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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Safety profiles of anti-VEGF drugs: bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on human retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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To compare the safety profiles of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture.
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Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control.
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Host selection and probing behavior of the poplar aphid Chaitophorus leucomelas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) on two poplar hybrids with contrasting susceptibility to aphids.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Poplars are frequently attacked by aphids. The differential susceptibility of poplar hybrids to the aphid Chaitophorus leucomelas Koch (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) has been described, but the mechanism underlying this pattern is unknown. This work tested the hypothesis that poplar resistance to this aphid is associated with the presence of volatiles and secondary plant compounds that affect host selection and feeding behavior. This hypothesis was tested by studying the host choice and feeding behavior of C. leucomelas on two poplar hybrids with contrasting susceptibilities to this aphid ([Populus trichocarpa Torrey & Gray x Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall] x P. deltoides [TD x D], and [P. trichocarpa x Populus maximowiczii Henry] x [P. trichocarpa x P. maximowiczii] [TM x TM]). The results showed that C. leucomelas rejected leaves of the TM x TM hybrid and did not prefer odors from either hybrid. Electronic monitoring of the probing behavior of C. leucomelas suggested the involvement of antifeedant factors in the TM x TM hybrid. In addition, the chemical characterization of volatiles, epicuticular waxes, and internal phenols of leaves from both poplar hybrids revealed that TM x TM had a higher abundance of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, n-alkanes, and phenols. These results are discussed in terms of their contribution to poplar breeding programs aimed at enhancing insect resistance.
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Inherited mitochondrial DNA variants can affect complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways: insights into mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. While linked to genetic polymorphisms in the complement pathway, there are many individuals with high risk alleles that do not develop AMD, suggesting that other 'modifiers' may be involved. Mitochondrial (mt) haplogroups, defined by accumulations of specific mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent population origins, may be one such modifier. J haplogroup has been associated with high risk for AMD while the H haplogroup is protective. It has been difficult to assign biological consequences for haplogroups so we created human ARPE-19 cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which have identical nuclei but mitochondria of either J or H haplogroups, to investigate their effects upon bioenergetics and molecular pathways. J cybrids have altered bioenergetic profiles compared with H cybrids. Q-PCR analyses show significantly lower expression levels for seven respiratory complex genes encoded by mtDNA. J and H cybrids have significantly altered expression of eight nuclear genes of the alternative complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways. Sequencing of the entire mtDNA was carried out for all the cybrids to identify haplogroup and non-haplogroup defining SNPs. mtDNA can mediate cellular bioenergetics and expression levels of nuclear genes related to complement, inflammation and apoptosis. Sequencing data suggest that observed effects are not due to rare mtDNA variants but rather the combination of SNPs representing the J versus H haplogroups. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our concepts of mt-nuclear interactions.
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Human retinal transmitochondrial cybrids with J or H mtDNA haplogroups respond differently to ultraviolet radiation: implications for retinal diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been recognized that cells do not respond equally to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but it is not clear whether this is due to genetic, biochemical or structural differences of the cells. We have a novel cybrid (cytoplasmic hybrids) model that allows us to analyze the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to cellular response after exposure to sub-lethal dose of UV. mtDNA can be classified into haplogroups as defined by accumulations of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Recent studies have shown that J haplogroup is high risk for age-related macular degeneration while the H haplogroup is protective. This study investigates gene expression responses in J cybrids versus H cybrids after exposure to sub-lethal doses of UV-radiation.
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Molecular and bioenergetic differences between cells with African versus European inherited mitochondrial DNA haplogroups: Implications for population susceptibility to diseases.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The geographic origins of populations can be identified by their maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. This study compared human cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which are cell lines with identical nuclei but mitochondria from different individuals with mtDNA from either the H haplogroup or L haplogroup backgrounds. The most common European haplogroup is H while individuals of maternal African origin are of the L haplogroup. Despite lower mtDNA copy numbers, L cybrids had higher expression levels for nine mtDNA-encoded respiratory complex genes, decreased ATP (adenosine triphosphate) turnover rates and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production, parameters which are consistent with more efficient oxidative phosphorylation. Surprisingly, GeneChip arrays showed that the L and H cybrids had major differences in expression of genes of the canonical complement system (5 genes), dermatan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (5 genes) and CCR3 (chemokine, CC motif, receptor 3) signaling (9 genes). Quantitative nuclear gene expression studies confirmed that L cybrids had (a) lower expression levels of complement pathway and innate immunity genes and (b) increased levels of inflammation-related signaling genes, which are critical in human diseases. Our data support the hypothesis that mtDNA haplogroups representing populations from different geographic origins may play a role in differential susceptibilities to diseases.
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Hydroquinone induces oxidative and mitochondrial damage to human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1).
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Smoking is a risk factor in the development of a variety of neuroretinal diseases. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a toxicant that is present in high concentrations in cigarette smoke, on a human retinal Müller cell line (MIO-M1).
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Point diffraction interferometer with a liquid crystal monopixel.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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In this work a novel point diffraction interferometer based on a variable liquid crystal wave plate (LCWP) has been implemented. The LCWP consists of a 3x3 cm(2) monopixel cell with parallel alignment. The monopixel cell was manufactured such that the electrode covers the entire surface except in a centered circular area of 50 ?m of diameter. This circle acts as a point perturbation which diffracts the incident wave front giving rise to a spherical reference wave. By applying a voltage to the LCWP we can change the phase of the wave front that passes through the monopixel, except at the center. Phase shifting techniques are used in order to calculate the amplitude and phase distribution of the object wave front. The system allows a digital hologram to be obtained, and by using the Fresnel diffraction integral it is possible to digitally reconstruct the different planes that constitute the three dimensional object.
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Long-term results of surgical treatment of aneurysms of digestive arteries.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The aim of this study was to document the long-term results of open surgical treatment of aneurysms of the digestive arteries.
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Mitochondrial DNA variants mediate energy production and expression levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 genes: implications for age-related macular degeneration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD) versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD).
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The effects of commercially available preservative-free FDA-approved triamcinolone (Triesence®) on retinal cells in culture.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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To evaluate the effects of Triesence® (TRI), a new preservative-free triamcinolone approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, on human retina pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) and rat neurosensory (R28) cells in culture.
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Inhibition of apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells treated with benzo(e)pyrene, a toxic component of cigarette smoke.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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To study the inhibitory effects of some agents or drugs (inhibitors) on benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P)-induced cell death and apoptosis on human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells in vitro.
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Differential expression of candidate defense genes of poplars in response to aphid feeding.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Species belonging to the genus Populus (poplars) produce a series of defensive proteins in response to insect damage. Proteinase inhibitors, polyphenol oxidases, and chitinases are the most relevant and intensively studied proteins. Most of the knowledge about the relation between these proteins and herbivores has been obtained from studies with chewing insects. Nothing is known about whether phloem-feeder insects such as aphids are able to trigger a comparable response. In the current study, the expression of genes encoding a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3 (KTI3), a polyphenol oxidase 1 (PPO1), and a class I chitinase (CHI) was characterized in two poplar hybrids (one resistant hybrid and one susceptible hybrid, to aphids) attacked by the aphid Chaitophorus leucomelas Koch. The expression pattern was analyzed using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach. The expression of KTI3 was increased by aphids only in the aphid-susceptible hybrid. Differently, PPO1 expression was increased by aphids in the aphid-resistant hybrid. The expression of CHI was down-regulated by aphids in the susceptible hybrid. This is the first study to report the differential expression of poplar defense genes in response to phloem-feeder insects such as aphids. The findings from the current study suggest that the expression levels of defensive proteins are affected by poplar genotype and by aphid infestation.
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[Role of transoperative frozen section in the surgical management of thyroid nodules].
Cir Cir
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Thyroid nodules (TN) are a common problem occurring in 4-7% of the general population. The final objective of a TN study is to determine whether the nodule is benign or malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is accepted as the most appropriate preoperative procedure, but some authors have described undetermined results in 30% (follicular or suspicious lesion). Our objective is to determine whether transoperative frozen section (TOFS) plays a significant role in diagnosis and treatment of TN.
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Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae).
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Eight novel microsatellite primer pairs are presented for Eriosoma lanigerum, representing the first microsatellite markers available for this genus. Loci were characterized for 27 individuals from one single orchard in Central Chile. All loci were polymorphic within E. lanigerum (three to 11 alleles per locus; observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.41 to 0.93), and are therefore useful for population genetic studies within the species.
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Genetic structure of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, and its role as a vector of the Strawberry Yellow Edge Virus to a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis in Chile.
J. Insect Sci.
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The monoecious anholocyclical aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was collected on a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) from different sites in Chile. The presence of this aphid was recorded during two consecutive years. F. chiloensis plants were collected from seven natural and cultivated growing areas in central and southern Chile. Aphids were genotyped by cross-species amplification of four microsatellite loci from other aphid species. In addition, the aphid borne virus Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was confirmed in F. chiloensis plants by double-antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR. Genetic variability and structure of the aphid populations was assessed from the geo-referenced individuals through AMOVA and a Bayesian assignment test. The presence of C. fragaefolii, during the two-year study was detected in only four of the seven sites (Curepto, Contulmo, Chilián and Cucao). Genetic variation among these populations reached 19% of the total variance. When assigning the individuals to groups, these were separated in three genetic clusters geographically disjunct. Of the seven sampled sites, six were positive for the virus by RT-PCR, and five by double-antibody sandwich ELISA . The incidence of the virus ranged from 0-100%. Presence of the virus corresponded with the presence of the aphid in all but two sites (Chilian and Vilches). The greatest incidence of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was related to the abundance of aphids. On the other hand, sequences of the coat protein gene of the different virus samples did not show correspondence with either the genetic groups of the aphids or the sampling sites. The genetic structure of aphids could suggest that dispersal is mainly through human activities, and the spread to natural areas has not yet occurred on a great scale.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.