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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and adults.
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Intronic miR-3151 within BAALC drives leukemogenesis by deregulating the TP53 pathway.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The BAALC/miR-3151 locus on chromosome 8q22 contains both the BAALC gene (for brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic) and miR-3151, which is located in intron 1 of BAALC. Older acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with high expression of both miR-3151 and the BAALC mRNA transcript have a low survival prognosis, and miR-3151 and BAALC expression is associated with poor survival independently of each other. We found that miR-3151 functioned as the oncogenic driver of the BAALC/miR-3151 locus. Increased production of miR-3151 reduced the apoptosis and chemosensitivity of AML cell lines and increased leukemogenesis in mice. Disruption of the TP53-mediated apoptosis pathway occurred in leukemia cells overexpressing miR-3151 and the miR-3151 bound to the 3' untranslated region of TP53. In contrast, BAALC alone had only limited oncogenic activity. We found that miR-3151 contains its own regulatory element, thus partly uncoupling miR-3151 expression from that of the BAALC transcript. Both genes were bound and stimulated by a complex of the transcription factors SP1 and nuclear factor ?B (SP1/NF-?B). Disruption of SP1/NF-?B binding reduced both miR-3151 and BAALC expression. However, expression of only BAALC, but not miR-3151, was stimulated by the transcription factor RUNX1, suggesting a mechanism for the partly discordant expression of miR-3151 and BAALC observed in AML patients. Similar to the AML cells, in melanoma cell lines, overexpression of miR-3151 reduced the abundance of TP53, and knockdown of miR-3151 increased caspase activity, whereas miR-3151 overexpression reduced caspase activity. Thus, this oncogenic miR-3151 may also have a role in solid tumors.
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Combined molecular and clinical prognostic index for relapse and survival in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the largest and most heterogeneous cytogenetic AML subgroup. For the practicing clinician, it is difficult to summarize the prognostic information of the growing number of clinical and molecular markers. Our purpose was to develop a widely applicable prognostic model by combining well-established pretreatment patient and disease characteristics.
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Implications of the miR-10 family in chemotherapy response of NPM1-mutated AML.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Nucleophosmin-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (NPM1mut-AML) patients have a high rate of complete remission (CR) to induction chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms responsible for such effects are unknown. Because miR-10 family members are expressed at high levels in NPM1mut-AML, we evaluated whether these microRNAs could predict chemotherapy response in AML. We found that high baseline miR-10 family expression in 54 untreated cytogenetically heterogeneous AML patients was associated with achieving CR. However, when we included NPM1 mutation status in the multivariable model, there was a significant interaction effect between miR-10a-5p expression and NPM1 mutation status. Similar results were observed when using a second cohort of 183 cytogenetically normal older (age ? 60 years) AML patients. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments using miR-10a-5p in cell lines and primary blasts did not demonstrate any effect in apoptosis or cell proliferation at baseline or after chemotherapy. These data support a bystander role for the miR-10 family in NPM1mut-AML.
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NRAS isoforms differentially affect downstream pathways, cell growth, and cell transformation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Neuroblastoma rat sarcoma (RAS) viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), a small GTPase, is one of the most thoroughly studied oncogenes that controls cell growth, differentiation, and survival by facilitating signal transduction. Here, we identify four novel naturally occurring NRAS isoforms (isoforms 2-5) in addition to the canonical isoform (isoform 1). Expression analyses performed on a panel of several different human malignancies and matching normal tissue revealed distinct isoform expression patterns. Two of the novel isoforms were found in the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the others were exclusively cytoplasmic. The isoforms varied in their binding affinities to known downstream targets and differentially regulated the RAS signaling pathway. Strikingly, forced expression of isoform 5, which encodes only a 20-aa peptide, led to increased cell proliferation and to transformation by activation of known NRAS targets. These discoveries open new avenues in the study of NRAS.
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Recombinant interleukin-2 in patients aged younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 19808.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) induces cellular cytotoxicity against leukemia blasts. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) may harbor minimal residual disease that is susceptible to rIL-2-activated effector cells.
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SPARC promotes leukemic cell growth and predicts acute myeloid leukemia outcome.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) gene, which encodes a matricellular protein that participates in normal tissue remodeling, is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, but the contribution of SPARC to malignant growth remains controversial. We previously reported that SPARC was among the most upregulated genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients with gene-expression profiles predictive of unfavorable outcome, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2-R172) and overexpression of the oncogenes brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). In contrast, SPARC was downregulated in CN-AML patients harboring mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) that are associated with favorable prognosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPARC expression is clinically relevant in AML. Here, we found that SPARC overexpression is associated with adverse outcome in CN-AML patients and promotes aggressive leukemia growth in murine models of AML. In leukemia cells, SPARC expression was mediated by the SP1/NF-?B transactivation complex. Furthermore, secreted SPARC activated the integrin-linked kinase/AKT (ILK/AKT) pathway, likely via integrin interaction, and subsequent ?-catenin signaling, which is involved in leukemia cell self-renewal. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SP1/NF-?B complex resulted in SPARC downregulation and leukemia growth inhibition. Together, our data indicate that evaluation of SPARC expression has prognosticative value and SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for AML.
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Epigenetics Meets Genetics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Impact of a Novel Seven-Gene Score.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Molecular risk stratification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is largely based on genetic markers. However, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, deregulate gene expression and may also have prognostic impact. We evaluated the clinical relevance of integrating DNA methylation and genetic information in AML.
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Intensive induction is effective in select octogenarian acute myeloid leukemia patients: prognostic significance of karyotype and selected molecular markers used in the European LeukemiaNet classification.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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We investigated whether octogenarian patients with acute myeloid leukemia enrolled onto Cooperative Group clinical trials and treated with intensive induction therapy could be cured, and whether karyotype and selected molecular markers had any prognostic significance in these patients. Among 138 patients with cytogenetic results, normal karyotype was the most common (47.1%) followed by complex karyotype (14.5%) and sole +8 (9.4%). Among these patients, the relapse-free survival (RFS) rate at 1 year was 37% and 13% at 3 years, and the respective overall survival (OS) rates were 24% and 8%. Whereas the 90 patients who survived beyond 30 days had the same RFS rates, their 1-year and 3-year OS rates were 36% and 11%, respectively. Of the 66 patients surviving beyond 30 days who could be classified into the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) Genetic Groups, those in the Intermediate-I Group had better OS than patients in the Adverse Group (P=.01). Among patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia who were tested for the ELN-associated molecular alterations, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutations, FLT3-internal tandem duplication (detected in 29% of patients) did not associate with OS (P=.31), whereas NPM1 mutations (30%) were associated with a significantly longer OS (P=.002). We conclude that intensive induction is effective and indicated in selected octogenarians with acute myeloid leukemia, that their OS varies among the ELN Genetic Groups and that NPM1 mutations may be of prognostic significance among octogenarian patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
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Autologous transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia achieves outcomes similar to allogeneic transplantation - results of CALGB Study 10001 (Alliance).
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the standard approach to Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We hypothesized that imatinib plus sequential chemotherapy will result in significant leukemia cell cytoreduction in patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, allowing collection of normal hematopoietic stem cells uncontaminated by residual BCR/ABL1+ lymphoblasts and thus reduce the likelihood of relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation for patients <60 years old without sibling donors. We enrolled 58 patients; 19 underwent autologous and 15 underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation on study. Imatinib plus sequential chemotherapy resulted in reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-negative stem cells in nine patients and remained minimally positive in four (six were not evaluable). The overall survival (median, 6.0 years vs not reached) and disease-free survival (median, 3.5 vs 4.1 years) were similar between those who underwent autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We conclude that autologous stem cell transplantation represents a safe and effective alternative for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients without sibling donors (NCT00039377).
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Genome-scale expression and transcription factor binding profiles reveal therapeutic targets in transgenic ERG myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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The ETS transcription factor ERG plays a central role in definitive hematopoiesis, and its overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a stem cell signature and poor prognosis. Yet how ERG causes leukemia is unclear. Here we show that pan-hematopoietic ERG expression induces an early progenitor myeloid leukemia in transgenic mice. Integrated genome-scale analysis of gene expression and ERG binding profiles revealed that ERG activates a transcriptional program similar to human AML stem/progenitor cells and to human AML with high ERG expression. This transcriptional program was associated with activation of RAS that was required for leukemia cells growth in vitro and in vivo. We further show that ERG induces expression of the Pim1 kinase oncogene through a novel hematopoietic enhancer validated in transgenic mice and human CD34(+) normal and leukemic cells. Pim1 inhibition disrupts growth and induces apoptosis of ERG-expressing leukemic cells. The importance of the ERG/PIM1 axis is further underscored by the poorer prognosis of AML highly expressing ERG and PIM1. Thus, integrative genomic analysis demonstrates that ERG causes myeloid progenitor leukemia characterized by an induction of leukemia stem cell transcriptional programs. Pim1 and the RAS pathway are potential therapeutic targets of these high-risk leukemias.
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Myelodysplastic syndromes: clinical practice guidelines in oncology.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by cytopenias, dysplasia in one or more myeloid lineages, and the potential for development of acute myeloid leukemia. These disorders primarily affect older adults. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for MDS provide recommendations on the diagnostic evaluation and classification of MDS, risk evaluation according to established prognostic assessment tools (including the new revised International Prognostic Scoring System), treatment options according to risk categories, and management of related anemia.
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Clinical role of microRNAs in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: miR-155 upregulation independently identifies high-risk patients.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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To evaluate the impact of miR-155 on the outcome of adults with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the context of other clinical and molecular prognosticators and to gain insight into the leukemogenic role of this microRNA.
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Outcome of adolescents and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia treated on COG trials compared to CALGB and SWOG trials.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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A retrospective meta-analysis of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was performed to determine if differences in outcome exist following treatment on pediatric versus adult oncology treatment regimens.
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A phase II study of the oral VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor vatalanib (PTK787/ZK222584) in myelodysplastic syndrome: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 10105 (Alliance).
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Angiogenesis is implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK222584; Novartis and Schering AG) inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet derived growth factor and c-Kit. We examined whether vatalanib induces hematological responses in MDS and/or delays progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or death.
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Health literacy among the Amish: measuring a complex concept among a unique population.
J Community Health
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The Amish have cultural practices that include formal education through the 8th grade. This studys purpose was to compare the health literacy among Amish to non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia to understand its potential contribution to poorer health behaviors (e.g. lower cancer screening rates). Amish (n = 143) and non-Amish (n = 154) adults completed interviews as part of a lifestyle study. The rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM) instrument (score range 0-66) was used and mean REALM scores were compared (t test) and correct pronunciation of each word was compared (Chi square test). Significance was considered at p < 0.001 because of multiple comparisons. Mean REALM scores among Amish males (53.3 ± 13.1) and females (56.2 ± 8.6) were significantly (p < 0.001) lower compared to non-Amish males (61.2 ± 9.8) and females (63.0 ± 6.2). Twelve percent of Amish participants read at or lower than a 6th grade level compared to 2.6 % of non-Amish participants. This study provides a glimpse into how culture may influence health literacy. Many Amish participants had limited or marginal health literacy. Innovative strategies that address inadequate health literacy and specific cultural characteristics are needed to improve health-related behaviors and outcomes among the Amish.
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Targeted delivery of microRNA-29b by transferrin-conjugated anionic lipopolyplex nanoparticles: a novel therapeutic strategy in acute myeloid leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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miR-29b directly or indirectly targets genes involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), namely, DNMTs, CDK6, SP1, KIT, and FLT3. Higher miR-29b pretreatment expression is associated with improved response to decitabine and better outcome in AML. Thus, designing a strategy to increase miR-29b levels in AML blasts may be of therapeutic value. However, free synthetic miRs are easily degraded in bio-fluids and have limited cellular uptake. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel transferrin-conjugated nanoparticle delivery system for synthetic miR-29b (Tf-NP-miR-29b).
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All-trans retinoic acid and late relapses in acute promyelocytic leukemia: very long-term follow-up of the North American Intergroup Study I0129.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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We report a long-term follow-up (median 11.8 years) of the First North American Intergroup Study. 379 patients were randomized to induction with ATRA or to chemotherapy. All complete responders (CR) received consolidation chemotherapy, then randomized to 1 year ATRA or observation. 245 patients received ATRA sometime during the study: 195 (80%) achieved a CR. Nine (4.6%) relapsed late (>3 years from CR), the last occurred after 4.6 years; 7 of them were still alive after 5.5-15 years. In APL patients, late relapses are uncommon, and those who sustain CR >5 years can be considered cured.
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ASXL1 mutations identify a high-risk subgroup of older patients with primary cytogenetically normal AML within the ELN Favorable genetic category.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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The associations of mutations in the enhancer of trithorax and polycomb family gene ASXL1 with pretreatment patient characteristics, outcomes, and gene-/microRNA-expression profiles in primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) are unknown. We analyzed 423 adult patients for ASXL1 mutations, other prognostic gene mutations, and gene-/microRNA-expression profiles. ASXL1 mutations were 5 times more common in older (? 60 years) patients (16.2%) than those younger than 60 years (3.2%; P < .001). Among older patients, ASXL1 mutations associated with wild-type NPM1 (P < .001), absence of FLT3-internal tandem duplications (P = .002), mutated CEBPA (P = .01), and with inferior complete remission (CR) rate (P = .04), disease-free survival (DFS; P = .03), overall survival (OS; P = .006), and event-free survival (EFS; P = .002). Within the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) genetic categories of older CN-AML, ASXL1 mutations associated with inferior CR rate (P = .02), OS (P < .001), and EFS (P < .001) among ELN Favorable, but not among ELN Intermediate-I patients. Multivariable analyses confirmed associations of ASXL1 mutations with unfavorable CR rate (P = .03), DFS (P < .001), OS (P < .001), and EFS (P < .001) among ELN Favorable patients. We identified an ASXL1 mutation-associated gene-expression signature, but no microRNA-expression signature. This first study of ASXL1 mutations in primary CN-AML demonstrates that ASXL1-mutated older patients, particularly within the ELN Favorable group, have unfavorable outcomes and may be candidates for experimental treatment approaches.
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Dietary intake, food processing, and cooking methods among Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia: relevance to nutritional risk factors for cancer.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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This studys purpose was to examine the source, storage, preparation, and intake of food among Amish and non-Amish adults to understand dietary practices as a potential contributing factor to lower cancer incidence rates. Interviews were conducted with a random sample of 134 Amish and 154 non-Amish adults including questions about dietary practices and a 24-h dietary recall. Amish compared to non-Amish adults reported (1) less refrigeration in homes (85% vs. 100%, P < .01); (2) rarely/never obtaining food from restaurants and grocery stores (P < .01); (3) consuming less alcohol (P < .01); (4) consuming fewer daily servings of vegetables (males: 1.2 vs. 1.9 servings/day, P < .01; females: 1.0 vs. 2.1 servings/day, P < .01); and (5) a greater percentage of energy from saturated fat (males: 16.7% vs. 12.6%, P < .01; females: 16.3% vs. 12.0%, P < .01). Amish males reported greater amount of energy intake (2780 kcal vs. 2298 kcal, P = .03) compared to non-Amish males. Amish and non-Amish dietary patterns show some differences that may impact cancer although neither group achieves current diet and cancer prevention guidelines. Lifestyle factors, screening, and healthcare access may be contributing to the lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish and these results suggest areas of intervention to reduce the cancer burden.
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Low expression of MN1 associates with better treatment response in older patients with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Low MN1 expression bestows favorable prognosis in younger adults with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), but its prognostic significance in older patients is unknown. We analyzed pretherapy MN1 expression in 140 older (? 60 years) de novo CN-AML patients treated on cytarabine/daunorubicin-based protocols. Low MN1 expressers had higher complete remission (CR) rates (P = .001), and longer overall survival (P = .03) and event-free survival (EFS; P = .004). In multivariable models, low MN1 expression was associated with better CR rates and EFS. The impact of MN1 expression on overall survival and EFS was predominantly in patients 70 years of age or older, with low MN1 expressers with mutated NPM1 having the best outcome. The impact of MN1 expression was also observed in the Intermediate-I, but not the Favorable group of the European LeukemiaNet classification, where low MN1 expressers had CR rates and EFS similar to those of Favorable group patients. MN1 expresser-status-associated gene- and microRNA-expression signatures revealed underexpression of drug resistance and adverse outcome predictors, and overexpression of HOX genes and HOX-gene-embedded microRNAs in low MN1 expressers. We conclude that low MN1 expression confers better prognosis in older CN-AML patients and may refine the European LeukemiaNet classification. Biologic features associated with MN1 expression may help identify new treatment targets.
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Clinical outcome and gene- and microRNA-expression profiling according to the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) single nucleotide polymorphism rs16754 in adult de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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The alleles of the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) polymorphism rs16754 harbor adenine (A) or guanine (G). Recently, rs16754 has been reported to affect the outcome of patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. To validate this finding, we investigated pretreatment features and outcome associated with rs16754 in a large cohort of patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
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Individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluating IL-2 monotherapy as remission maintenance therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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IL-2 is a natural, T cell-derived cytokine that stimulates the cytotoxic functions of T and natural killer cells. IL-2 monotherapy has been evaluated in several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for remission maintenance in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1), and none demonstrated a significant benefit of IL-2 monotherapy. The objective of this meta-analysis was to reliably determine IL-2 efficacy by combining all available individual patient data (IPD) from 5 RCTs (N = 905) and summary data from a sixth RCT (N = 550). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by trial, with HR < 1 indicating treatment benefit. Combined IPD showed no benefit of IL-2 over no treatment in terms of leukemia-free survival (HR = 0.97; P = .74) or overall survival (HR = 1.08; P = .39). Analyses including the sixth RCT yielded qualitatively identical results (leukemia-free survival HR = 0.96, P = .52; overall survival HR = 1.06; P = .46). No significant heterogeneity was found between the trials. Prespecified subset analyses showed no interaction between the lack of IL-2 effect and any factor, including age, sex, baseline performance status, karyotype, AML subtype, and time from achievement of CR1 to initiation of maintenance therapy. We conclude that IL-2 alone is not an effective remission maintenance therapy for AML patients in CR1.
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High expression of IGFBP2 is associated with chemoresistance in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in many tumors and overexpression of IGF Binding Protein (IGFBP) 2 has been associated with adverse outcome in childhood leukemia. Here, we evaluated IGFBP2 mRNA expression and its prognostic implications in 99 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. High IGFBP2 was associated with a high incidence of primary resistant disease (IGFBP2 high 65%, IGFBP2 low 32%; P=0.02) and was independently predictive for therapy resistance [OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.2-11); P=0.02] in multivariate analyses. Gene-expression profiling revealed an up-regulation of genes implicated in leukemogenesis (MYB, MEIS1, HOXB3, HOXA9) and genes associated with adverse outcome (ERG, WT1) in patients with high IGFBP2 expression. Thus, our data suggest a role of IGFBP2 and IGF signaling in chemoresistance of AML. Patients with high IGFBP2 expression might benefit from molecular therapies targeting the IGF pathway.
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Comparison of reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation with chemotherapy in patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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We compared the outcomes of patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia receiving reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Research (n = 94) with the outcomes in patients treated with induction and postremission chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocols (n = 96). All patients included had been in CR1 for at least 4 months. The HCT recipients were slightly younger than the chemotherapy patients (median age, 63 years vs 65 years; P < .001), but there were no significant between-group differences in the proportion with therapy-related leukemia or in different cytogenetic risk groups. Time from diagnosis to CR1 was longer for the HCT recipients (median, 44 days vs 38 days; P = .031). Allogeneic HCT was associated with significantly lower risk of relapse (32% vs 81% at 3 years; P < .001), higher nonrelapse mortality (36% vs 4% at 3 years; P < .001), and longer leukemia-free survival (32% vs 15% at 3 years; P = .001). Although overall survival was longer for HCT recipients, the difference was not statistically significant (37% vs 25% at 3 years; P = .08). Our findings suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HCT in patients age 60-70 with acute myelogenous leukemia in CR1 reduces relapse and improves leukemia-free survival. Strategies that reduce nonrelapse mortality may yield significant improvements in overall survival.
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TET2 mutations improve the new European LeukemiaNet risk classification of acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To determine the frequency of TET2 mutations, their associations with clinical and molecular characteristics and outcome, and the associated gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in patients with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML).
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NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: myelodysplastic syndromes.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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These suggested practice guidelines are based on extensive evaluation of the reviewed risk-based data and indicate useful current approaches for managing patients with MDS. Four drugs have recently been approved by the FDA for treating specific subtypes of MDS: lenalidomide for MDS patients with del(5q) cytogenetic abnormalities; azacytidine and decitabine for treating patients with higher-risk or nonresponsive MDS; and deferasirox for iron chelation of iron overloaded patients with MDS. However, because a substantial proportion of patient subsets with MDS lack effective treatment for their cytopenias or for altering disease natural history, clinical trials with these and other novel therapeutic agents along with supportive care remain the hallmark of management for this disease. The role of thrombopoietic cytokines for management of thrombocytopenia in MDS needs further evaluation. In addition, further determination of the effects of these therapeutic interventions on the patients quality of life is important.(116,119,120,128,129) Progress toward improving management of MDS has occurred over the past few years, and more advances are anticipated using these guidelines as a framework for coordination of comparative clinical trials.
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Cancer screening practices among Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia.
J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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The Amish, a unique community living in Ohio Appalachia, have lower cancer incidence rates than non-Amish living in Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer screening rates among Amish compared to non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia and a national sample of adults of the same race and ethnicity in an effort to explain cancer patterns.
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Prognostic significance of expression of a single microRNA, miR-181a, in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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To evaluate the prognostic significance of expression levels of a single microRNA, miR-181a, in the context of established molecular markers in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), and to gain insight into the leukemogenic role of miR-181a.
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The prognostic and functional role of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Expression of microRNAs, a new class of noncoding RNAs that hybridize to target messenger RNA and regulate their translation into proteins, has been recently demonstrated to be altered in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Distinctive patterns of increased expression and/or silencing of multiple microRNAs (microRNA signatures) have been associated with specific cytogenetic and molecular subsets of AML. Changes in the expression of several microRNAs altered in AML have been shown to have functional relevance in leukemogenesis, with some microRNAs acting as oncogenes and others as tumor suppressors. Both microRNA signatures and a single microRNA (ie, miR-181a) have been shown to supply prognostic information complementing that gained from cytogenetics, gene mutations, and altered gene expression. Moreover, it has been demonstrated experimentally that antileukemic effects can be achieved by modulating microRNA expression by pharmacologic agents and/or increasing low endogenous levels of microRNAs with tumor suppressor function by synthetic microRNA oligonucleotides, or down-regulating high endogenous levels of leukemogenic microRNAs by antisense oligonucleotides (antagomirs). Therefore, it is reasonable to predict the development of novel microRNA-based therapeutic approaches in AML. We review herein results of current studies analyzing changes of microRNA expression in AML and discuss their potential biologic, diagnostic, and prognostic relevance.
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Does microgranular variant morphology of acute promyelocytic leukemia independently predict a less favorable outcome compared with classical M3 APL? A joint study of the North American Intergroup and the PETHEMA Group.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Few studies have examined the outcome of large numbers of patients with the microgranular variant (M3V) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in the all-trans retinoic acid era. Here, the outcome of 155 patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid-based therapy on 3 clinical trials, North American Intergroup protocol I0129 and Programa para el Estudio de la Terapéutica en Hemopatía Maligna protocols LPA96 and LPA99, are reported. The complete remission rate for all 155 patients was 82%, compared with 89% for 748 patients with classical M3 disease. The incidence of the APL differentiation syndrome was 26%, compared with 25% for classical M3 patients, and the early death rate was 13.6% compared with 8.4% for patients with classical M3 morphology. With a median follow-up time among survivors of 7.6 years (range 3.6-14.5), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse for patients with M3V were 70%, 73%, and 24%, respectively. With a median follow-up time among survivors of 7.6 years (range 0.6-14.3), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse among patients with classical M3 morphology were 80% (P = .006 compared with M3V), 81% (P = .07), and 15% (P = .005), respectively. When outcomes were adjusted for the white blood cell count or the relapse risk score, none of these outcomes were significantly different between patients with M3V and classical M3 APL.
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BAALC and ERG expression levels are associated with outcome and distinct gene and microRNA expression profiles in older patients with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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BAALC and ERG expression levels are prognostic markers in younger (< 60 years) cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) adults; their prognostic impact in older (? 60 years) patients requires further investigation. We evaluated pretreatment expression of BAALC and ERG in 158 de novo patients treated on cytarabine/daunorubicin-based protocols. The patients were also characterized for other established molecular prognosticators. Low BAALC and ERG expression levels were associated with better outcome in univariable and multivariable analyses. Expression levels of both BAALC and ERG were the only factors significantly associated with overall survival upon multivariable analysis. To gain biological insights, we derived gene expression signatures associated with BAALC and ERG expression in older CN-AML patients. Furthermore, we derived the first microRNA expression signatures associated with the expression of these 2 genes. In low BAALC expressers, genes associated with undifferentiated hematopoietic precursors and unfavorable outcome predictors were down-regulated, whereas HOX genes and HOX-gene-embedded microRNAs were up-regulated. Low ERG expressers presented with down-regulation of genes involved in the DNA-methylation machinery, and up-regulation of miR-148a, which targets DNMT3B. We conclude that in older CN-AML patients, low BAALC and ERG expression associates with better outcome and distinct gene and microRNA expression signatures that could aid in identifying new targets and novel therapeutic strategies for older patients.
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FLT3 internal tandem duplication associates with adverse outcome and gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in patients 60 years of age or older with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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The clinical impact of FLT3-internal tandem duplications (ITDs), an adverse prognostic marker in adults aged < 60 years with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), requires further investigation in older patients. In CN-AML patients aged ? 60 years treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B frontline trials, we found that FLT3-ITD remained associated with shorter disease-free survival (P < .001; hazard ratio = 2.10) and overall survival (P < .001; hazard ratio = 1.97) in multivariable analyses. This impact on shorter disease-free survival and overall survival was in patients aged 60-69 (P < .001, each) rather than in those aged ? 70 years. An FLT3-ITD-associated gene-expression signature revealed overexpression of FLT3, homeobox genes (MEIS1, PBX3, HOXB3), and immunotherapeutic tar-gets (WT1, CD33) and underexpression of leukemia-associated (MLLT3, TAL1) and erythropoiesis-associated (GATA3, EPOR, ANK1, HEMGN) genes. An FLT3-ITD-associated microRNA-expression signature included overexpressed miR-155 and underexpressed miR-144 and miR-451. FLT3-ITD identifies older CN-AML patients with molecular high risk and is associated with gene- and microRNA-expression signatures that provide biologic insights for novel therapeutic approaches.
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P-glycoprotein inhibition using valspodar (PSC-833) does not improve outcomes for patients younger than age 60 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19808.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Cancer and Leukemia Group B 19808 (CALGB 19808) is the only randomized trial of a second-generation P-glycoprotein (Pgp) modulator in untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) younger than age 60 years. We randomly assigned 302 patients to receive induction chemotherapy regimens consisting of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C; A), daunorubicin (D), and etoposide (E), without (ADE) or with (ADEP) PSC-833 (P). The incidence of complete remission was 75% with both regimens. Reversible grade 3 and 4 liver and mucosal toxicities were significantly more common with ADEP. Therapy-related mortality was 7% and did not differ by induction arm. Excess cardiotoxicity was not seen with high doses of D in ADE. The median disease-free survival was 1.34 years in the ADE arm and 1.09 years in the ADEP arm (P = .74, log-rank test); the median overall survival was 1.86 years in the ADE arm and 1.69 years in the ADEP arm (P = .82). There was no evidence of a treatment difference within any identifiable patient subgroup. Inhibition of Pgp-mediated drug efflux by PSC-833 did not improve clinical outcomes in younger patients with untreated AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00006363.
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Mutations of the Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) in older patients with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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We previously reported the adverse prognostic impact of Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) mutations in younger adult cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Here, we investigated 243 older (> or = 60 years) primary CN-AML patients. WT1 mutated (WT1mut) patients (7%) had FLT3-ITD more frequently (P < .001), lower hemoglobin (P = .01), higher white blood cell count (P = .03) and percentage blood blasts (P = .03), and a shorter overall survival (P = .08) than WT1 wild-type (WT1wt) patients. Comparing older and younger WT1mut patients, they had similar pretreatment characteristics and outcome. By contrast, among WT1wt CN-AML, younger patients had a significantly better outcome. A WT1 mutation-associated gene-expression signature, reported here for the first time, included CD96, a leukemia stem cell-specific marker, and genes involved in gene regulation (eg, MLL, PML, and SNRPN) and in proliferative and metabolic processes (eg, INSR, IRS2, and PRKAA1), supporting the role of mutated WT1 in deregulating multiple homeostatic processes. Our results indicate that WT1mut CN-AML represents a distinct entity with poor treatment response across age groups. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00900224.
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IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations identify novel molecular subsets within de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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PURPOSE To analyze the frequency and associations with prognostic markers and outcome of mutations in IDH genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases in adult de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS Diagnostic bone marrow or blood samples from 358 patients were analyzed for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations by DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification/sequencing. FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, WT1, and MLL mutational analyses and gene- and microRNA-expression profiling were performed centrally. Results IDH mutations were found in 33% of the patients. IDH1 mutations were detected in 49 patients (14%; 47 with R132). IDH2 mutations, previously unreported in AML, were detected in 69 patients (19%; 13 with R172 and 56 with R140). R172 IDH2 mutations were mutually exclusive with all other prognostic mutations analyzed. Younger age (< 60 years), molecular low-risk (NPM1-mutated/FLT3-internal tandem duplication-negative) IDH1-mutated patients had shorter disease-free survival than molecular low-risk IDH1/IDH2-wild-type (wt) patients (P = .046). R172 IDH2-mutated patients had lower complete remission rates than IDH1/IDH2wt patients (P = .007). Distinctive microarray gene- and microRNA-expression profiles accurately predicted R172 IDH2 mutations. The highest expressed gene and microRNAs in R172 IDH2-mutated patients compared with the IDH1/IDH2wt patients were APP (previously associated with complex karyotype AML) and miR-1 and miR-133 (involved in embryonal stem-cell differentiation), respectively. CONCLUSION IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are recurrent in CN-AML and have an unfavorable impact on outcome. The R172 IDH2 mutations, previously unreported in AML, characterize a novel subset of CN-AML patients lacking other prognostic mutations and associate with unique gene- and microRNA-expression profiles that may lead to the discovery of novel, therapeutically targetable leukemogenic mechanisms.
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Clinical response and miR-29b predictive significance in older AML patients treated with a 10-day schedule of decitabine.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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A phase II clinical trial with single-agent decitabine was conducted in older patients (>or=60 years) with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who were not candidates for or who refused intensive chemotherapy. Subjects received low-dose decitabine at 20 mg/m(2) i.v. over 1 h on days 1 to 10. Fifty-three subjects enrolled with a median age of 74 years (range, 60-85). Nineteen (36%) had antecedent hematologic disorder or therapy-related AML; 16 had complex karyotypes (>or=3 abnormalities). The complete remission rate was 47% (n = 25), achieved after a median of three cycles of therapy. Nine additional subjects had no morphologic evidence of disease with incomplete count recovery, for an overall response rate of 64% (n = 34). Complete remission was achieved in 52% of subjects presenting with normal karyotype and in 50% of those with complex karyotypes. Median overall and disease-free survival durations were 55 and 46 weeks, respectively. Death within 30 days of initiation of treatment occurred in one subject (2%), death within 8 weeks in 15% of subjects. Given the DNA hypomethylating effect of decitabine, we examined the relationship of clinical response and pretreatment level of miR-29b, previously shown to target DNA methyltransferases. Higher levels of miR-29b were associated with clinical response (P = 0.02). In conclusion, this schedule of decitabine was highly active and well tolerated in this poor-risk cohort of older AML patients. Levels of miR-29b should be validated as a predictive factor for stratification of older AML patients to decitabine treatment.
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Sp1/NFkappaB/HDAC/miR-29b regulatory network in KIT-driven myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The biologic and clinical significance of KIT overexpression that associates with KIT gain-of-function mutations occurring in subsets of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (i.e., core binding factor AML) is unknown. Here, we show that KIT mutations lead to MYC-dependent miR-29b repression and increased levels of the miR-29b target Sp1 in KIT-driven leukemia. Sp1 enhances its own expression by participating in a NFkappaB/HDAC complex that further represses miR-29b transcription. Upregulated Sp1 then binds NFkappaB and transactivates KIT. Therefore, activated KIT ultimately induces its own transcription. Our results provide evidence that the mechanisms of Sp1/NFkappaB/HDAC/miR-29b-dependent KIT overexpression contribute to leukemia growth and can be successfully targeted by pharmacological disruption of the Sp1/NFkappaB/HDAC complex or synthetic miR-29b treatment in KIT-driven AML.
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A variant allele of Growth Factor Independence 1 (GFI1) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The GFI1 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor, which regulates myeloid differentiation. In the mouse, Gfi1 deficiency causes neutropenia and an accumulation of granulomonocytic precursor cells that is reminiscent of a myelodysplastic syndrome. We report here that a variant allele of GFI1 (GFI1(36N)) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in white subjects with an odds ratio of 1.6 (P < 8 x 10(-5)). The GFI1(36N) variant occurred in 1806 AML patients with an allele frequency of 0.055 compared with 0.035 in 1691 healthy control patients in 2 independent cohorts. We observed that both GFI1 variants maintain the same activity as transcriptional repressors but differ in their regulation by the AML1/ETO (RUNX1/RUNX1T1) fusion protein produced in AML patients with a t(8;21) translocation. AML1/ETO interacts and colocalizes with the more common GFI1(36S) form in the nucleus and inhibits its repressor activity. However, the variant GFI1(36N) protein has a different subnuclear localization than GFI1(36S). As a consequence, AML1/ETO does not colocalize with GFI1(36N) and is unable to inhibit its repressor activity. We conclude that both variants of GFI1 differ in their ability to be regulated by interacting proteins and that the GFI1(36N) variant form exhibits distinct biochemical features that may confer a predisposition to AML.
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Diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia in adults: recommendations from an international expert panel, on behalf of the European LeukemiaNet.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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In 2003, an international working group last reported on recommendations for diagnosis, response assessment, and treatment outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since that time, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of the disease that has resulted in the identification of new diagnostic and prognostic markers. Furthermore, therapies are now being developed that target disease-associated molecular defects. Recent developments prompted an international expert panel to provide updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of AML, that contain both minimal requirements for general practice as well as standards for clinical trials. A new standardized reporting system for correlation of cytogenetic and molecular genetic data with clinical data is proposed.
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Prognostic implications of NOTCH1 and FBXW7 mutations in adult acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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NOTCH1 mutations have been associated with a favorable outcome in pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the results of studies on the prognostic significance of NOTCH1 mutations in adult T-lymphoblastic leukemia remain controversial.
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MicroRNA expression profiling in acute myeloid and chronic lymphocytic leukaemias.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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Altered expression of microRNAs, a new class of noncoding RNAs that regulate messenger RNA and protein expression of target genes, has been recently demonstrated to have an essential role in the process of leukaemogenesis. Distinctive patterns of activation and/or silencing of multiple microRNAs (microRNA signatures) associated with certain cytogenetic and molecular subsets of leukaemia have been identified using genome-wide high-throughput profiling assays. This has led not only to the discovery of new molecular pathways implicated in leukaemogenesis, but also supplied prognostic information complementing that gained from cytogenetics, gene mutations and altered gene expression in acute and chronic leukaemias. We review herein results of current studies analysing changes of microRNA expression in acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and discuss their potential biologic, diagnostic and prognostic relevance.
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Acquired copy number alterations in adult acute myeloid leukemia genomes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Cytogenetic analysis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells has accelerated the identification of genes important for AML pathogenesis. To complement cytogenetic studies and to identify genes altered in AML genomes, we performed genome-wide copy number analysis with paired normal and tumor DNA obtained from 86 adult patients with de novo AML using 1.85 million feature SNP arrays. Acquired copy number alterations (CNAs) were confirmed using an ultra-dense array comparative genomic hybridization platform. A total of 201 somatic CNAs were found in the 86 AML genomes (mean, 2.34 CNAs per genome), with French-American-British system M6 and M7 genomes containing the most changes (10-29 CNAs per genome). Twenty-four percent of AML patients with normal cytogenetics had CNA, whereas 40% of patients with an abnormal karyotype had additional CNA detected by SNP array, and several CNA regions were recurrent. The mRNA expression levels of 57 genes were significantly altered in 27 of 50 recurrent CNA regions <5 megabases in size. A total of 8 uniparental disomy (UPD) segments were identified in the 86 genomes; 6 of 8 UPD calls occurred in samples with a normal karyotype. Collectively, 34 of 86 AML genomes (40%) contained alterations not found with cytogenetics, and 98% of these regions contained genes. Of 86 genomes, 43 (50%) had no CNA or UPD at this level of resolution. In this study of 86 adult AML genomes, the use of an unbiased high-resolution genomic screen identified many genes not previously implicated in AML that may be relevant for pathogenesis, along with many known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
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Molecular signatures in acute myeloid leukemia.
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity with respect to chromosome abnormalities, gene mutations and changes in expression of multiple genes and microRNAs. In this article, we review the results of recent studies of AML that used microarray-based genome-wide gene-expression and microRNA-expression profiling.
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Prognostic importance of MN1 transcript levels, and biologic insights from MN1-associated gene and microRNA expression signatures in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a cancer and leukemia group B study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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PURPOSE To determine the prognostic importance of the meningioma 1 (MN1) gene expression levels in the context of other predictive molecular markers, and to derive MN1 associated gene- and microRNA-expression profiles in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS MN1 expression was measured in 119 untreated primary CN-AML adults younger than 60 years by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Patients were also tested for FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, and WT1 mutations, MLL partial tandem duplications, and BAALC and ERG expression. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles were attained by performing genome-wide microarray assays. Patients were intensively treated on two first-line Cancer and Leukemia Group B clinical trials. Results Higher MN1 expression associated with NPM1 wild-type (P < .001), increased BAALC expression (P = .004), and less extramedullary involvement (P = .01). In multivariable analyses, higher MN1 expression associated with a lower complete remission rate (P = .005) after adjustment for WBC; shorter disease-free survival (P = .01) after adjustment for WT1 mutations, FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD), and high ERG expression; and shorter survival (P = .04) after adjustment for WT1 and NPM1 mutations, FLT3-ITD, and WBC. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles suggested that high MN1 expressers share features with high BAALC expressers and patients with wild-type NPM1. Higher MN1 expression also appears to be associated with genes and microRNAs that are active in aberrant macrophage/monocytoid function and differentiation. CONCLUSION MN1 expression independently predicts outcome in CN-AML patients. The MN1 gene- and microRNA-expression signatures suggest biologic features that could be exploited as therapeutic targets.
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Low cancer incidence rates in Ohio Amish.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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The Amish have not been previously studied for cancer incidence, yet they have the potential to help in the understanding of its environmental and genetic contributions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer among the largest Amish population.
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The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Recently the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology, published a revised and updated edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. The 4th edition of the WHO classification incorporates new information that has emerged from scientific and clinical studies in the interval since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2001, and includes new criteria for the recognition of some previously described neoplasms as well as clarification and refinement of the defining criteria for others. It also adds entities-some defined principally by genetic features-that have only recently been characterized. In this paper, the classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia is highlighted with the aim of familiarizing hematologists, clinical scientists, and hematopathologists not only with the major changes in the classification but also with the rationale for those changes.
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A phase II study of continuous infusion homoharringtonine and cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: CALGB study 19804.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Both homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid derivative from the Chinese yew tree that inhibits protein synthesis, and low-dose cytarabine have independent activity in CML and have been used in combination after failure of interferon therapy.
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MicroRNA expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of diseases that are very heterogeneous with regard to cytogenetic aberrations, gene mutations, and changes in expression of numerous genes. A new class of genes known as microRNAs recently was found to be involved in myeloid leukemogenesis. These genes are transcribed into regulatory, noncoding RNAs that control mRNA and protein expression of target genes. Genome-wide analyses of microRNA expression have revealed signatures associated with selected cytogenetic and molecular subsets of AML and have led to the recognition of previously unreported molecular pathways involved in myeloid leukemogenesis. In cytogenetically normal AML, microRNA-expression profiling has also provided prognostic information in addition to that obtained from cytogenetics and analyses of gene mutations and aberrant gene expression. This article reviews recent studies that were focused on the alterations of microRNA expression in AML and their diagnostic and prognostic significance.
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MicroRNA-29b induces global DNA hypomethylation and tumor suppressor gene reexpression in acute myeloid leukemia by targeting directly DNMT3A and 3B and indirectly DNMT1.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Aberrant DNA hypermethylation contributes to myeloid leukemogenesis by silencing structurally normal genes involved in hematopoiesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting protein-coding mRNAs. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to play a role as both targets and effectors in gene hypermethylation and silencing in malignant cells. In the current study, we showed that enforced expression of miR-29b in acute myeloid leukemia cells resulted in marked reduction of the expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B at both RNA and protein levels. This in turn led to decrease in global DNA methylation and reexpression of p15(INK4b) and ESR1 via promoter DNA hypomethylation. Although down-regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B was the result of a direct interaction of miR-29b with the 3 untranslated regions of these genes, no predicted miR-29b interaction sites were found in the DNMT1 3 untranslated regions. Further experiments revealed that miR-29b down-regulates DNMT1 indirectly by targeting Sp1, a transactivator of the DNMT1 gene. Altogether, these data provide novel functional links between miRNAs and aberrant DNA hypermethylation in acute myeloid leukemia and suggest a potentially therapeutic use of synthetic miR-29b oligonucleotides as effective hypomethylating compounds.
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New recurrent balanced translocations in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: cancer and leukemia group B 8461.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Acquired chromosome abnormalities in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are among the most valuable determinants of diagnosis and prognosis. In search of new recurrent balanced translocations, we reviewed the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) cytogenetics database containing pretreatment and relapse karyotypes of 4,701 adults with AML and 565 with MDS who were treated on CALGB trials. We identified all cases with balanced structural rearrangements occurring as a sole abnormality or in addition to one other abnormality, excluded abnormalities known to be recurrent, and then reviewed the literature to determine whether any of what we considered unique, previously unknown abnormalities had been reported. As a result, we identified seven new recurrent balanced translocations in AML or MDS: t(7;11)(q22;p15.5), t(10;11)(q23;p15), t(2;12)(p13;p13), t(12;17)(p13;q12), t(2;3)(p21;p21), t(5;21)(q31;q22), and t(8;14)(q24.1;q32.2), and additionally, t(10;12)(p11;q15), a new translocation in AML previously reported in a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Herein, we report hematologic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with these newly recognized recurrent translocations. We also report 52 unique balanced translocations, together with the clinical data of patients harboring them, which to our knowledge have not been previously published. We hope that once the awareness of their existence is increased, some of these translocations may become recognized as novel recurring abnormalities. Identification of additional cases with both the new recurrent and the unique balanced translocations will enable determination of their prognostic significance and help to provide insights into the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in patients with these rare abnormalities.
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Epigenetic silencing of microRNA-193a contributes to leukemogenesis in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia by activating the PTEN/PI3K signal pathway.
Blood
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t(8;21) is one of the most frequent chromosomal translocations occurring in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is considered the leukemia-initiating event. The biologic and clinical significance of microRNA dysregulation associated with AML1/ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML is unknown. Here, we show that AML1/ETO triggers the heterochromatic silencing of microRNA-193a (miR-193a) by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting chromatin-remodeling enzymes. Suppression of miR-193a expands the oncogenic activity of the fusion protein AML-ETO, because miR-193a represses the expression of multiple target genes, such as AML1/ETO, DNMT3a, HDAC3, KIT, CCND1, and MDM2 directly, and increases PTEN indirectly. Enhanced miR-193a levels induce G(1) arrest, apoptosis, and restore leukemic cell differentiation. Our study identifies miR-193a and PTEN as targets for AML1/ETO and provides evidence that links the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes miR-193a and PTEN to differentiation block of myeloid precursors. Our results indicated a feedback circuitry involving miR-193a and AML1/ETO/DNMTs/HDACs, cooperating with the PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway and contributing to leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo, which can be successfully targeted by pharmacologic disruption of the AML1/ETO/DNMTs/HDACs complex or enhancement of miR-193a in t(8;21)-leukemias.
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inv(16)/t(16;16) acute myeloid leukemia with non-type A CBFB-MYH11 fusions associate with distinct clinical and genetic features and lack KIT mutations.
Blood
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The inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) in acute myeloid leukemia results in multiple CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcripts, with type A being most frequent. The biologic and prognostic implications of different fusions are unclear. We analyzed CBFB-MYH11 fusion types in 208 inv(16)/t(16;16) patients with de novo disease, and compared clinical and cytogenetic features and the KIT mutation status between type A (n = 182; 87%) and non-type A (n = 26; 13%) patients. At diagnosis, non-type A patients had lower white blood counts (P = .007), and more often trisomies of chromosomes 8 (P = .01) and 21 (P < .001) and less often trisomy 22 (P = .02). No patient with non-type A fusion carried a KIT mutation, whereas 27% of type A patients did (P = .002). Among the latter, KIT mutations conferred adverse prognosis; clinical outcomes of non-type A and type A patients with wild-type KIT were similar. We also derived a fusion-type-associated global gene-expression profile. Gene Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed-among others-an enrichment of up-regulated genes involved in activation of caspase activity, cell differentiation and cell cycle control in non-type A patients. We conclude that non-type A fusions associate with distinct clinical and genetic features, including lack of KIT mutations, and a unique gene-expression profile.
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Bortezomib added to daunorubicin and cytarabine during induction therapy and to intermediate-dose cytarabine for consolidation in patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia age 60 to 75 years: CALGB (Alliance) study 10502.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC).
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Lenalidomide-mediated enhanced translation of C/EBP?-p30 protein up-regulates expression of the antileukemic microRNA-181a in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
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Recently, we showed that increased miR-181a expression was associated with improved outcomes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Interestingly, miR-181a expression was increased in CN-AML patients harboring CEBPA mutations, which are usually biallelic and associate with better prognosis. CEBPA encodes the C/EBP? transcription factor. We demonstrate here that the presence of N-terminal CEBPA mutations and miR-181a expression are linked. Indeed, the truncated C/EBP?-p30 isoform, which is produced from the N-terminal mutant CEBPA gene or from the differential translation of wild-type CEBPA mRNA and is commonly believed to have no transactivation activity, binds to the miR-181a-1 promoter and up-regulates the microRNA expression. Furthermore, we show that lenalidomide, a drug approved for myelodysplastic syndromes and multiple myeloma, enhances translation of the C/EBP?-p30 isoform, resulting in higher miR-181a levels. In xenograft mouse models, ectopic miR-181a expression inhibits tumor growth. Similarly, lenalidomide exhibits antitumorigenic activity paralleled by increased miR-181a expression. This regulatory pathway may explain an increased sensitivity to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy in subsets of AML patients. Altogether, our data provide a potential explanation for the improved clinical outcomes observed in CEBPA-mutated CN-AML patients, and suggest that lenalidomide treatment enhancing the C/EBP?-p30 protein levels and in turn miR-181a may sensitize AML blasts to chemotherapy.
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The use of daily aspirin, nutritional supplements and alternative medications among Amish and non-Amish living in Ohio Appalachia.
Nutr Cancer
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The purpose of this study was to assess daily aspirin and supplement use among Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia to understand their potential contribution to lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish. A cross-sectional study was conducted with random samples of 134 Amish adults and 154 non-Amish adults. Face-to-face interviews about cancer-related behaviors included questions regarding aspirin and supplement use. Amish compared to non-Amish adults reported 1) taking significantly (P < 0.05) more supplements [mean number of daily products by Amish males (3.5 ± 3.7) and females (5.2 ± 4.3) vs. non-Amish males (1.4 ± 1.3) and females (3.0 ± 3.2)]; 2) taking significantly (P < 0.05) more vitamins, minerals, fiber supplements (females only), and enzymes (females only); 3) taking significantly (P < 0.01) more herbal supplements (approximately 55% and 71% of Amish males and females vs. 17% and 23% of non-Amish males and females, respectively); and 4) taking significantly (P < 0.05) less aspirin on a regular basis. Aspirin and supplement use among Amish and non-Amish adults show significant differences characteristic of their social and cultural norms. Future studies that clarify the impact of aspirin and supplement use among the Amish and their impacts upon the risk of certain cancers and other disease processes are warranted.
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Genome-wide methylation profiling in decitabine-treated patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
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The outcome of older (? 60 years) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is poor, and novel treatments are needed. In a phase 2 trial for older AML patients, low-dose (20 mg/m(2) per day for 10 days) decitabine, a DNA hypomethylating azanucleoside, produced 47% complete response rate with an excellent toxicity profile. To assess the genome-wide activity of decitabine, we profiled pretreatment and post treatment (day 25/course 1) methylomes of marrow samples from patients (n = 16) participating in the trial using deep-sequencing analysis of methylated DNA captured by methyl-binding protein (MBD2). Decitabine significantly reduced global methylation compared with pretreatment baseline (P = .001). Percent marrow blasts did not correlate with global methylation levels, suggesting that hypomethylation was related to the activity of decitabine rather than to a mere decrease in leukemia burden. Hypomethylation occurred predominantly in CpG islands and CpG island-associated regions (P ranged from .03 to .04) A significant concentration (P < .001) of the hypomehtylated CpG islands was found in chromosome subtelomeric regions, suggesting a differential activity of decitabine in distinct chromosome regions. Hypermethylation occurred much less frequently than hypomethylation and was associated with low CpG content regions. Decitabine-related methylation changes were concordant with those previously reported in distinct genes. In summary, our study supports the feasibility of methylome analyses as a pharmacodynamic endpoint for hypomethylating therapies.
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Dose intensification of daunorubicin and cytarabine during treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 19802.
Cancer
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Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Study 19802, a phase 2 study, evaluated whether dose intensification of daunorubicin and cytarabine could improve disease-free survival (DFS) in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and whether high-dose systemic and intrathecal methotrexate could replace cranial radiotherapy for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis.
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Treatment-influenced associations of PML-RAR? mutations, FLT3 mutations, and additional chromosome abnormalities in relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Blood
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Mutations in the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-targeted ligand binding domain of PML-RAR? (PR?/LBD+) have been implicated in the passive selection of ATRA-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia clones leading to disease relapse. Among 45 relapse patients from the ATRA/chemotherapy arm of intergroup protocol C9710, 18 patients harbored PR?/LBD+ (40%), 7 of whom (39%) relapsed Off-ATRA selection pressure, suggesting a possible active role of PR?/LBD+. Of 41 relapse patients coanalyzed, 15 (37%) had FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD+), which were differentially associated with PR?/LBD+ depending on ATRA treatment status at relapse: positively, On-ATRA; negatively, Off-ATRA. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) had additional chromosome abnormalities (ACAs); all coanalyzed PR?/LBD mutant patients who relapsed off-ATRA (n = 5) had associated ACA. After relapse Off-ATRA, ACA and FLT3-ITD+ were negatively associated and were oppositely associated with presenting white blood count and PML-RAR? type: ACA, low, L-isoform; FLT3-ITD+, high, S-isoform. These exploratory results suggest that differing PR?/LBD+ activities may interact with FLT3-ITD+ or ACA, that FLT3-ITD+ and ACA are associated with different intrinsic disease progression pathways manifest at relapse Off-ATRA, and that these different pathways may be short-circuited by ATRA-selectable defects at relapse On-ATRA. ACA and certain PR?/LBD+ were also associated with reduced postrelapse survival.
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Cell lineage analysis of acute leukemia relapse uncovers the role of replication-rate heterogeneity and microsatellite instability.
Blood
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Human cancers display substantial intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, which facilitates tumor survival under changing microenvironmental conditions. Tumor substructure and its effect on disease progression and relapse are incompletely understood. In the present study, a high-throughput method that uses neutral somatic mutations accumulated in individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees was applied to hundreds of cells of human acute leukemia harvested from multiple patients at diagnosis and at relapse. The reconstructed cell lineage trees of patients with acute myeloid leukemia showed that leukemia cells at relapse were shallow (divide rarely) compared with cells at diagnosis and were closely related to their stem cell subpopulation, implying that in these instances relapse might have originated from rarely dividing stem cells. In contrast, among patients with acute lymphoid leukemia, no differences in cell depth were observed between diagnosis and relapse. In one case of chronic myeloid leukemia, at blast crisis, most of the cells at relapse were mismatch-repair deficient. In almost all leukemia cases, > 1 lineage was observed at relapse, indicating that diverse mechanisms can promote relapse in the same patient. In conclusion, diverse relapse mechanisms can be observed by systematic reconstruction of cell lineage trees of patients with leukemia.
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Clinical and pharmacodynamic activity of bortezomib and decitabine in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
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We recently reported promising clinical activity for a 10-day regimen of decitabine in older AML patients; high miR-29b expression associated with clinical response. Subsequent preclinical studies with bortezomib in AML cells have shown drug-induced miR-29b up-regulation, resulting in loss of transcriptional activation for several genes relevant to myeloid leukemogenesis, including DNA methyltransferases and receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus, a phase 1 trial of bortezomib and decitabine was developed. Nineteen poor-risk AML patients (median age 70 years; range, 32-84 years) enrolled. Induction with decitabine (20 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1-10) plus bortezomib (escalated up to the target 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 5, 8, 12, and 15) was tolerable, but bortezomib-related neuropathy developed after repetitive cycles. Of previously untreated patients (age ? 65 years), 5 of 10 had CR (complete remission, n = 4) or incomplete CR (CRi, n = 1); 7 of 19 overall had CR/CRi. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed FLT3 down-regulation on day 26 of cycle 1 (P = .02). Additional mechanistic studies showed that FLT3 down-regulation was due to bortezomib-induced miR-29b up-regulation; this led to SP1 down-regulation and destruction of the SP1/NF-?B complex that transactivated FLT3. This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of decitabine plus bortezomib in AML and identifies FLT3 as a novel pharmacodynamic end point for future trials.
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miR-3151 interplays with its host gene BAALC and independently affects outcome of patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
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High BAALC expression levels are associated with poor outcome in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients. Recently, miR-3151 was discovered in intron 1 of BAALC. To evaluate the prognostic significance of miR-3151 expression levels and to gain insight into the biologic and prognostic interplay between miR-3151 and its host, miR-3151 and BAALC expression were measured in pretreatment blood of 179 CN-AML patients. Gene-expression profiling and miRNA-expression profiling were performed using microarrays. High miR-3151 expression was associated with shorter disease-free and overall survival, whereas high BAALC expression predicted failure of complete remission and shorter overall survival. Patients exhibiting high expression of both miR-3151 and BAALC had worse outcome than patients expressing low levels of either gene or both genes. In gene-expression profiling, high miR-3151 expressers showed down-regulation of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, posttranslational modification, and cancer pathways. Two genes, FBXL20 and USP40, were validated as direct miR-3151 targets. The results of the present study show that high expression of miR-3151 is an independent prognosticator for poor outcome in CN-AML and affects different outcome end points than its host gene, BAALC. The combination of both markers identified a patient subset with the poorest outcome. This interplay between an intronic miR and its host may have important biologic implications.
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Heritable polymorphism predisposes to high BAALC expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Overexpression of the brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) gene is implicated in myeloid leukemogenesis and associated with poor outcome in both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Additionally, high BAALC expression occurs in glioblastoma, melanoma, and childhood gastrointestinal stroma tumors, suggesting an oncogenic role for BAALC. However, the mechanisms underlying the deregulated expression are unknown. We hypothesized that a common heritable genetic feature located in cis might account for overexpression of BAALC in an allele-specific manner. By sequencing the genomic region of BAALC we identified nine informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and tested them for a possible association with BAALC expression levels. We show that BAALC overexpression occurs in the presence of the T allele of SNP rs62527607[GT], which creates a binding site for the activating RUNX1 transcription factor in the BAALC promoter region. The mechanism is demonstrated experimentally in vitro using luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis. The association of high BAALC expression with the T allele and its correlations with RUNX1 expresser status are shown in vivo in a test set (n = 253) and validation set (n = 105) of samples from cytogenetically normal AML patients from different populations. Thus, we identify a heritable genomic feature predisposing to overexpression of an oncogene, thereby possibly leading to enhanced AML leukemogenesis. Our findings further suggest that genomic variants might become useful tools in the practice of personalized medicine.
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Age-related prognostic impact of different types of DNMT3A mutations in adults with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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To determine the frequency of DNMT3A mutations, their associations with clinical and molecular characteristics and outcome, and the associated gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.