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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of pituitary function after infectious meningitis in childhood.
BMC Endocr Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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A number of studies of adults have shown that pituitary deficiencies can develop in a considerable proportion of subjects during the acute phase of meningitis or years after the infection has disappeared. The results of the very few studies of the impact of pediatric meningitis on hypothalamic-pituitary function are conflicting.
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Genetic polymorphisms and risk of recurrent wheezing in pediatric age.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Wheezing during early life is a very common disorder, but the reasons underlying the different wheezing phenotypes are still unclear. The aims of this study were to analyse the potential correlations between the risk of developing recurrent wheezing and the presence of specific polymorphisms of some genes regulating immune system function, and to study the relative importance of the associations of different viruses and genetic polymorphisms in causing recurrent episodes.
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Vaccine-preventable diseases: from paediatric to adult targets.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The morbidity and mortality related to many communicable infectious diseases have significantly decreased in Western countries largely because of the use of antibiotics, and the implementation of well-planned vaccination strategies and national immunisation schedules specifically aimed at infants and children. However, although immunisation has proved to be highly effective for public health, more effort is needed to improve the currently sub-optimal rates of vaccination against various diseases among adults who may be at risk because of their age, medical condition or occupation. The vaccines currently licenced in Western countries are safe, immunogenic and effective against many infectious diseases and their complications, but the availability of newer vaccines or vaccines with new indications, the evolving ecology and epidemiology of many infections, population ageing, and other demographic changes (i.e. the increasing prevalence of chronic comorbidities and immunodeficiencies, mass migration, new working relationships, and widespread international tourism) require changes in the approach to immunisation. There is now a need for appropriate preventive measures for adults and the elderly aimed at protecting people at risk by using every possible catch-up opportunity and recommending specific age-related schedules on the basis of local epidemiology.
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Clinical profile of recurrent community-acquired pneumonia in children.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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The aim of this case-control study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of children with recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (rCAP) affecting different lung areas (DLAs) and compare them with those of children who have never experienced CAP in order to contribute to identifying the best approach to such patients.
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Tuberculosis in Children.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a neglected aspect of the TB epidemic despite it constituting 20% or more of all TB cases in many countries with high TB incidence. Childhood TB is a direct consequence of adult TB but remains overshadowed by adult TB because it is usually smear-negative. Infants and young children are more likely to develop life-threatening forms of TB than older children and adults due to their immature immune systems. Therefore, prompt diagnoses are extremely important although difficult since clinical and radiological signs of TB can be non-specific and variable in children. Despite undeniable advances in identifying definite, probable, or possible TB markers, pediatricians still face many problems when diagnosing TB diagnosis. Moreover, curing TB can be difficult when treatment is delayed and when multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are the cause of the disease. In these cases, the prognosis in children is particularly poor because MDR-TB treatment and treatment duration remain unclear. New studies of diagnostic tests and optimal treatment in children are urgently needed with the final goal of developing an effective anti-TB vaccine.
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Impact of rhinoviruses on pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.
Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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This study of 592 children seen in our Emergency Department with radiographically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was designed to evaluate the role of rhinoviruses (RVs) in the disease. The respiratory secretions of each child were assayed using RVP Fast in order to detect 17 respiratory viruses, and the RV-positive samples were characterised by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RVs were identified in 172 cases (29.0%): 48/132 children aged<1 year (36.3%), 80/293 aged 1-3 years (27.3%), and 44/167 aged?4 years (26.3%). Sequencing demonstrated that 82 RVs (49.1%) were group A, 17 (10.1%) group B, and 52 (31.1%) group C; 21 (12.2%) were untyped. RVs were found as single agents in 99 cases, and together with two or more other viruses in 73 (40.7%). There were only marginal differences between the different RV groups and between single RV infection and RV co-infections. RV CAP is frequent not only in younger but also in older children, and RV-A is the most common strain associated with it. The clinical relevance of RV CAP seems to be mild to moderate without any major differences between the A and B strains and the recently identified RV C.
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Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
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Procalcitonin measurements for guiding antibiotic treatment in pediatric pneumonia.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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In order to evaluate the use of an algorithm based on a procalcitonin (PCT) cut-off value as a means of guiding antibiotic therapy, 319 hospitalised children with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were randomised 1:1 to be treated on the basis of the algorithm or in accordance with standard guidelines. The children in the PCT group did not receive antibiotics if their PCT level upon admission was <0.25 ng/mL, and those receiving antibiotics from the time of admission were treated until their PCT level was ? 0.25 ng/mL. The final analysis was based on 155 patients in the PCT group and 155 in the control group. In comparison with the controls, the PCT group received significantly fewer antibiotic prescriptions (85.8% vs 100%; p < 0.05), were exposed to antibiotics for a shorter time (5.37 vs 10.96 days; p < 0.05), and experienced fewer antibiotic-related adverse events (3.9% vs 25.2%; p < 0.05), regardless of CAP severity. There was no significant between-group difference in recurrence of respiratory symptoms and new antibiotic prescription in the month following enrollment. The results of this first prospective study using a PCT cut-off value to guide antibiotic therapy for pediatric CAP showed that this approach can significantly reduce antibiotic use and antibiotic-related adverse events in children with uncomplicated disease. However, because the study included mainly children with mild to moderate CAP and the risk of the use of the algorithm-based approach was not validated in a relevant number of severe cases, further studies are needed before it can be used in routine clinical practice.
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Impact of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza on children and their families: comparison with seasonal A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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To make a direct comparison between the total burden of pandemic influenza and that of other seasonal influenza A viral subtypes in otherwise healthy children.
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Knowledge of oxygen administration, aerosol medicine, and chest physiotherapy among pediatric healthcare workers in Italy.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Oxygen administration, aerosol devices and drugs, or the use of chest physiotherapy are common practices in pediatrics; however, little is known about the knowledge of pediatric healthcare workers concerning the right utilization of these tools. The aim of this study was to fill this gap as a preliminary step in the implementation of appropriate educational programs.
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Clinical manifestations and socio-economic impact of influenza among healthy children in the community.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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To evaluate the total burden of influenza among healthy children in the community in order to analyse the cost of influenza in paediatric age.
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Levofloxacin for the treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated meningoencephalitis in childhood.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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It has long been postulated that Mycoplasma pneumoniae plays a causative role in the development of neurological syndromes and this has recently been confirmed by highly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic techniques for identifying infection due to this pathogen. Encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are the most frequent M. pneumoniae-associated neurological manifestations. Macrolides are considered the antibiotics of choice for treatment of paediatric M. pneumoniae infection, but the increase in macrolide minimal inhibitory concentrations of a substantial percentage of M. pneumoniae strains and the poor penetration of macrolides into cerebrospinal fluid suggest that drugs other than macrolides should be evaluated. Here we describe five paediatric cases of M. pneumoniae-associated meningoencephalitis in which 14 days of intravenous (i.v.) administration of levofloxacin (25 mg/kg/day in two divided doses) led to the disappearance of neurological signs and symptoms, with a good safety profile. Although further studies are needed to demonstrate whether or not M. pneumoniae-associated meningoencephalitis should always be treated with antimicrobials, what the drug of choice is, how long therapy should be administered and whether supportive therapy is useful, these findings suggest that i.v. levofloxacin should be considered for the treatment of paediatric M. pneumoniae-associated meningoencephalitis.
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An open-label, randomized clinical trial assessing immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine to paediatric
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the 2009 A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine, administered sequentially or simultaneously with the seasonal 2009-10 virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine, to paediatric kidney transplant recipients.
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Altered cardiac rhythm in infants with bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus infection.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Although the most frequent extra-pulmonary manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection involve the cardiovascular system, no data regarding heart function in infants with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection have yet been systematically collected. The aim of this study was to verify the real frequency of heart involvement in patients with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection, and whether infants with mild or moderate disease also risk heart malfunction.
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Variation in colonization, ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin, and pulmonary disease severity among mycoplasma pneumoniae strains.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae was recently discovered to produce an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin, designated CARDS toxin, which is hypothesized to be a primary pathogenic mechanism responsible for M. pneumoniae-induced pulmonary inflammation. It is unknown if cytotoxin production varies with M. pneumoniae strain or if variation in cytotoxin production affects pulmonary disease severity.
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity.
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Collection by trained pediatricians or parents of mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs for the detection of influenza viruses in childhood.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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This study evaluated the efficiency of pediatric mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs used by parents in 203 children aged 6 months to 5 years with signs and symptoms of respiratory disease. Two nasal samples were collected from each child in a randomised sequence: one by a trained pediatrician and one by a parent. The real-time polymerase chain reaction influenza virus detection rates were similar in the samples collected using the two methods (Cohens kappa = 0.86), as were the cycle threshold values. In comparison with the pediatrician-collected samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the parental collections were respectively 89.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8-100%) and 97.7% (95% CI: 95.5-100%), and the positive and negative predictive values were respectively 86.2% (95% CI: 73.7-95.1%) and 98.2% (95% CI: 96.4-100%). The children were significantly more satisfied with the parental collections (median values +/- standard deviation, 1.59 +/- 0.55 vs 3.51 +/- 0.36; p < 0.0001). These findings show that mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs specifically designed for infants and children can be used by parents without reducing the influenza virus detection rate. Moreover, the direct involvement of parents significantly increases patient acceptance, thus simplifying collection and suggesting that this novel swab design should be considered for epidemiological surveys and vaccine efficacy studies.
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Impact of viral infections in children with community-acquired pneumonia: results of a study of 17 respiratory viruses.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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Little is known about the prevalence of viral infections in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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Recommendations for the use of influenza vaccine in pediatrics.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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Every year for the last few decades, the health authorities of most countries throughout the world have issued specific recommendations for the prevention and treatment of pediatric influenza, including recommendations concerning the use of vaccines. However, different evaluations of the importance of the disease and the efficacy of influenza vaccination frequently lead to conflicting recommendations. This is clearly demonstrated not only by the differences in the subjects for whom the vaccine is recommended, but also by the inaccurate manner in which subjects at risk of influenza-related complications are defined. Only further studies that consider the burden of the disease and vaccine efficacy in adequate numbers of healthy children and high-risk children with different chronic underlying diseases can overcome all of the current limitations and significantly improve vaccination coverage in both categories.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.