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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phototherapy in ELBW newborns: Does it work? Is it safe? The evidence from randomized clinical trials.
Semin. Perinatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Phototherapy is assumed to be both effective and safe for extremely low-birth-weight infants. Our objective was to critically assess the relevant evidence from randomized trials. In the decades-old Collaborative Phototherapy Trial, phototherapy reduced serum bilirubin but not neurodevelopmental impairments. In the recent and larger Neonatal Network Trial, aggressive phototherapy compared to conservative phototherapy reduced both peak serum bilirubin (7.0 vs. 9.8mg/dL) and profound impairment at 18-22 months adjusted age (relative risk = 0.68). However, both trials suggested that phototherapy increased deaths among the smallest infants. Conservative Bayesian analyses of ventilator-treated infants under 751g birth weight in the Network trial identified a 99% probability of increased deaths and 99% probability of reduced profound impairment with aggressive phototherapy. Potential strategies to optimize the risk/benefit ratio in achieving low serum bilirubin levels, e.g., use of lowered irradiance levels, light-emitting diode phototherapy units, cycled phototherapy, and/or porphyrin compounds, deserve rigorous evaluation.
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Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of Bupropion for Pregnant Smokers: Challenges and Future Directions.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Objective?The aim of the study is to conduct an initial pilot trial evaluating the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Study Design?A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group pilot study of bupropion versus placebo with 50 pregnant smokers was planned. Eligibility criteria were restrictive (e.g., 14-26 weeks' gestation; no psychiatric conditions or medications) due to the unknown safety, tolerability, and side effect profile of bupropion in pregnancy. Bayesian analyses were planned to provide probability of benefit. Results?Significant challenges were encountered with regard to trial feasibility. Of 820 women screened, 112 were current smokers, but only 11 women were eligible and consented to participate in the study. Excluded women most often had a psychiatric disorder (23%); were outside the gestational range (14%); or declined to participate (11%). Conclusions?This initial attempt to evaluate bupropion for smoking cessation during pregnancy will inform future trial methodology. Because of the unknown safety profile, conservative eligibility criteria were used and resulted in a large portion of this high-risk, low-income smoker population being excluded from the trial, raising questions regarding broad applicability, and highlighting the need to balance patient safety and trial feasibility. Large multisite studies will likely be needed to conduct definitive pharmacotherapy studies.
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Low Testosterone Levels are Frequent in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure and are Associated with Poor Outcomes.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Low testosterone level is a common finding in critically ill patients with trauma, shock, and sepsis. However, its prevalence and outcomes in patients with primary acute respiratory failure is unknown; low testosterone could contribute to respiratory muscle weakness and further compromise ventilation in these patients.
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A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial of Metformin versus Insulin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Objective?Few studies support oral diabetic treatment in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of metformin versus insulin on achieving glycemic control and improving maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with T2DM. Study Design?A pilot randomized, controlled trial was conducted of metformin versus insulin for the treatment of T2DM during pregnancy. The primary outcome was glycemic control measured with hemoglobin A1c?
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Families at risk: home and car smoking among pregnant women attending a low-income, urban prenatal clinic.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has been identified as a distinct risk factor for adverse obstetric and gynecological outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of SHSe reduction practices (i.e., home and car smoking bans) among pregnant women in a large U.S. prenatal clinic serving low-income women.
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Neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury: III. Criterion-related validity and sensitivity to change in the NABIS hypothermia-II clinical trial.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury (NOS-TBI) is a measure assessing neurological functioning in patients with TBI. We hypothesized that the NOS-TBI would exhibit adequate concurrent and predictive validity and demonstrate more sensitivity to change, compared with other well-established outcome measures. We analyzed data from the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia-II clinical trial. Participants were 16-45 years of age with severe TBI assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. For analysis of criterion-related validity (concurrent and predictive), Spearmans rank-order correlations were calculated between the NOS-TBI and the glasgow outcome scale (GOS), GOS-extended (GOS-E), disability rating scale (DRS), and neurobehavioral rating scale-revised (NRS-R). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through significant correlations between the NOS-TBI and GOS, GOS-E, DRS, and NRS-R measured contemporaneously at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury (all p<0.0013). For prediction analyses, the multiplicity-adjusted p value using the false discovery rate was <0.015. The 1-month NOS-TBI score was a significant predictor of outcome in the GOS, GOS-E, and DRS at 3 and 6 months postinjury (all p<0.015). The 3-month NOS-TBI significantly predicted GOS, GOS-E, DRS, and NRS-R outcomes at 6 and 12 months postinjury (all p<0.0015). Sensitivity to change was analyzed using Wilcoxons signed rank-sum test of subsamples demonstrating no change in the GOS or GOS-E between 3 and 6 months. The NOS-TBI demonstrated higher sensitivity to change, compared with the GOS (p<0.038) and GOS-E (p<0.016). In summary, the NOS-TBI demonstrated adequate concurrent and predictive validity as well as sensitivity to change, compared with gold-standard outcome measures. The NOS-TBI may enhance prediction of outcome in clinical practice and measurement of outcome in TBI research.
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Can serum surfactant protein D or CC-chemokine ligand 18 predict outcome of interstitial lung disease in patients with early systemic sclerosis?
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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To examine the predictive significance of 2 pneumoproteins, surfactant protein D (SP-D) and CC-chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18), for the course of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease.
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Does C-reactive protein predict the long-term progression of interstitial lung disease and survival in patients with early systemic sclerosis?
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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There are no identified clinical markers that reliably predict long-term progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been reported in SSc patients. We examined the predictive significance of CRP level for long-term ILD progression in a large early SSc cohort.
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Diffusion tensor imaging of incentive effects in prospective memory after pediatric traumatic brain injury.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Few studies exist investigating the brain-behavior relations of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, children with moderate-to-severe TBI performed an EB-PM test with two motivational enhancement conditions and underwent concurrent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 months post-injury. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n=37) or moderate-to-severe TBI (n=40) were contrasted. Significant group differences were found for fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient for orbitofrontal white matter (WM), cingulum bundles, and uncinate fasciculi. The FA of these WM structures in children with TBI significantly correlated with EB-PM performance in the high, but not the low motivation condition. Regression analyses within the TBI group indicated that the FA of the left cingulum bundle (p=0.003), left orbitofrontal WM (p<0.02), and left (p<0.02) and right (p<0.008) uncinate fasciculi significantly predicted EB-PM performance in the high motivation condition. We infer that the cingulum bundles, orbitofrontal WM, and uncinate fasciculi are important WM structures mediating motivation-based EB-PM responses following moderate-to-severe TBI in children.
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Monetary incentive effects on event-based prospective memory three months after traumatic brain injury in children.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Information regarding the remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is scarce. Addressing this, two levels of monetary incentives were used to improve EB-PM in children ages 7 to 16 years with orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 51), or moderate (n = 25) and severe (n = 39) TBI at approximately 3 months postinjury. The EB-PM task consisted of the child giving a specific verbal response to a verbal cue from the examiner while performing a battery of neuropsychological measures (ongoing task). Significant effects were found for age-at-test, motivation condition, period, and group. Within-group analyses indicated that OI and moderate TBI groups performed significantly better under the high- than under the low-incentive condition, but the severe TBI group demonstrated no significant improvement. These results indicate that EB-PM can be significantly improved at 3 months postinjury in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI.
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Event-based prospective memory in children with sickle cell disease: effect of cue distinctiveness.
Child Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) is the formation of an intention and remembering to perform it in response to a specific event. Currently, EB-PM performance in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is unknown. In this study, we designed a computer-based task of EB-PM; No-Stroke, Silent-Infarct, and Overt-Stroke groups performed significantly below the demographically similar control group without SCD. Cue distinctiveness was varied to determine if EB-PM could be improved. All groups, with the exception of the Overt-Stroke group, performed significantly better with a perceptually distinctive cue. Overall, these results suggest that EB-PM can be improved significantly in many children with SCD.
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The Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI): II. Reliability and convergent validity.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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A standardized measure of neurological dysfunction specifically designed for TBI currently does not exist and the lack of assessment of this domain represents a substantial gap. To address this, the Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI) was developed for TBI outcomes research through the addition to and modification of items specifically relevant to patients with TBI, based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. In a sample of 50 participants (mean age = 33.3 years, SD = 12.9)
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The Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI): I. Construct validity.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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The Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI) is a measure adapted from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and is intended to capture essential neurological deficits impacting individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (see Wilde et al., 2010 ). In the present study we evaluate the measures construct validity via comparison with a quantified neurological examination performed by a neurologist. Spearman rank-order correlation between the NOS-TBI and the neurological examination was rho = 0.76, p < 0.0001, suggesting a high degree of correspondence (construct validity) between these two measures of neurological function. Additionally, items from the NOS-TBI compared favorably to the neurological examination items, with correlations ranging from 0.60 to 0.99 (all p < 0.0001). On formal neurological examination, some degree of neurological impairment was observed in every participant in this cohort of individuals undergoing rehabilitation for TBI, and on the NOS-TBI neurological impairment was evident in all but one participant. This study documents the presence of measurable neurological sequelae in a sample of patients with TBI in a post-acute rehabilitation setting, underscoring the need for formal measurement of the frequency and severity of neurological deficits in this population. The results suggest that the NOS-TBI is a valid measure of neurological functioning in patients with TBI.
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Feasibility of the Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI) in adults.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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This article describes the design and initial implementation of the Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI) as an adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), specifically for clinical and research use in patients with TBI, including (1) the addition of items specific to TBI, (2) adjustment to the scoring algorithm to allow quantification of deficits in patients who are comatose/vegetative or agitated, and (3) the reassignment of items (i.e., limb ataxia) that are problematic in TBI as supplemental items. The feasibility of using the NOS-TBI is discussed and limitations of the scale are highlighted. This scale offers (1) a cost-effective, brief, practicable, standardized, and quantifiable method of communicating and analyzing neurological deficits in a way that traditional neurological assessment alone cannot currently provide, and (2) a measure that non-physicians can administer. The NOS-TBI may serve a role in clinical practice in patients with TBI similar to the way the NIHSS has functioned for patients following stroke, by serving as a tool for initial stratification of injury severity, and as an outcome measure in clinical trials.
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Event-based prospective memory performance during subacute recovery following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in children: Effects of monetary incentives.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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There are very few studies investigating remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, we used 2 levels of motivational enhancement (dollars vs. pennies) to improve EB-PM in children with moderate to severe TBI in the subacute recovery phase. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 61), moderate (n = 28), or severe (n = 30) TBI were compared. Significant effects included Group x Motivation Condition (F(2, 115) = 3.73, p < .03). The OI (p < .002) and moderate TBI (p < .03) groups performed significantly better under the high- versus low-incentive condition; however, the severe TBI group failed to demonstrate improvement (p = .38). EB-PM performance was better in adolescents compared to younger children (p < .02). These results suggest that EB-PM can be significantly improved in the subacute phase with this level of monetary incentives in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI. Other strategies to improve EB-PM in these children at a similar point in recovery remain to be identified and evaluated.
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Incentive effects on event-based prospective memory performance in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Prospective memory (PM) is the formation of an intention and remembering to perform this intention at a future time or in response to specific cues. PM tasks are a ubiquitous part of daily life. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding PM impairments in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and less empirical evidence regarding effective remediation strategies to mitigate these impairments. The present study employed two levels of a motivational enhancement (i.e., a monetary incentive) to determine whether event-based PM could be improved in children with severe TBI. In a crossover design, children with orthopedic injuries and mild or severe TBI were compared on two levels of incentive (dollars vs. pennies) given in response to accurate performance. All three groups performed significantly better under the high- versus low-motivation conditions. However, the severe TBI groups high-motivation condition performance remained significantly below the low-motivation condition performance of the orthopedic injury group. PM scores were positively and significantly related to age-at-test, but there were no age-at-injury or time-postinjury effects. Overall, these results suggest that event-based PM can be significantly improved in children with severe TBI.
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Should perioperative supplemental oxygen be routinely recommended for surgery patients? A Bayesian meta-analysis.
Ann. Surg.
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The purpose of this study is to use updated data and Bayesian methods to evaluate the effectiveness of hyperoxia to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) and/or mortality in both colorectal and all surgery patients. Because few trials assessed potential harms of hyperoxia, hazards were not included.
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Diabetes and reduced risk for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections: a nationwide case-control study.
J Am Heart Assoc
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Vascular diseases are the principal causes of death and disability in people with diabetes. At the same time, studies suggest a protective role of diabetes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We sought to determine whether diabetes is associated with decreased hospitalization due to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD).
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The influence of baseline marijuana use on treatment of cocaine dependence: application of an informative-priors bayesian approach.
Front Psychiatry
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Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1) examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2) apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect. Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided complete data for the historical (Study 1: N?=?64 placebo), and current (Study 2: N?=?113) data sets. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES) as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo), baseline marijuana use (days in past 30), and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES. Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect.
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Revisiting the effectiveness of interventions to decrease surgical site infections in colorectal surgery: A Bayesian perspective.
Surgery
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To evaluate the evidence for interventions to decrease surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal operations using Bayesian meta-analysis.
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Defining the Practice of "No Escalation of Care" in the ICU.
Crit. Care Med.
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Withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining therapies precedes most deaths in the modern ICU. As goals of care for critically ill patients change from curative to palliative, this transition often occurs abruptly, but a slower more staggered approach may also be used. One such approach is "no escalation of care", often the first step in this transition at the end-of-life. We aimed to determine the prevalence of no escalation of care designation for ICU decedents and identify which interventions are involved.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.