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A prospective study on drug monitoring of PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase antibodies in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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This study prospectively analyzed the efficacy of very prolonged courses of pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Patients received 15 PEGasparaginase infusions (2500 IU/m(2) every 2 weeks) in intensification after receiving native E coli asparaginase in induction. In case of allergy to or silent inactivation of PEGasparaginase, Erwinia asparaginase (20?000 IU/m(2) 2-3 times weekly) was given. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled in the PEGasparaginase study. Twenty (22%) of the PEGasparaginase-treated patients developed an allergy; 7 (8%) showed silent inactivation. The PEGasparaginase level was 0 in all allergic patients (grade 1-4). Patients without hypersensitivity to PEGasparaginase had serum mean trough levels of 899 U/L. Fifty-nine patients were included in the Erwinia asparaginase study; 2 (3%) developed an allergy and none silent inactivation. Ninety-six percent had at least 1 trough level ?100 U/L. The serum asparagine level was not always completely depleted with Erwinia asparaginase in contrast to PEGasparaginase. The presence of asparaginase antibodies was related to allergies and silent inactivation, but with low specificity (64%). Use of native E coli asparaginase in induction leads to high hypersensitivity rates to PEGasparaginase in intensification. Therefore, PEGasparaginase should be used upfront in induction, and we suggest that the dose could be lowered. Switching to Erwinia asparaginase leads to effective asparaginase levels in most patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been added to our ALL-11 protocol to individualize asparaginase therapy.
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Influence of cimetidine and its metabolites on Cisplatin--investigation of adduct formation by means of electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Cimetidine has been studied as an additive in cancer chemotherapy. It is claimed to reduce the side effects of Cisplatin. This study focuses on possible interactions between Cisplatin and cimetidine on the molecular level. Due to the fact that cimetidine is metabolized in the liver, interactions between its metabolites and Cisplatin are also investigated. By means of LC/ESI-MS, Cisplatin-cimetidine adducts were detected. In a second step, the metabolism of cimetidine was simulated by electrochemical oxidation. These results were compared with microsomal incubations of cimetidine using rat and human liver cell microsomes. Because the two methods showed a correlation, the electrochemical approach was further used to investigate Cisplatins interactions with metabolites of cimetidine. However, notable interactions that might take place in the human body could neither be observed for pure cimetidine nor for its metabolites. Finally, the impact of cimetidine on Cisplatin-protein interactions were studied using the model protein ?-lactoglobulin A. In the presence of cimetidine, the affinity of Cisplatin towards the model protein appears to be increased.
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Population pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) and caspofungin (CAS) are important antifungal agents in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (aHSCT) recipients. Little is known, however, about the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both agents and their combination in this population. The PK of LAMB and CAS and the potential for PK interactions between both agents were investigated within a risk-stratified, randomized phase II clinical trial in 53 adult aHSCT recipients with granulocytopenia and refractory fever. Patients received either LAMB (n = 17; 3 mg/kg once a day [QD]), CAS (n = 19; 50 mg QD; day 1, 70 mg), or the combination of both (CAS-LAMB; n = 17) for a median duration of 10 to 13 days (range, 4 to 28 days) until defervescence and granulocyte recovery. PK sampling was performed on days 1 and 4. Drug concentrations in plasma (LAMB, 405 samples; CAS, 458 samples) were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and were analyzed using population pharmacokinetic modeling. CAS concentration data best fitted a two-compartment model with a proportional error model and interindividual variability (IIV) for clearance (CL) and central volume of distribution (V(1)) (CL, 0.462 liter/h ± 25%; V(1), 8.33 liters ± 29%; intercompartmental clearance [Q], 1.25 liters/h; peripheral volume of distribution [V(2)], 3.59 liters). Concentration data for LAMB best fitted a two-compartment model with a proportional error model and IIV for all parameters (CL, 1.22 liters/h ± 64%; V(1), 19.2 liters ± 38%; Q, 2.18 liters/h ± 47%; V(2), 52.8 liters ± 84%). Internal model validation showed predictability and robustness of both models. None of the covariates tested (LAMB or CAS comedication, gender, body weight, age, body surface area, serum bilirubin, and creatinine clearance) further improved the models. In summary, the disposition of LAMB and CAS was best described by two-compartment models. Drug exposures in aHSCT patients were comparable to those in other populations, and no PK interactions were observed between the two compounds.
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Anti-Escherichia coli asparaginase antibody levels determine the activity of second-line treatment with pegylated E coli asparaginase: a retrospective analysis within the ALL-BFM trials.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Hypersensitivity reactions limit the use of the antileukemic enzyme asparaginase (ASE). We evaluated Ab levels against Escherichia coli ASE and ASE activity in 1221 serum samples from 329 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had received ASE treatment according to the ALL-BFM 2000 or the ALL-REZ BFM 2002 protocol for primary or relapsed disease. ASE activity during first-line treatment with native E coli ASE and second-line treatment with pegylated E coli ASE was inversely related to anti-E coli ASE Ab levels (P < .0001; Spearman rank order correlation). An effect on ASE activity during second-line treatment with pegylated E coli ASE was, however, only observed when anti-E coli ASE Ab levels were high (> 200 AU/mL). In the presence of moderate or intermediate Ab levels (6.25-200 AU/mL) the switch from native to pegylated E coli ASE resulted in a significant increase of ASE activity above the threshold of 100 U/L (P < .05). Erwinia chrysanthemi ASE activity was not correlated with anti-E coli ASE Ab levels. Erwinia ASE was found to be the best ASE alternative if Ab levels against E coli ASE exceed 200 AU/mL. This retrospective analysis is the first to describe the relationship between the level of anti-E coli ASE Abs and serum activity of pegylated E coli ASE used second-line after native E coli ASE.
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An in-vitro evaluation of the polo-like kinase inhibitor GW843682X against paediatric malignancies.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a regulator of mitosis and its upregulation in tumours is often associated with poor prognosis. Although PLK1 inhibitors have already entered phase 1 clinical trials, little is known about their impact on the treatment of paediatric malignancies. Thus, we evaluated the concept of PKL1 inhibition by testing the effects of the PLK1 inhibitor GW843682X alone and in combination with the topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, camptothecin, against a panel of 18 paediatric tumour cell lines. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test and by caspase 3/7 activation. Expression of target was confirmed by western blot analysis. Expression of ATP binding cassette transporters was analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. GW843682X significantly inhibited cell growth in all 18 cell lines. Concentrations, which inhibited cell growth by 50% compared with untreated controls after 72 h, ranged from 0.02 to 11.7 ?mol/l. Apart from the N-Myc-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, the osteosarcoma cell lines MNNG-HOS and OST, which are highly resistant to standard anticancer drugs, were sensitive to GW843682X. The toxicity of GW843682X was dependent neither on the ATP binding cassette drug transporter expression nor on the p53 mutation status. Neither synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed for the combination of GW843682X and camptothecin in 14 cell lines. GW843682X showed considerable toxicity against a panel of paediatric tumour cell lines suggesting that PLK1 inhibitors under clinical development should be evaluated against paediatric malignancies too.
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Five-year single-center study of asparaginase therapy within the ALL-BFM 2000 trial.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of asparaginase (ASNase), a fundamental element of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment, was integrated in the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol on a voluntary basis.
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Randomized comparison of safety and pharmacokinetics of caspofungin, liposomal amphotericin B, and the combination of both in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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The combination of liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) and caspofungin (CAS) holds promise to improve the outcome of opportunistic invasive mycoses with poor prognosis. Little is known, however, about the safety and pharmacokinetics of the combination in patients at high risk for these infections. The safety and pharmacokinetics of the combination of LAMB and CAS were investigated in a risk-stratified, randomized, multicenter phase II clinical trial in 55 adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients (aHSCT) with granulocytopenia and refractory fever. The patients received either CAS (50 mg/day; day 1, 70 mg), LAMB (3 mg/kg of body weight/day), or the combination of both (CASLAMB) until defervescence and granulocyte recovery. Safety, development of invasive fungal infections, and survival were assessed through day 14 after the end of therapy. Pharmacokinetic sampling and analysis were performed on days 1 and 4. All three regimens were well tolerated. Premature study drug discontinuations due to grade III/IV adverse events occurred in 1/18, 2/20, and 0/17 patients randomized to CAS, LAMB, and CASLAMB, respectively. Adverse events not leading to study drug discontinuation were frequent but similar across cohorts, except for a higher frequency of hypokalemia with CASLAMB (P < 0.05). Drug exposures were similar for patients receiving combination therapy and those randomized to monotherapy. There was no apparent difference in the occurrence of proven/probable invasive fungal infections and survival through day 14 after the end of therapy. CASLAMB combination therapy in immunocompromised aHSCT patients was as safe as monotherapy with CAS or LAMB and had similar plasma pharmacokinetics, lending support to further investigations of the combination in the management of patients with invasive opportunistic mycoses.
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Cytotoxic effect of clodronate and zoledronate on the chondrosarcoma cell lines HTB-94 and CAL-78.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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The wide surgical tumour resection is the only effective treatment in chondrosarcoma. However, a major problem remains the high rate of local recurrences and metastases due to the lack of adjuvant therapies. In this study the cytotoxic effect of the bisphosphonate clodronate (0.1-1000 ?M) and zoledronate (0.1-1000 ?M) in different concentrations on two chondrosarcoma cell lines (HTB-94 and CAL-78) has been investigated. After an incubation period of 48, 72 and 96 hours the chondrosarcoma cell viability was measured as the MTT-proliferation rate. In concentrations of >1 ?m zoledronate the cell activity was reduced by up to 95% for the CAL-78 cells. Further, zoledronate has been more effective in lower concentrations than clodronate in the reduction of cell viability for both cell lines. However, clodronate showed significant cytotoxic effects in high concentrations and after longer incubation periods. Further research is necessary, but in the light of these results bisphosphonates may also play a role in the treatment of chondrosarcomas.
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Association of telomerase activity with radio- and chemosensitivity of neuroblastomas.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Telomerase activity compensates shortening of telomeres during cell division and enables cancer cells to escape senescent processes. It is also supposed, that telomerase is associated with radio- and chemoresistance. In the here described study we systematically investigated the influence of telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length on the outcome of radio- and chemotherapy in neuroblastoma.
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Systematic analysis of the antiproliferative effects of novel and standard anticancer agents in rhabdoid tumor cell lines.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Rhabdoid tumors are highly aggressive pediatric malignancies. Although the prognosis of children with rhabdoid tumors has improved, it still remains dismal and long-term survivors suffer from severe side effects of current therapeutic approaches. The objective of our study was to explore the toxicity of standard and novel anticancer drugs against rhabdoid tumors in vitro and to prioritize them for future preclinical and clinical studies. Antitumor activity of 10 standard anticancer drugs (doxorubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, actinomycin D, temozolomide, carmustine, oxaliplatin, vinorelbine, methotrexate, thiotepa), five target-specific drugs (sorafenib, imatinib, roscovitine, rapamycin, ciglitazone) and two herbal compounds (curcumin and apigenin) was assessed by a modified 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay on three rhabdoid tumor cell lines, A204, G401, and BT16, derived from different anatomical sites. Comparable with their high clinical activity, anthracyclines inhibited tumor cell proliferation by 50% (GI50) in the nanomolar range. Actinomycin D exhibited the lowest GI50 values overall ranging from 2.8x10(-6) nmol/l for G401 to 3.8 nmol/l for A204 cells while thiotepa was the only alkylating drug that inhibited tumor cell growth in clinically relevant concentrations. Target-specific drugs, such as sorafenib, roscovitine, and rapamycin, showed promising results as well. In this report, we show for the first time that apigenin and curcumin effectively inhibit rhabdoid tumor cell growth. Supporting earlier reports we conclude that cyclin D1 seems to be an excellent target in the treatment of rhabdoid tumors. Idarubicin or mitoxantrone represent potent alternatives to doxorubicin, and vinorelbine may substitute vincristine in future clinical trials.
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Dichloroacetate metabolically targeted therapy defeats cytotoxicity of standard anticancer drugs.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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The observation that the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA) selectively promotes mitochondria-regulated apoptosis and inhibits tumour growth in preclinical models by shifting the glucose metabolism in cancer cells from anaerobic to aerobic glycolysis attracted not only scientists, clinicians but also patients interests and prompted us to further evaluate DCA effects against paediatric malignancies.
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Therapeutic drug monitoring of asparaginase in the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol between 2000 and 2007.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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On a voluntary basis therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was implemented in the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol for the three currently used asparaginase (ASNase) preparations (first line: native Escherichia coli ASNase; second line: pegylated ASNase and third line: Erwinia chrysanthemi ASNase).
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Organic cation transporter 2 mediates cisplatin-induced oto- and nephrotoxicity and is a target for protective interventions.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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The use of the effective antineoplastic agent cisplatin is limited by its serious side effects, such as oto- and nephrotoxicity. Ototoxicity is a problem of special importance in children, because deafness hampers their language and psychosocial development. Recently, organic cation transporters (OCTs) were identified in vitro as cellular uptake mechanisms for cisplatin. In the present study, we investigated in an in vivo model the role of OCTs in the development of cisplatin oto- and nephrotoxicity. The functional effects of cisplatin treatment on kidney (24 hours excretion of glucose, water, and protein) and hearing (auditory brainstem response) were studied in wild-type and OCT1/2 double-knockout (KO) mice. No sign of ototoxicity and only mild nephrotoxicity were observed after cisplatin treatment of knockout mice. Comedication of wild-type mice with cisplatin and the organic cation cimetidine protected from ototoxicity and partly from nephrotoxicity. For the first time we showed that OCT2 is expressed in hair cells of the cochlea. Furthermore, cisplatin-sensitive cell lines from pediatric tumors showed no expression of mRNA for OCTs, indicating the feasibility of therapeutic approaches aimed to reduce cisplatin toxicities by competing OCT2-mediated cisplatin uptake in renal proximal tubular and cochlear hair cells. These findings are very important to establish chemotherapeutical protocols aimed to maximize the antineoplastic effect of cisplatin while reducing the risk of toxicities.
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A population pharmacokinetic model for pegylated-asparaginase in children.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2009
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We analysed 1221 serum activity measurements in 168 children from the Berlin-Frankfürt-Münster acute lymphoblastic leukaemia studies, ALL-BFM (Berlin-Frankfürt-Münster) 95 and ALL-BFM REZ, in order to develop a pharmacokinetic model describing the activity-time course of pegylated (PEG)-asparaginase for all dose levels. Patients received 500, 750, 1000 or 2500 U/m(2) PEG-asparaginase on up to nine occasions. Serum samples were analysed for asparaginase activity and data analysis was done using nonlinear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM Vers. VI, Globomax, Hanouet, MD, USA). Different linear and nonlinear models were tested. The best model applicable to all dosing groups was a one-compartmental model with clearance (Cl) increasing with time according to the formula: Cl=Cl(i) *e((0.0793 *t)) where Cl(i) = initial clearance and t = time after dose. The parameters found were: volume of distribution (V) 1.02 +/- 26% l/m(2), Cl(i) 59.9 +/- 59% ml/d per m(2) (mean +/- interindividual variability). Interoccasion variability was substantial with 0.183 l/m(2) for V and 44.7 ml/d per m(2) for Cl, respectively. A subgroup of the patients showed a high clearance, probably due to the development of inactivating antibodies. This is the first model able to predict the activity-time course of PEG-asparaginase at different dosing levels and can therefore be used for developing new dosing regimens.
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The interaction of platinum-based drugs with native biologically relevant proteins.
Anal Bioanal Chem
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This study focuses on the identification of the products that are formed upon binding of therapeutically relevant platinum complexes to proteins like ?-lactoglobulin A (LGA), human serum albumin (HSA), or human hemoglobin (HB). The respective proteins were incubated with the platinum-based anticancer drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. LGA was selected as the model protein in addition to the two most abundant blood proteins HSA and HB. In case of the model protein, the effect of free thiol groups on the affinity of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin was investigated by means of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-ToF-MS). The reduced form of LGA, which contains four free thiol groups more than the native LGA, shows a much higher affinity to the platinum-based drugs. By means of liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the reaction behavior of the platinum-based drugs towards HSA and HB was investigated under different conditions considering the chloride concentration (4 or 100 mM) and the incubation time (24 and 48 h). In case of carboplatin, less than 6 % protein-bound platinum was detected. However, both cisplatin and oxaliplatin display a high affinity to the proteins investigated. Further information was obtained by means of LC/ESI-ToF-MS. In case of oxaliplatin, the complex [Pt(DACH)](2+) (DACH=C(6)N(2)H(14)) was identified interacting with HSA and HB. For cisplatin, different results were observed for the two proteins. The complex [Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl](+) interacted predominantly with HSA and [Pt(NH(3))(2)](2+) with HB.
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No evidence of increased asparagine levels in the bone marrow of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during asparaginase therapy.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
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Mesenchymal cells (MSCs) in bone marrow (BM) may produce asparagine and form protective niches for leukemic cells. In vitro, this led to high levels of asparagine and conferred asparaginase resistance to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MSCs or other cells in BM indeed produce such significant amounts of asparagine in vivo as to result in clinical asparaginase resistance.
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Immediate Cooling Does Not Prevent the Ex Vivo Hydrolysis of L-Asparagine by Asparaginase.
Ther Drug Monit
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Monitoring of asparagine (ASN) during asparaginase (ASE) treatment directly links to the antileukemic effect of ASE but is challenging because of ASE-induced ex vivo hydrolysis of ASN. Assuming that ASE is not active at 4°C, immediate cooling of blood samples became the accepted method for ASN determination during ASE therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.