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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low- vs. standard-dose coronary artery calcium scanning.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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This study was designed to assess the accuracy of coronary artery calcium scans (CACS) acquired at radiation doses below mammography and low-dose lung scanning, compared with standard-dose CACS.
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CT Screening for Lung Cancer: Value of Expert Review of Initial Baseline Screenings.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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OBJECTIVE. Appropriate radiologic interpretation of screening CT can minimize unnecessary workup and intervention. This is particularly challenging in the baseline round. We report on the quality assurance process we developed for the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program. MATERIALS AND METHODS. After initial training at the coordinating center, radiologists at 10 participating institutions and at the center independently interpreted the first 100 baseline screenings. The radiologist at the institutions had access to the center interpretations before issuing the final reports. After the first 100 screenings, the interpretations were jointly discussed. This report summarizes the results of the initial 100 dual interpretations at the 10 institutions. RESULTS. The final institution interpretations agreed with the center in 895 of the 1000 interpretations. Compared with the center, the frequency of positive results was higher at eight of the 10 institutions. The most frequent reason of discrepant interpretations was not following the protocol (n = 55) and the least frequent was not identifying a nodule (n = 3). CONCLUSION. The quality assurance process helped focus educational programs and provided an excellent vehicle for review of the protocol with participating physicians. It also suggests that the rate of positive results can be reduced by such measures.
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Retrospective Review of Lung Cancers Diagnosed in Annual Rounds of CT Screening.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to review the records of patients with diagnoses of lung cancer in annual repeat rounds of CT screening in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program to determine whether the cancer could have been identified in the previous round of screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three radiologists reviewed the scans of 104 lung cancer patients and assigned the findings to one of three categories: 1, cancer was not visible at previous CT screening; 2, cancer was visible at previous CT screening but not identified; 3, abnormality was identified at previous CT screening but not classified as malignant. Nodule size, nodule consistency, cell type, and stage at the previous screening and when identified for further workup for each of the three categories were tabulated. RESULTS. Twenty-four (23%) patients had category 1 findings; 56 (54%) category 2; and 24 (23%) category 3. When diagnosed, seven (29%) category 1, 10 (18%) category 2, and four (17%) category three cancers had progressed beyond stage I. All cancers seen in retrospect were in clinical stage I at the previous screening. Category 1 cancers, compared with categories 2 and 3, had faster growth rates, were less frequently adenocarcinomas (29% vs 54% and 67%, p = 0.01), and were more often small cell carcinomas (29% vs 14% and 12%, p = 0.12). CONCLUSION. Lung cancers found on annual repeat screenings were frequently identified in the previous round of screening, suggesting that review of the varied appearance and incorporation of advanced image display may be useful for earlier detection.
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The impact of the regimen of screening on lung cancer cure: a comparison of I-ELCAP and NLST.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the regimen of screening on the frequency of early diagnosis and resection in two computed tomography screening programs. The stage and size distribution of all screen-diagnosed lung cancers was compared. A total of 775 patients in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) and 664 patients in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were screen-diagnosed; that is, resulting from a positive result requiring further diagnostic workup. The frequency of stage I diagnoses, resections, tumor size, and lung cancer-specific survival were determined. Cox regression was used to identify the key determinants of lung cancer cure. The frequency of clinical stage I lung cancer in I-ELCAP was 82%, and in the NLST it was 67% (P<0.0001). The frequency of stage I (pathologic and clinical if not resected) was 78% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Surgical resection was performed in 86% (664/755) in I-ELCAP and 76% (492/644, P<0.0001) in the NLST. The average tumor size was 17?mm in I-ELCAP and 23?mm in the NLST (P<0.0001). The 5-year survival rate was 83% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Cox regression showed that I-ELCAP provided a 50% better survival benefit than the NLST and that stage I and resection were key determinants of survival, independent of age, smoking history, and tumor size. The higher frequency of stage I disease and resection and smaller tumor size resulted in a significantly higher survival rate in I-ELCAP than in the NLST. These differences strongly support the importance of a specified regimen of screening, as alternative explanations have been addressed.
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Offering lung cancer screening to high-risk medicare beneficiaries saves lives and is cost-effective: an actuarial analysis.
Am Health Drug Benefits
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening.
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CT Screening for Lung Cancer: Alternative Definitions of Positive Test Result Based on the National Lung Screening Trial and International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Databases.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Purpose To determine the usefulness of alternative nodule size thresholds in a population undergoing computed tomographic (CT) screening for lung cancer and to compare the reported International Early Lung Cancer Action Program ( I-ELCAP International Early Lung Cancer Action Program ) results with the National Lung Screening Trial ( NLST National Lung Screening Trial ) results. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective analysis. Informed consent was obtained according to HIPAA compliance. Findings in the CT cohort in the NLST National Lung Screening Trial of 25 813 participants who underwent baseline CT in 2002-2004 were reviewed. The frequency of solid and part-solid pulmonary nodules and the lung cancer diagnoses using an alternative nodule threshold of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0 mm were determined. Proportional reduction in the frequency of positive results and their 95% confidence intervals using each of the alternative thresholds were calculated. Results The frequency of positive results in the baseline round in the CT arm of the NLST National Lung Screening Trial using the definition of a positive result of any parenchymal, solid or part-solid, noncalcified nodule of 5.0 mm or larger was 15.8% (4080 of 25 813). Using alternative thresholds of 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0 mm, the frequencies of positive results were 10.5% (2700 of 25 813, 7.2% (1847 of 25 813), 5.3% (1362 of 25 813), and 4.1% (1007 of 25 813), respectively, and the corresponding proportional reduction in additional CT scans would have been 33.8% (1380 of 1480), 54.7% (2233 of 4080), 66.6% (2718 of 4080), and 73.8% (3013 of 4080), respectively. Concomitantly, the proportion of lung cancer diagnoses determined within the first 12 months would be delayed up to 9 months for 0.9% (two of 232), 2.6% (six of 232), 6.0% (14 of 232), and 9.9% (23 of 232) of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The NLST National Lung Screening Trial results are similar to those previously reported for the I-ELCAP International Early Lung Cancer Action Program and suggest that, even for high-risk participants in the NLST National Lung Screening Trial , higher thresholds of nodule size should be considered and prospectively evaluated. © RSNA, 2014.
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Rapid progression of pleural disease due to exposure to Libby amphibole: "Not your grandfather's asbestos related disease".
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Residents and mine employees from Libby, Montana, have been exposed to asbestiform amphiboles from the vermiculite mine that operated in this location from the mid-1920s until 1990. Clinical observations show a different form of asbestos-related toxicity than other forms of asbestos.
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Emphysema predicts hospitalisation and incident airflow obstruction among older smokers: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers.
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Breast Density: Comparison of Chest CT with Mammography.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To (a) perform a pilot study comparing radiologists reading of breast density at computed tomography (CT) of the chest with breast density readings from mammography performed in the same patient and (b) compare a subset of these with computer-derived measurements of breast density at CT. Materials and Methods The institutional review board waived informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective review of mammograms and chest CT scans from 206 women obtained within 1 year of each other. Two radiologists with expertise in interpreting mammographic and CT findings independently reviewed the mammograms and CT scans and classified each case into one of the four breast density types defined by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System of the American College of Radiology. Interreader agreements for the mammographic density types and CT density grades were determined by using the Cohen weighted ? statistic. The intrareader correlation coefficient was determined in a subset of CT images. In another subset of 40 cases, the agreement of the semiautomated computer-derived measurements of breast density with the consensus of the two radiologists was assessed. Results Interreader agreement was higher for the CT density grades than for the mammographic density types, with 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73, 0.85) versus 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.70). The intrareader reliability of breast density grades on CT images was 0.88. The computer-derived breast density measurements agreed with those of the radiologists in 36 (90%) cases. When four cases were manually adjusted for the complex anatomy, there was agreement for all cases. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest that on further validation, breast density readings at CT may provide important additional risk information on CT of the chest and that computer-derived measurements may be helpful in such assessment. © RSNA, 2013.
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Sublobar resection is equivalent to lobectomy for clinical stage 1A lung cancer in solid nodules.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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A single randomized trial established lobectomy as the standard of care for the surgical treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent advances in imaging/staging modalities and detection of smaller tumors have once again rekindled interest in sublobar resection for early-stage disease. The objective of this study was to compare lung cancer survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with a diameter of 30 mm or less with clinical stage 1 disease who underwent lobectomy or sublobar resection.
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Balancing curability and unnecessary surgery in the context of computed tomography screening for lung cancer.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Surgical management is a critical component of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer. We report the results for US sites in a large ongoing screening program, the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP).
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Definition of a positive test result in computed tomography screening for lung cancer: a cohort study.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer can reduce mortality among high-risk persons, but "false-positive" findings may result in unnecessary evaluations with attendant risks. The effect of alternative thresholds for defining a positive result on the rates of positive results and cancer diagnoses is unknown.
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Second-hand tobacco smoke in never smokers is a significant risk factor for coronary artery calcification.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC) to the extent of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHTS) exposure in asymptomatic people who never smoked.
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Image analysis of small pulmonary nodules identified by computed tomography.
Mt. Sinai J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Detection of small pulmonary nodules has markedly increased as computed tomography (CT) technology has advanced and interpretation evolved from viewing small CT images on film to magnified images on large, high-resolution computer monitors. Despite these advances, determining the etiology of a lung nodule short of major surgery remains problematic. Initial nodule size is a major criterion in evaluating the risk for malignancy, and the majority of CT detected nodules are <10 mm in diameter. Also, the likelihood that the nodule is a lung cancer increases with increasing age and smoking history, and such clinical information needs to be integrated into algorithms that guide the workup of such nodules. Baseline and annual repeat screening results are also very helpful in developing and assessing the usefulness of such algorithms. Based on CT morphology, subtypes of nodules have been identified; today nodules are routinely classified as being solid, part-solid, or nonsolid. It has been shown that part-solid nodules have a higher frequency of being malignant than solid or nonsolid ones. Other nodule characteristics such as spiculation are useful, although granulomas and fibrosis also have such features, so these characteristics have not been as useful as nodule-growth assessment. Depending on the aggressiveness of the lung cancer and the size of the nodule when it is initially seen, a follow-up CT scan 1-3 months after the first CT scan can identify those nodules with growth at a malignant rate. Software has been developed by all CT scanner manufacturers for such growth assessment, but the inherent variability of such assessments needs further development. Nodule-growth assessment based on 2-dimensional approaches is limited; therefore, software has been developed for the 3-dimensional assessment of growth. Different approaches for such growth assessment have been developed, either using automated computer segmentation techniques or hybrid methods that allow the radiologist to adjust such segmentation. There are, however, inherent reasons for variability in such measurements that need to be carefully considered, and this, together with continued technologic advances and integration of the relevant clinical information, will allow for individualization of the algorithms for the workup of small pulmonary nodules.
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Longitudinal predictors of adherence to annual follow-up in a lung cancer screening programme.
J Med Screen
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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To examine rates and factors associated with adherence to annual repeat lung cancer screening in two cohorts. Participants and methods The self-pay cohort (n = 2083) was individuals aged 40 years and older with no prior cancer and a smoking history. Participants had to obtain a prescription from their doctor for the low dose, computerized tomography scan (CT), and were responsible for payment of $300 as these CT scans are not typically covered by insurance. The no-pay cohort (n = 1304) was individuals aged 60 and older with a smoking history, and no prior cancer. The initial and one year repeat CT were provided free of charge. Rates of adherence for each cohort were analyzed by demographic variables, smoking history, family history of lung cancer, smoking status (former/current), perceived risk and worry of getting lung cancer and baseline screening CT.
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Emphysema scores predict death from COPD and lung cancer.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Our objective was to assess the usefulness of emphysema scores in predicting death from COPD and lung cancer.
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Improved visualization of tubes and lines in portable intensive care unit radiographs: a study comparing a new approach to the standard approach.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Tube and line interpretation in portable chest radiographs was assessed using a new visualization method. When using the new method, radiologists interpretation time was reduced by 30% vs. standard modality processing and window and level (23 vs. 33 s). For pulmonary ICU physicians, reading time was essentially unchanged. There was more than a 50% reduction in the use of inferential language in the dictation for both reader groups when using the new method, suggesting greater interpretation confidence.
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Multivariate compensation of quantitative pulmonary emphysema metric variation from low-dose, whole-lung CT scans.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Emphysema is a disease of the lung characterized by the destruction of the alveolar sac walls. Several quantitative densitometric measures of emphysema from wholelung CT have been proposed for evaluating disease severity and progression. However, a concern with these quantitative measures has been the large interscan variability observed during longitudinal studies of emphysema. To account for and reduce inherent measure variability, this work implements and evaluates the use of a multivariate random-effects model for correcting longitudinal variation in densitometric scores of emphysema due to inspiration.
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Small-cell carcinoma of the lung detected by CT screening: stage distribution and curability.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Prognosis is incompletely known for small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) detected by CT screening of at-risk subjects.
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Segmentation of juxtapleural pulmonary nodules using a robust surface estimate.
Int J Biomed Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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An algorithm was developed to segment solid pulmonary nodules attached to the chest wall in computed tomography scans. The pleural surface was estimated and used to segment the nodule from the chest wall. To estimate the surface, a robust approach was used to identify points that lie on the pleural surface but not on the nodule. A 3D surface was estimated from the identified surface points. The segmentation performance of the algorithm was evaluated on a database of 150 solid juxtapleural pulmonary nodules. Segmented images were rated on a scale of 1 to 4 based on visual inspection, with 3 and 4 considered acceptable. This algorithm offers a large improvement in the success rate of juxtapleural nodule segmentation, successfully segmenting 98.0% of nodules compared to 81.3% for a previously published plane-fitting algorithm, which will provide for the development of more robust automated nodule measurement methods.
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The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI): a completed reference database of lung nodules on CT scans.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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The development of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) methods for lung nodule detection, classification, and quantitative assessment can be facilitated through a well-characterized repository of computed tomography (CT) scans. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI) completed such a database, establishing a publicly available reference for the medical imaging research community. Initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), further advanced by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), and accompanied by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through active participation, this public-private partnership demonstrates the success of a consortium founded on a consensus-based process.
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CT- and computer-based features of small hamartomas.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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To identify characteristic computed tomographic (CT) and computer-derived features of hamartomas manifesting as small pulmonary nodules.
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Modeling the mortality reduction due to computed tomography screening for lung cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The efficacy of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer remains controversial because results from the National Lung Screening Trial are not yet available. In this study, the authors used data from a single-arm CT screening trial to estimate the mortality reduction using a modeling-based approach to construct a control comparison arm.
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Assessment of lung-cancer mortality reduction from CT Screening.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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CT screening has been shown to increase lung cancer curability and we now assess the corresponding reduction in lung cancer mortality.
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Ordinal scoring of coronary artery calcifications on low-dose CT scans of the chest is predictive of death from cardiovascular disease.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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To assess the usefulness of ordinal scoring of the visual assessment of coronary artery calcification (CAC) on low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest in the prediction of cardiovascular death.
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Zone of transition: a potential source of error in tumor volume estimation.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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To measure the width of the zone of transition (ZOT) between nonaerated solid tumor and surrounding nonneoplastic lung parenchyma and determine the extent to which ZOT influences computer-derived estimates of tumor volume based on computed tomographic (CT) images.
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Cytological cell blocks: Predictors of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma subtypes.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Fine needle aspirations biopsies, CT-guided and endobronchial ultrasound-guided, as a mode of diagnosing and/or staging lung carcinoma, are becoming more frequent. Also, there is greater necessity for classification of lung cancers into subcategories of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma for appropriate management. Cytomorphology, based on smears alone, allows this classification in many instances. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential of cell blocks to increase the specificity of diagnosis. The morphological characteristics of sixty-two lung carcinomas were examined. Less well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas were more readily classified as such on cell blocks. Likewise, cell block sections with architectural patterns including strips of cells, papillae and nests of cells correlated with bronchioalveolar, papillary and acinar/mixed subtypes of adenocarcinoma on follow-up histology. In conclusion, cell blocks provide additional morphological clues and material for ancillary studies for classification of lung carcinomas.
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CT features of intrapulmonary lymph nodes confirmed by cytology.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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We retrospectively assessed the computed tomography features of intrapulmonary lymph nodes confirmed by cytology in 18 patients. The median size of the lymph nodes was 5.8 mm (range=3.3-8.5 mm). All were below the carina, and only one nodule, which was associated with an interlobar fissure, was over 20 mm from the chest wall. The nodules were oval, round, triangular, or trapezoidal; had sharply defined borders; were solid and homogenous; and were without calcification. Six nodules (33.3%) had a discrete thin tag extending to the pleura. Intrapulmonary lymph nodes can reliably be confirmed by fine needle aspiration with cytological diagnosis.
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Post-CABG coronary CT angiography: radiation dose and graft image quality in retrospective versus prospective ECG gating.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The aim of this study was to compare effective radiation doses between prospective and retrospective electrocardiographic gating during coronary computed tomographic angiography for coronary artery bypass grafting evaluation.
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Limited resection for the treatment of patients with stage IA lung cancer.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Lobectomy is the standard of care for stage IA lung cancer. Some small retrospective studies have suggested similar results after limited resection for tumors < or =2 cm in size. The objective of the study was to compare survival after lobectomy and limited resection among Medicare patients with lung cancer.
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Estimation of anatomical locations using standard frame of reference in chest CT scans.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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We propose a method to establish the standard chest frame of reference (CFOR) using the rib cage in a lung CT scan. Such a reference frame is essential for referring to a certain location within a chest region and may facilitate the registration across multiple scans of a given subject as well as the comparative studies within a cohort of subjects. The robustness of the established CFOR was evaluated by estimating the anatomical locations within chest in the follow-up scan given the location in the first scan. Specifically, tracheal bifurcation point of airway tree and the center of pulmonary nodule were used as the anatomical points of interest. The CFOR was also used for exploring the spatial distribution of the anatomical location for a large number of individuals. The results show that on average the point of interest can be estimated accurately within 10.3 mm for the bifurcation point and within 12.5 mm for the pulmonary nodules center point. Further analyzing the spatial distribution of the CFOR coordinates across 86 subjects shows that we can localize the bifurcation point to the small subregion within the CFOR.
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Automated nodule location and size estimation using a multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Estimation of nodule location and size is an important pre-processing step in some nodule segmentation algorithms to determine the size and location of the region of interest. Ideally, such estimation methods will consistently find the same nodule location regardless of where the the seed point (provided either manually or by a nodule detection algorithm) is placed relative to the "true" center of the nodule, and the size should be a reasonable estimate of the true nodule size. We developed a method that estimates nodule location and size using multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filtering. Nodule candidates near a given seed point are found by searching for blob-like regions with high filter response. The candidates are then pruned according to filter response and location, and the remaining candidates are sorted by size and the largest candidate selected. This method was compared to a previously published template-based method. The methods were evaluated on the basis of stability of the estimated nodule location to changes in the initial seed point and how well the size estimates agreed with volumes determined by a semi-automated nodule segmentation method. The LoG method exhibited better stability to changes in the seed point, with 93% of nodules having the same estimated location even when the seed point was altered, compared to only 52% of nodules for the template-based method. Both methods also showed good agreement with sizes determined by a nodule segmentation method, with an average relative size difference of 5% and -5% for the LoG and template-based methods respectively.
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Smoking cessation and relapse during a lung cancer screening program.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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The potential for negative screening to reduce smoking cessation and long-term abstinence is a concern in lung cancer screening. We examine whether consistently negative results during long-term participation in a lung cancer screening program reduce cessation or increase relapse.
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Solitary and multiple resected adenocarcinomas after CT screening for lung cancer: histopathologic features and their prognostic implications.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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To study the histopathologic features of CT screen-detected Stage IA adenocarcinomas to determine whether survival differed by the proportion of bronchioloalveolar component (BAC) or by the presence of multiple lesions in node-negative patients.
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Variation in vascular distribution in small lung cancers.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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To assess the vascular component of small lung cancers.
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Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
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The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of lung cancers associated with a discrete cystic airspace and to characterize the morphologic and pathologic features of the cancer and the cystic airspace.
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Radiographic and clinical characterization of false negative results from CT-guided needle biopsies of lung nodules.
J Thorac Oncol
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Computed tomography-guided transthoracic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a highly sensitive technique for diagnosing malignancy in pulmonary nodules; however, there is great uncertainty regarding the reliability of a benign result. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, radiologic, and technical variables associated with a false negative result.
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Lung cancers diagnosed at annual CT screening: volume doubling times.
Radiology
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To empirically address the distribution of the volume doubling time (VDT) of lung cancers diagnosed in repeat annual rounds of computed tomographic (CT) screening in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP), first and foremost with respect to rates of tumor growth but also in terms of cell types.
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Internal growth of nonsolid lung nodules: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
Radiology
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To determine whether computed tomographic (CT) attenuation values correlate with the histologic measurements of a lung cancer manifesting as a nonsolid nodule and to quantify the extent to which the tumor replaces the airspace within the nodule.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.