Ethanol has been shown to stimulate the beat frequency of respiratory cilia at concentrations encountered during social drinking, while one of its metabolites, acetaldehyde, has been shown to cause a marked decrease in ciliary beat frequency. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term exposure to ethanol stimulated ependymal cilia and whether exposure to acetaldehyde had a toxic effect on ependymal and respiratory cilia.
Peptide-based therapies are showing increasing potential for the development of vaccines and in the treatment of many important diseases. We previously reported two peptide conjugate vaccines that protected mice against pneumococcal disease. During this study, we observed an unexpected phenomenon; several vaccine candidates induced a rapid, fatal anaphylaxis after booster injection of the peptide conjugate. Further investigation indicated the reaction was mediated by the production of peptide-specific IgE and the release of histamine. Notably, among seven peptides tested, all of which bound the same mAb that selected them from a phage library, only four elicited this severe reaction. Sequence alignment analysis of all peptides revealed unique clusters of acidic amino acid residues in the allergenic peptides. Substitution of the acidic amino acid residues, ED, of peptide MP2 with their amine equivalents, QN, eliminated the anaphylactic effects but did not affect the production of peptide-specific IgG. These results have important implications for both the study of allergens and the development of future peptide-based therapies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.