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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Development of an immunochromatography strip test based on truncated nucleocapsid antigens of three representative hantaviruses.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Hantaviruses are causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. There is a need for time-saving diagnostic methods. In the present study, recombinant N antigens were used as antigens in an immunochromatography strip (ICG) test to detect specific IgG antibodies.
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Increased risk of acute myocardial infarction and stroke during hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: a self-controlled case series study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We recently observed that cardiovascular causes of death are common in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is caused by hantaviruses. However, it is not known whether HFRS is a risk factor for the acute cardiovascular events of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke.
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Effects of prostacyclin on the early inflammatory response in patients with traumatic brain injury-a randomised clinical study.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A prospective, randomised, double-blinded, clinical trial was performed at a level 1 trauma centre to determine if a prostacyclin analogue, epoprostenol (Flolan®), could attenuate systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
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A need for One Health approach - lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan.
Infect Ecol Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective.
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Identification of Swedish mosquitoes based on molecular barcoding of the COI gene and SNP analysis.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Mosquito-borne infectious diseases are emerging in many regions of the world. Consequently, surveillance of mosquitoes and concomitant infectious agents is of great importance for prediction and prevention of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Currently, morphological identification of mosquitoes is the traditional procedure. However, sequencing of specified genes or standard genomic regions, DNA barcoding, has recently been suggested as a global standard for identification and classification of many different species. Our aim was to develop a genetic method to identify mosquitoes and to study their relationship. Mosquitoes were captured at collection sites in northern Sweden and identified morphologically before the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences of 14 of the most common mosquito species were determined. The sequences obtained were then used for phylogenetic placement, for validation and benchmarking of phenetic classifications and finally to develop a hierarchical PCR-based typing scheme based on single nucleotide polymorphism sites (SNPs) to enable rapid genetic identification, circumventing the need for morphological characterization. The results showed that exact phylogenetic relationships between mosquito taxa were preserved at shorter evolutionary distances, but at deeper levels, they could not be inferred with confidence using COI gene sequence data alone. Fourteen of the most common mosquito species in Sweden were identified by the SNP/PCR-based typing scheme, demonstrating that genetic typing using SNPs of the COI gene is a useful method for identification of mosquitoes with potential for worldwide application.
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Cardiopulmonary involvement in Puumala hantavirus infection.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Hantavirus infections cause potentially life-threatening disease in humans world-wide. Infections with American hantaviruses may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome characterised by severe cardiopulmonary distress with high mortality. Pulmonary involvement in European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection has been reported, whereas knowledge of potential cardiac manifestations is limited. We aimed to comprehensively investigate cardiopulmonary involvement in patients with PUUV-infection.
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Puumala virus infections associated with cardiovascular causes of death.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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We studied the causes of death of patients in Sweden with diagnoses of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) during 1997-2009. Cardiovascular disorders were a common cause of death during acute-phase HFRS and were the cause of death for >50% of those who died during the first year after HFRS.
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Development and evaluation of a broad reacting SYBR-green based quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of different hantaviruses.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Hantaviruses are endemic in most parts of the world and cause hundreds of thousand human cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) annually throughout Eurasia and the Americas. They are zoonotic viruses, most commonly transmitted to humans by aerosolized rodent excreta. New hantaviruses are frequently discovered in previously unknown reservoir species and geographic areas. Consequently, there is a need to improve hantavirus diagnostics.
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The 2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Sudan.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus (RVFV) affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is transmitted through bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals. During 2007 a large RVF outbreak occurred in Sudan with a total of 747 confirmed human cases including 230 deaths (case fatality 30.8%); although it has been estimated 75,000 were infected. It was most severe in White Nile, El Gezira, and Sennar states near to the White Nile and the Blue Nile Rivers. Notably, RVF was not demonstrated in livestock until after the human cases appeared and unfortunately, there are no records or reports of the number of affected animals or deaths. Ideally, animals should serve as sentinels to prevent loss of human life, but the situation here was reversed. Animal contact seemed to be the most dominant risk factor followed by animal products and mosquito bites. The Sudan outbreak followed an unusually heavy rainfall in the country with severe flooding and previous studies on RVF in Sudan suggest that RVFV is endemic in parts of Sudan. An RVF outbreak results in human disease, but also large economic loss with an impact beyond the immediate influence on the directly affected agricultural producers. The outbreak emphasizes the need for collaboration between veterinary and health authorities, entomologists, environmental specialists, and biologists, as the best strategy towards the prevention and control of RVF.
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Detection of Puumala and Rift Valley Fever virus by quantitative RT-PCR and virus viability tests in samples of blood dried and stored on filter paper.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Haemorrhagic fever viruses cause emerging infections worldwide, and blood or serum is the main sample used for diagnosis. However, storage and transportation of such samples from remote areas to regional laboratories may be complicated and expensive. In this study, a novel approach was evaluated for the detection of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) RNA and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) RNA. Whole-blood samples spiked with viable virus particles were tested in parallel with clinical samples from patients with acute haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (nephropathia epidemica). Individual blood samples were spotted on filter paper, dried, and used for RNA extraction at later time points. PUUV RNA was detected by RT-PCR after storage at room temperature for up to six weeks. In contrast, only low copy numbers of RVFV RNA were detected after 1-2 days even though viable RVFV was eluted from the dried filter papers after the same time. The use of filter paper to collect and store blood samples for PUUV RNA detection is therefore a simple and reliable procedure. This approach might facilitate sampling and analysis of other RNA viruses from human or animal sources and could be used for field studies in remote areas or in developing countries.
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Longitudinal analysis of the human T cell response during acute hantavirus infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Longitudinal studies of T cell immune responses during viral infections in humans are essential for our understanding of how effector T cell responses develop, clear infection, and provide long-lasting immunity. Here, following an outbreak of a Puumala hantavirus infection in the human population, we longitudinally analyzed the primary CD8 T cell response in infected individuals from the first onset of clinical symptoms until viral clearance. A vigorous CD8 T cell response was observed early following the onset of clinical symptoms, determined by the presence of high numbers of Ki67(+)CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) effector CD8 T cells. This response encompassed up to 50% of total blood CD8 T cells, and it subsequently contracted in parallel with a decrease in viral load. Expression levels of perforin and granzyme B were high throughout the initial T cell response and likewise normalized following viral clearance. When monitoring regulatory components, no induction of regulatory CD4 or CD8 T cells was observed in the patients during the infection. However, CD8 as well as CD4 T cells exhibited a distinct expression profile of inhibitory PD-1 and CTLA-4 molecules. The present results provide insight into the development of the T cell response in humans, from the very onset of clinical symptoms following a viral infection to resolution of the disease.
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A model system for in vitro studies of bank vole borne viruses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2011
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The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is a common small mammal in Europe and a natural host for several important emerging zoonotic viruses, e.g. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Hantaviruses are known to interfere with several signaling pathways in infected human cells, and HFRS is considered an immune-mediated disease. There is no in vitro-model available for infectious experiments in bank vole cells, nor tools for analyses of bank vole immune activation and responses. Consequently, it is not known if there are any differences in the regulation of virus induced responses in humans compared to natural hosts during infection. We here present an in vitro-model for studies of bank vole borne viruses and their interactions with natural host cell innate immune responses. Bank vole embryonic fibroblasts (VEFs) were isolated and shown to be susceptible for PUUV-infection, including a wild-type PUUV strain (only passaged in bank voles). The significance of VEFs as a model system for bank vole associated viruses was further established by infection studies showing that these cells are also susceptible to tick borne encephalitis, cowpox and Ljungan virus. The genes encoding bank vole IFN-? and Mx2 were partially sequenced and protocols for semi-quantitative RT-PCR were developed. Interestingly, PUUV did not induce an increased IFN-? or Mx2 mRNA expression. Corresponding infections with CPXV and LV induced IFN-? but not Mx2, while TBEV induced both IFN-? and Mx2. In conclusion, VEFs together with protocols developed for detection of bank vole innate immune activation provide valuable tools for future studies of how PUUV and other zoonotic viruses affect cells derived from bank voles compared to human cells. Notably, wild-type PUUV which has been difficult to cultivate in vitro readily infected VEFs, suggesting that embryonic fibroblasts from natural hosts might be valuable for isolation of wild-type hantaviruses.
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Hantavirus protein interactions regulate cellular functions and signaling responses.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Rodent-borne pathogenic hantaviruses cause two severe and often lethal zoonotic diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. Currently, no US FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines are available for HFRS/HCPS. Infections with hantaviruses are not lytic, and it is currently not known exactly why infections in humans cause disease. A better understanding of how hantaviruses interfere with normal cell functions and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses might provide clues to future development of specific treatment and/or vaccines against hantavirus infection. In this article, the current knowledge regarding immune responses observed in patients, hantavirus interference with cellular proteins and signaling pathways, and possible approaches in the development of therapeutics are discussed.
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Presence of activated airway T lymphocytes in human puumala hantavirus disease.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Hantaviruses cause two clinical syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The clinical spectrum in HFRS also often involves respiratory symptoms. As information about the pulmonary pathogenesis in HFRS is limited, we aimed to further study the local airway immune response in the lower airways.
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Hantavirus-specific IgA in saliva and viral antigen in the parotid gland in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The Hantavirus genus comprises rodent borne, zoonotic viruses of the Bunyaviridae family that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. Rodent saliva contains infectious hantavirus and evidence suggests that hantavirus is also shed in human saliva, but person-to-person transmission is rare. In saliva, immunoglobulin (Ig) A is the predominant immunoglobulin class. Secretory IgA serves as an important first line of defence on epithelial surfaces and the binding of secretory IgA to pathogens can inhibit adherence of microorganisms to mucosal cells and neutralize viruses. This study investigated the presence and importance of salivary IgA in relation to viral antigen in the saliva by testing Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) specific IgA, and RNA in saliva in acutely ill patients with HFRS. In saliva samples, PUUV specific IgA was detected in 12 of 33 (36%) patients with HFRS and 20 (61%) were PUUV RNA positive. There was a statistically significant inverse association between the presence of salivary IgA antibodies and PUUV RNA in the saliva. PUUV-specific IgA in saliva was not found in a long-term follow-up, while PUUV IgA in serum was detected in three patients, 28-32 months after the initial study. Notably, both PUUV RNA and PUUV nucleocapsid antigen were detected in endothelial cells within the parotid gland of a deceased patient with HFRS.
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Evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome-scoring models and severe illness.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are considered to be a serious threat to public health worldwide with up to 100 million cases annually. The general hypothesis is that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an important part of the pathogenesis. The study objectives were to study the variability of DIC in consecutive patients with acute hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and to evaluate if different established DIC-scores can be used as a prognostic marker for a more severe illness.
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Rapid expansion and long-term persistence of elevated NK cell numbers in humans infected with hantavirus.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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Natural killer (NK) cells are known to mount a rapid response to several virus infections. In experimental models of acute viral infection, this response has been characterized by prompt NK cell activation and expansion followed by rapid contraction. In contrast to experimental model systems, much less is known about NK cell responses to acute viral infections in humans. We demonstrate that NK cells can rapidly expand and persist at highly elevated levels for >60 d after human hantavirus infection. A large part of the expanding NK cells expressed the activating receptor NKG2C and were functional in terms of expressing a licensing inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and ability to respond to target cell stimulation. These results demonstrate that NK cells can expand and remain elevated in numbers for a prolonged period of time in humans after a virus infection. In time, this response extends far beyond what is considered normal for an innate immune response.
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Mortality rate patterns for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala virus.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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To investigate nephropathia epidemica in Sweden during 1997-2007, we determined case-fatality rates for 5,282 patients with this disease. Overall, 0.4% died of acute nephropathia epidemica ?3 months after diagnosis. Case-fatality rates increased with age. Only women showed an increased case-fatality rate during the first year after diagnosis.
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Early diagnosis of hantavirus infection by family doctors can reduce inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization.
Scand J Prim Health Care
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Hantavirus infections are emerging infections that cause either Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). A recent Swedish outbreak of nephropathia epidemica, a European HFRS, was analysed to study the patient flow and clinical picture and to investigate the value of an early diagnosis in general practice. Design. In a retrospective design, medical records of verified cases of Hantavirus infection were studied.
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Screening migrants for tuberculosis - a missed opportunity for improving knowledge and attitudes in high-risk groups: A cross-sectional study of Swedish-language students in Umeå, Sweden.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Migrants from countries with a high-burden of tuberculosis (TB) are at a particular risk of contracting and developing the disease. In Sweden, new immigrants are routinely offered screening for the disease, yet very little is known about their beliefs about the disease which may affect healthcare-seeking behaviours. In this study we assessed recent immigrant students knowledge of, and attitudes towards TB, and their relationship with the screening process.
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Milder winters in northern Scandinavia may contribute to larger outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever virus.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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The spread of zoonotic infectious diseases may increase due to climate factors such as temperature, humidity and precipitation. This is also true for hantaviruses, which are globally spread haemorrhagic fever viruses carried by rodents. Hantaviruses are frequently transmitted to humans all over the world and regarded as emerging viral diseases. Climate variations affect the rodent reservoir populations and rodent population peaks coincide with increased number of human cases of hantavirus infections. In northern Sweden, a form of haemorrhagic fever called nephropathia epidemica (NE), caused by the Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is endemic and during 2006-2007 an unexpected, sudden and large outbreak of NE occurred in this region. The incidence was 313 cases/100,000 inhabitants in the most endemic areas, and from January through March 2007 the outbreak had a dramatic and sudden start with 474 cases in the endemic region alone. The PUUV rodent reservoir is bank voles and immediately before and during the peak of disease outbreak the affected regions experienced extreme climate conditions with a record-breaking warm winter, registering temperatures 6-9 degrees C above normal. No protective snow cover was present before the outbreak and more bank voles than normal came in contact with humans inside or in close to human dwellings. These extreme climate conditions most probably affected the rodent reservoir and are important factors for the severity of the outbreak.
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Vaccination with virus-like particles protects mice from lethal infection of Rift Valley Fever Virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) regularly accounts for severe and often lethal outbreaks among livestock and humans in Africa. Safe and effective veterinarian and human vaccines are highly needed. We present evidence that administration of RVF virus-like particles (VLPs) induces protective immunity in mice. In an accompanying paper, (Habjan, M., Penski, N., Wagner, V., Spiegel, M., Overby, A.K., Kochs, G., Huiskonen, J., Weber, F., 2009. Efficient production of Rift Valley fever virus-like particles: the antiviral protein MxA can inhibit primary transcription of Bunyaviruses. Virology 385, 400-408) we report the production of these VLPs in mammalian cells. After three subsequent immunizations with 1x10(6) VLPs/dose, high titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected; 11 out of 12 mice were protected from challenge and only 1 out of 12 mice survived infection in the control groups. VLP vaccination efficiently suppressed replication of the challenge virus, whereas in the control animals high RNA levels and increasing antibody titers against the nucleocapsid protein indicated extensive viral replication. Our study demonstrates that the RVF VLPs are highly immunogenic and confer protection against RVFV infection in mice. In the test groups, the vaccinated mice did not exhibit any side effects, and the lack of anti-nucleocapsid protein antibodies serologically distinguished vaccinated animals from experimentally infected animals.
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Characterisation of immune responses and protective efficacy in mice after immunisation with Rift Valley Fever virus cDNA constructs.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Affecting both livestock and humans, Rift Valley Fever is considered as one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. However, no licensed vaccines or effective treatments are yet available for human use. Naked DNA vaccines are an interesting approach since the virus is highly infectious and existing attenuated Rift Valley Fever virus vaccine strains display adverse effects in animal trials. In this study, gene-gun immunisations with cDNA encoding structural proteins of the Rift Valley Fever virus were evaluated in mice. The induced immune responses were analysed for the ability to protect mice against virus challenge.
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"It is a challenge to do it the right way": an interpretive description of caregivers experiences in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden.
BMC Health Serv Res
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Experiences from nations with population diversity show extensive evidence on the need for cultural and linguistic competence in health care. In Sweden, despite the increasing diversity, only few studies have focused on challenges in cross-cultural care. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of caregivers in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden in order to understand the challenges they face and generate knowledge that could inform clinical practice.
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Modelling zoonotic diseases in humans: comparison of methods for hantavirus in Sweden.
Int J Health Geogr
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Because their distribution usually depends on the presence of more than one species, modelling zoonotic diseases in humans differs from modelling individual species distribution even though the data are similar in nature. Three approaches can be used to model spatial distributions recorded by points: based on presence/absence, presence/available or presence data. Here, we compared one or two of several existing methods for each of these approaches. Human cases of hantavirus infection reported by place of infection between 1991 and 1998 in Sweden were used as a case study. Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Europe, circulates among bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, it causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.Logistic binomial regression and boosted regression trees were used to model presence and absence data. Presence and available sites (where the disease may occur) were modelled using cross-validated logistic regression. Finally, the ecological niche model MaxEnt, based on presence-only data, was used.In our study, logistic regression had the best predictive power, followed by boosted regression trees, MaxEnt and cross-validated logistic regression. It is also the most statistically reliable but requires absence data. The cross-validated method partly avoids the issue of absence data but requires fastidious calculations. MaxEnt accounts for non-linear responses but the estimators can be complex. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed.
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The Rift Valley Fever virus protein NSm and putative cellular protein interactions.
Virol. J.
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Rift Valley Fever is an infectious viral disease and an emerging problem in many countries of Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The causative virus is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes and high mortality and abortion rates characterize outbreaks in animals while symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever are noticed among infected humans. For a better prevention and treatment of the infection, an increased knowledge of the infectious process of the virus is required. The focus of this work was to identify protein-protein interactions between the non-structural protein (NSm), encoded by the M-segment of the virus, and host cell proteins. This study was initiated by screening approximately 26 million cDNA clones of a mouse embryonic cDNA library for interactions with the NSm protein using a yeast two-hybrid system. We have identified nine murine proteins that interact with NSm protein of Rift Valley Fever virus, and the putative protein-protein interactions were confirmed by growth selection procedures and ?-gal activity measurements. Our results suggest that the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (Cpsf2), the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 protein (Ppil2), and the synaptosome-associated protein of 25?kDa (SNAP-25) are the most promising targets for the NSm protein of the virus during an infection.
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Gene expression of estrogen receptors in PBMC from patients with Puumala virus infection.
Shock
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The influence of estrogen signaling on infectious diseases is not fully known. Males seem to be more susceptible to infections than females. This has also been noted for the Scandinavian form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). To investigate the differences in estrogen receptors in relation to sex and clinical severity, 20 patients (10 males, 10 females) with confirmed PUUV infection were studied. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for analyzing mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-? (ER?), ER?, and ER?2 (ER? cx) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients and healthy age- and sex-matched blood donors. Blood chemistry and peripheral blood mononuclear cells sampling were performed during the acute and convalescent phases. None or very small amounts of ER? were detected, and ER? and ER?2 mRNA were elevated in the patient group. The samples from the males were correlated with ER?2; the female samples, with ER?. Furthermore, the female and male samples are partly separated using multivariate statistic analysis (principal component analysis), supporting findings that clinical symptoms differ depending on sex.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.