of life.
Rev Assoc Med Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To investigate the occurrence of urinary incontinency (UI) in pregnant women and its relationship with socio-demographic variables and quality of life.
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Anti-infective potential of marine invertebrates and seaweeds from the Brazilian coast.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3) promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y) epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the plaque number reduction assay (IC??). Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC??). The results were expressed as SI = CC??/IC??. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona) sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively). Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively), and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition). Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona) sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5, respectively). All the active extracts deserve special attention in further studies to chemically characterize the bioactive compounds, and to perform more refined biological assays.
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Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.
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HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV-seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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There are few surveillance studies analyzing genotypes or primary (transmitted) drug resistance in HIV-infected blood donors in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of HIV genotypes and primary resistance among HIV-seropositive donors identified at 4 geographically dispersed blood centers in Brazil.
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A comparison of treadmill training and overground walking in ambulant children with cerebral palsy: randomized controlled clinical trial.
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Compare the effects of treadmill training and training with overground walking (both without partial weight support) on motor skills in children with cerebral palsy.
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Comparative genomics of IncP-1? plasmids from water environments reveals diverse and unique accessory genetic elements.
Plasmid
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The goal of this study was to determine and compare the complete genome sequences of three new broad-host-range conjugative plasmids. Plasmids pMLUA1, pMLUA3 and pMLUA4 were previously recovered from estuarine water by exogenous plasmid isolation and ranged in size from ?55 to 59 kb. Comparative genomics showed that their backbone region was identical to the prototype pKJK5 and other IncP1-? plasmids captured from soils. The accessory region was inserted between the tra region and parA, and presented the typical IncP-1? ISPa17 and Tn402-like transposon modules. Nevertheless, new class 1 integrons were identified (In794, carrying aadA5 and In795, carrying qacF5-aadA5), as well as a composite transposon IS26-msr(E)-mph(E)-IS26 carrying genes that confer resistance to macrolides. A new insertion sequence, termed ISUnCu17, was also identified on pMLUA3. The architecture of the accessory regions implies the occurrence of multiple insertions and deletions. These data support the notion that IncP-1 plasmids from the ? subgroup are proficient in the capture of diverse genetic elements, including antibiotic resistance genes, and thus may contribute to the co-selection of several resistance determinants. This study constitutes the first report of completely sequenced IncP-1? plasmids from water environments, and enhances our understanding of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of these replicons.
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Plasmatic higher levels of homocysteine in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, which includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology such as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Genetic mutations in the folate route may only mildly impair Hcy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between liver steatosis with plasma homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with NAFLD.
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Strong correlation by ultrasonography of hepatomegaly and the presence of co-infection in HIV/HCV cirrhotic patients.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Progression of hepatic fibrosis is accelerated in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus compared to hepatitis C virus mono-infected patients. This study aimed to compare ultrasound features and selected clinical and biochemical variables between patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus co-infection (n=16) versus hepatitis C virus mono-infection (n=16).
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Analysis of the Applicability of an Ankle-Foot Orthosis during Gait in Poststroke Patients.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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[Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop and assess the applicability of an experimental ankle-foot orthosis during gait in patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] This was a noncontrolled cross-sectional study. Ten adult patients with hemiparesis but who were capable of independent gait were included in the study. Gait assessment was performed using two platforms (EMG System do Brasil), an electromyograph (EMG System do Brasil), and a video camera. The experimental orthosis consisted of a single piece that fit over the foot and 1/3 of the distal tibia and had a steel spring. [Results] There was greater activation of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles in the stance and mid-stance phases with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis and no orthosis. Regarding spatial and temporal gait parameters, the individuals achieved an increase in stride length with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis. [Conclusion] The results of the present study demonstrate that individuals with hemiparesis achieved an improvement in the stance and mid-stance phases of gait with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis.
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