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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HIV Disease Progression in Seroconvertors from the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir Gel Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Trial.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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While antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV acquisition, it is not known if it alters HIV disease progression. This study assesses whether tenofovir gel impacted on disease progression among CAPRISA 004 microbicide trial seroconvertors.
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Delaying BCG Vaccination Until 8 Weeks of Age Results in Robust BCG-Specific T-Cell Responses in HIV-Exposed Infants.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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?BCG vaccination prevents disseminated tuberculosis in children, but it is contraindicated for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because it can result in severe disease in this population. In tuberculosis-endemic regions, BCG vaccine is administered soon after birth, before in utero and peripartum HIV infection is excluded. We therefore assessed the immunogenicity of BCG vaccine in HIV-exposed infants who received BCG at birth or at 8 weeks of age.
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Rapid Disease Progression in HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected South African Women.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype B-infected individuals generally progress to AIDS within 8-10 years, limited data exist for other clades, especially from Africa. We investigated rates of HIV disease progression of clade C-infected South African women.
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The Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) multi-site quality assurance program for cryopreserved human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) consortium was established to determine the host and virus factors associated with HIV transmission, infection and containment of virus replication, with the goal of advancing the development of an HIV protective vaccine. Studies to meet this goal required the use of cryopreserved Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) specimens, and therefore it was imperative that a quality assurance (QA) oversight program be developed to monitor PBMC samples obtained from study participants at multiple international sites. Nine site-affiliated laboratories in Africa and the USA collected and processed PBMCs, and cryopreserved PBMC were shipped to CHAVI repositories in Africa and the USA for long-term storage. A three-stage program was designed, based on Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP), to monitor PBMC integrity at each step of this process. The first stage evaluated the integrity of fresh PBMCs for initial viability, overall yield, and processing time at the site-affiliated laboratories (Stage 1); for the second stage, the repositories determined post-thaw viability and cell recovery of cryopreserved PBMC, received from the site-affiliated laboratories (Stage 2); the third stage assessed the long-term specimen storage at each repository (Stage 3). Overall, the CHAVI PBMC QA oversight program results highlight the relative importance of each of these stages to the ultimate goal of preserving specimen integrity from peripheral blood collection to long-term repository storage.
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Role of semen in altering the balance between inflammation and tolerance in the female genital tract: does it contribute to HIV risk?
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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While the main reproduction aim of semen is the transport of spermatozoa to the female genital tract, seminal plasma is a complex fluid that also carries a broad array of immunologically active molecules. Seminal plasma has been shown to contain a diverse array of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory soluble mediators that regulate immune responses within the female reproductive tract than can facilitate fertilization. Since the natural inflammatory response to semen deposition in the female genital tract may result in recruitment of activated HIV target cells into the female genital mucosa, we discuss the constituents of semen that may increase the risk for HIV infection in women.
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In-utero exposure to maternal HIV infection alters T-cell immune responses to vaccination in HIV-uninfected infants.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. To evaluate whether immune dysfunction contributes to this vulnerability of HEU infants, we conducted a longitudinal, observational cohort study to assess T-cell immune responses to infant vaccines (Mycobacterium bovis BCG and acellular pertussis) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). In total, 46 HEU and 46 HIV-unexposed infants were recruited from Khayelitsha, Cape Town.
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AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.
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A subset of circulating blood mycobacteria-specific CD4 T cells can predict the time to Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum culture conversion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated 18 HIV-negative patients with MDR-TB for M. tuberculosis (Mtb)- and PPD-specific CD4 T cell responses and followed them over 6 months of drug therapy. Twelve of these patients were sputum culture (SC) positive and six patients were SC negative upon enrollment. Our aim was to identify a subset of mycobacteria-specific CD4 T cells that would predict time to culture conversion. The total frequency of mycobacteria-specific CD4 T cells at baseline could not distinguish patients showing positive or negative SC. However, a greater proportion of late-differentiated (LD) Mtb- and PPD-specific memory CD4 T cells was found in SC positive patients than in those who were SC negative (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.0012, respectively). Similarly, a higher co-expression of HLA-DR+ Ki67+ on Mtb- and PPD-specific CD4 T cells could also discriminate between sputum SC positive versus SC negative (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that baseline levels of Ki67+ HLA-DR+ Mtb- and PPD-specific CD4 T cells were predictive of the time to sputum culture conversion, with area-under-the-curve of 0.8 (p?=?0.027). Upon treatment, there was a significant decline of these Ki67+ HLA-DR+ T cell populations in the first 2 months, with a progressive increase in mycobacteria-specific polyfunctional IFN?+ IL2+ TNF?+ CD4 T cells over 6 months. Thus, a subset of activated and proliferating mycobacterial-specific CD4 T cells (Ki67+ HLA-DR+) may provide a valuable marker in peripheral blood that predicts time to sputum culture conversion in TB patients at the start of treatment.
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Differential impact of magnitude, polyfunctional capacity and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses on HIV viral set point.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Defining the characteristics of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses that lead to viral control is crucial for vaccine development. We evaluated the differential impact of magnitude, polyfunctional capacity and specificity of the CD8+ response at approximately 6 months post infection on viral set point at 12 months in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals. High frequencies of Gag and Nef responses endowed with four functions were the best predictors of a low viral set point.
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Heterologous vaccination against human tuberculosis modulates antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell function.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Heterologous prime-boost strategies hold promise for vaccination against tuberculosis. However, the T-cell characteristics required for protection are not known. We proposed that boost vaccines should induce long-lived functional and phenotypic changes to T cells primed by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and/or natural exposure to mycobacteria. We characterized changes among specific CD4(+) T cells after vaccination with the MVA85A vaccine in adults, adolescents, and children. CD4(+) T cells identified with Ag85A peptide-bearing HLA class II tetramers were characterized by flow cytometry. We also measured proliferative potential and cytokine expression of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells. During the effector phase, MVA85A-induced specific CD4(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-? and IL-2, skin homing integrins, and the activation marker CD38. This was followed by contraction and a transition to predominantly IL-2-expressing, CD45RA(-) CCR7(+) CD27(+) or CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) CD27(+) specific CD4(+) T cells. These surface phenotypes were similar to Ag85A-specific T cells prior to MVA85A. However, functional differences were observed postvaccination: specific proliferative capacity was markedly higher after 6-12 months than before vaccination. Our data suggest that MVA85A vaccination may modulate Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T-cell function, resulting in greater recall potential. Importantly, surface phenotypes commonly used as proxies for memory T-cell function did not associate with functional effects of vaccination.
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Rapid, complex adaptation of transmitted HIV-1 full-length genomes in subtype C-infected individuals with differing disease progression.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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There is limited information on full-length genome sequences and the early evolution of transmitted HIV-1 subtype C viruses, which constitute the majority of viruses spread in Africa. The purpose of this study was to characterize the earliest changes across the genome of subtype C viruses following transmission, to better understand early control of viremia.
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Is obesity a risk factor for vaccine non-responsiveness?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Understanding the link between vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy is currently a major focus in HIV research. Consequently, recent developments in the HIV-1 vaccine field have led to a closer look at immune responses to known efficacious vaccines. We undertook a study to explore clinical predictors of vaccine efficacy following recombinant hepatitis B (rHBV) vaccination in a cohort of HIV-uninfected, hepatitis B virus naïve women living in a peri-urban setting in Cape Town. Our aim was to define host biological risk factors associated with lack of vaccine uptake. We found a significant association (p=0.009) between body mass index (BMI) and lack of vaccine-specific IgG titre (<10mIU/mL). Obese individuals (BMI ? 30kg/m(2)) were significantly more likely to be non-responders following 2 rHBV vaccine doses (Adjusted Odds Ratio of 8.75; p=0.043). There was no observed association between vaccine responses and age, method of contraception or time from vaccination to antibody measurement. These data suggest that obesity-associated factors interfere with vaccine immunogenicity and possible efficacy.
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Intra- and inter-clade cross-reactivity by HIV-1 Gag specific T-cells reveals exclusive and commonly targeted regions: implications for current vaccine trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The genetic diversity of HIV-1 across the globe is a major challenge for developing an HIV vaccine. To facilitate immunogen design, it is important to characterize clusters of commonly targeted T-cell epitopes across different HIV clades. To address this, we examined 39 HIV-1 clade C infected individuals for IFN-? Gag-specific T-cell responses using five sets of overlapping peptides, two sets matching clade C vaccine candidates derived from strains from South Africa and China, and three peptide sets corresponding to consensus clades A, B, and D sequences. The magnitude and breadth of T-cell responses against the two clade C peptide sets did not differ, however clade C peptides were preferentially recognized compared to the other peptide sets. A total of 84 peptides were recognized, of which 19 were exclusively from clade C, 8 exclusively from clade B, one peptide each from A and D and 17 were commonly recognized by clade A, B, C and D. The entropy of the exclusively recognized peptides was significantly higher than that of commonly recognized peptides (p?=?0.0128) and the median peptide processing scores were significantly higher for the peptide variants recognized versus those not recognized (p?=?0.0001). Consistent with these results, the predicted Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I IC(50) values were significantly lower for the recognized peptide variants compared to those not recognized in the ELISPOT assay (p<0.0001), suggesting that peptide variation between clades, resulting in lack of cross-clade recognition, has been shaped by host immune selection pressure. Overall, our study shows that clade C infected individuals recognize clade C peptides with greater frequency and higher magnitude than other clades, and that a selection of highly conserved epitope regions within Gag are commonly recognized and give rise to cross-clade reactivities.
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Human leukocyte antigen class I (A, B, C) and II (DRB1) diversity in the black and Caucasian South African population.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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A cross-section of black and Caucasian South Africans (N = 302) were genotyped at high resolution (class I HLA-A, -B, -C and class II HLA-DRB1). Five new class I alleles (A*30:01:02, A*30:02:02, A*68:27, B*42:06, and B*45:07) and one new confirmatory allele (A*29:11) were identified in the black population. Alleles and haplotypes showed expected differences between the black and Caucasian populations, with the black population, on average, showing a broader spectrum of allele representation (less single allele dominance). The most prevalent alleles at the four loci in the black population were A*30:01, B*58:02, C*06:02, and DRB1*13:01 and in the Caucasian population were A*02:01:01, B*07:02:01, C*07:01, and DRB1*03:01. HLA-B, and HLA-C loci showed the strongest overall linkage disequilibrium (LD) and HLA-B/HLA-C two locus haplotypes also showed the strongest LD (D(ij)) in both population groups. Bw allotype representation was similar between the two populations; however C allotypes differed significantly (C1 higher representation in Caucasians; C2 higher representation in blacks). HLA-A Supertype family phenotypic frequencies did not differ between the two populations, but four (B08, B27, B58, and B62) HLA-B Supertype families differed significantly. However, vaccine coverage estimation came close to 100% in both population groups, with inclusion of only four Supertype families (A1, A2, B7, B58).
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Relationship between functional profile of HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells and epitope variability with the selection of escape mutants in acute HIV-1 infection.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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In the present study, we analyzed the functional profile of CD8+ T-cell responses directed against autologous transmitted/founder HIV-1 isolates during acute and early infection, and examined whether multifunctionality is required for selection of virus escape mutations. Seven anti-retroviral therapy-naïve subjects were studied in detail between 1 and 87 weeks following onset of symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection. Synthetic peptides representing the autologous transmitted/founder HIV-1 sequences were used in multiparameter flow cytometry assays to determine the functionality of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T memory cells. In all seven patients, the earliest T cell responses were predominantly oligofunctional, although the relative contribution of multifunctional cell responses increased significantly with time from infection. Interestingly, only the magnitude of the total and not of the poly-functional T-cell responses was significantly associated with the selection of escape mutants. However, the high contribution of MIP-1?-producing CD8+ T-cells to the total response suggests that mechanisms not limited to cytotoxicity could be exerting immune pressure during acute infection. Lastly, we show that epitope entropy, reflecting the capacity of the epitope to tolerate mutational change and defined as the diversity of epitope sequences at the population level, was also correlated with rate of emergence of escape mutants.
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Fluidity of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses during acute and early subtype C HIV-1 infection and associations with early disease progression.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Deciphering immune events during early stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is critical for understanding the course of disease. We characterized the hierarchy of HIV-1-specific T-cell gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses during acute subtype C infection in 53 individuals and associated temporal patterns of responses with disease progression in the first 12 months. There was a diverse pattern of T-cell recognition across the proteome, with the recognition of Nef being immunodominant as early as 3 weeks postinfection. Over the first 6 months, we found that there was a 23% chance of an increased response to Nef for every week postinfection (P = 0.0024), followed by a nonsignificant increase to Pol (4.6%) and Gag (3.2%). Responses to Env and regulatory proteins appeared to remain stable. Three temporal patterns of HIV-specific T-cell responses could be distinguished: persistent, lost, or new. The proportion of persistent T-cell responses was significantly lower (P = 0.0037) in individuals defined as rapid progressors than in those progressing slowly and who controlled viremia. Almost 90% of lost T-cell responses were coincidental with autologous viral epitope escape. Regression analysis between the time to fixed viral escape and lost T-cell responses (r = 0.61; P = 0.019) showed a mean delay of 14 weeks after viral escape. Collectively, T-cell epitope recognition is not a static event, and temporal patterns of IFN-?-based responses exist. This is due partly to viral sequence variation but also to the recognition of invariant viral epitopes that leads to waves of persistent T-cell immunity, which appears to associate with slower disease progression in the first year of infection.
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FOXP3 expression is upregulated in CD4T cells in progressive HIV-1 infection and is a marker of disease severity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Understanding the role of different classes of T cells during HIV infection is critical to determining which responses correlate with protective immunity. To date, it is unclear whether alterations in regulatory T cell (Treg) function are contributory to progression of HIV infection.
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A steady state of CD4+ T cell memory maturation and activation is established during primary subtype C HIV-1 infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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The functional integrity of CD4(+) T cells is crucial for well-orchestrated immunity and control of HIV-1 infection, but their selective depletion during infection creates a paradox for understanding a protective response. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to measure activation, memory maturation, and multiple functions of total and Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells in 14 HIV-1- and CMV- coinfected individuals at 3 and 12 mo post HIV-1 infection. Primary HIV-1 infection was characterized by elevated levels of CD38, HLA-DR, and Ki67 in total memory and Gag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In both HIV-infected and 15 uninfected controls, the frequency of activated cells was uniformly distributed among early differentiated (ED; CD45RO(+)CD27(+)), late differentiated (CD45RO(+)CD27(-)), and fully differentiated effector (CD45RO(-)CD27(-)) memory CD4(+) T cells. In HIV-1-infected individuals, activated CD4(+) T cells significantly correlated with viremia at 3 mo postinfection (r = 0.79, p = 0.0007) and also harbored more gag provirus DNA copies than nonactivated cells (p = 0.04). Moreover, Gag-specific ED CD4(+) T cells inversely associated with plasma viral load (r = -0.87, p < 0.0001). Overall, we show that low copy numbers of gag provirus and plasma RNA copies associated with low CD4 activation as well as accumulation of ED HIV-specific CD4(+) memory. Significant positive correlations between 3 and 12 mo activation and memory events highlighted that a steady state of CD4(+) T cell activation and memory maturation was established during primary infection and that these cells were unlikely to be involved in influencing the course of viremia in the first 12 mo of HIV-1 infection.
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A prime-boost immunisation regimen using recombinant BCG and Pr55(gag) virus-like particle vaccines based on HIV type 1 subtype C successfully elicits Gag-specific responses in baboons.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Mycobacterium bovis BCG is considered an attractive live bacterial vaccine vector. In this study, we investigated the immune response of baboons to a primary vaccination with recombinant BCG (rBCG) constructs expressing the gag gene from a South African HIV-1 subtype C isolate, and a boost with HIV-1 subtype C Pr55(gag) virus-like particles (Gag VLPs). Using an interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay, we show that although these rBCG induced only a weak or an undetectable HIV-1 Gag-specific response on their own, they efficiently primed for a Gag VLP boost, which strengthened and broadened the immune responses. These responses were predominantly CD8+ T cell-mediated and recognised similar epitopes as those targeted by humans with early HIV-1 subtype C infection. In addition, a Gag-specific humoral response was elicited. These data support the development of HIV-1 vaccines based on rBCG and Pr55(gag) VLPs.
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Association of HIV-specific and total CD8+ T memory phenotypes in subtype C HIV-1 infection with viral set point.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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Understanding early immunological events during HIV-1 infection that may set the course of disease progression is important for identifying correlates of viral control. This study explores the association of differentiation profiles of HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) T cells with viral set point. A cohort of 47 HIV-1-infected individuals, with differing viral set points at 12 mo, were recruited during acute infection. We identified that the magnitude of IFN-gamma(+) T cell responses at 6 mo postinfection did not associate with viral set point at 12 mo. A subset of 16 individuals was further studied to characterize CD8(+) T cells for expression patterns of markers for memory differentiation, survival (CD127), senescence (CD57), and negative regulation (programmed death-1). We show that viral control and the predicted tempo of HIV disease progression in the first year of infection was associated with a synchronous differentiation of HIV-specific and total CD8(+) memory subpopulations. At 6-9 mo postinfection, those with low viral set points had a significantly higher proportion of early differentiated HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) cells of a central memory (CD45RO(+)CD27(+)CCR7(+)) and intermediate memory (CD45RO(-)CD27(+)CCR7(-)) phenotype. Those with high viral set points possessed significantly larger frequencies of effector memory (CD45RO(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-)) cells. The proportions of memory subsets significantly correlated with CD38(+)CD8(+) T cells. Thus, it is likely that a high Ag burden resulting in generalized immune activation may drive differentiation of HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) T cells.
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Broad, high-magnitude and multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by a DNA and modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C genes in baboons.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Candidate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine regimens based on DNA boosted with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) have been in development for some time, and there is evidence for improved immunogenicity of newly developed constructs. This study describes immune responses to candidate DNA and MVA vaccines expressing multiple genes (gag, RT, tat, nef and env) from HIV-1 subtype C in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). The vaccine regimen induced (i) strong T-cell responses, with a median of 4103 spot forming units per 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT, (ii) broad T-cell responses targeting all five vaccine-expressed genes, with a median of 12 peptides targeted per animal and without any single protein dominating the response, (iii) balanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) responses, which produced both IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2, including IL-2-only responses not detected by the ELISPOT assay, (iv) vaccine memory, which persisted 1 year after immunization and could be boosted further, despite strong anti-vector responses, and (v) mucosal T-cell responses in iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes in two animals tested. The majority of peptide responses mapped contained epitopes previously identified in human HIV infection, and two high-avidity HIV epitope responses were confirmed, indicating the utility of the baboon model for immunogenicity testing. Together, our data show that a combination of DNA and MVA immunization induced robust, durable, multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) responses in baboons targeting multiple HIV epitopes that may home to mucosal sites. These candidate vaccines, which are immunogenic in this pre-clinical model, represent an alternative to adenoviral-based vaccines and have been approved for clinical trials.
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Human immunodeficiency virus-specific gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses targeting specific regions of the proteome during primary subtype C infection are poor predictors of the course of viremia and set point.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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It is unknown whether patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific T-cell responses during acute infection may influence the viral set point and the course of disease. We wished to establish whether the magnitude and breadth of HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses at 3 months postinfection were correlated with the viral-load set point at 12 months and hypothesized that the magnitude and breadth of HIV-specific T-cell responses during primary infection would predict the set point. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses across the complete proteome were measured in 47 subtype C HIV-1-infected participants at a median of 12 weeks postinfection. When corrected for amino acid length and individuals responding to each region, the order of recognition was as follows: Nef > Gag > Pol > Rev > Vpr > Env > Vpu > Vif > Tat. Nef responses were significantly (P < 0.05) dominant, targeted six epitopic regions, and were unrelated to the course of viremia. There was no significant difference in the magnitude and breadth of responses for each protein region with disease progression, although there was a trend of increased breadth (mean, four to seven pools) in rapid progressors. Correlation of the magnitude and breadth of IFN-gamma responses with the viral set point at 12 months revealed almost zero association for each protein region. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the magnitude and breadth of IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay responses at 3 months postinfection are unrelated to the course of disease in the first year of infection and are not associated with, and have low predictive power for, the viral set point at 12 months.
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Vertical T cell immunodominance and epitope entropy determine HIV-1 escape.
J. Clin. Invest.
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HIV-1 accumulates mutations in and around reactive epitopes to escape recognition and killing by CD8+ T cells. Measurements of HIV-1 time to escape should therefore provide information on which parameters are most important for T cell-mediated in vivo control of HIV-1. Primary HIV-1-specific T cell responses were fully mapped in 17 individuals, and the time to virus escape, which ranged from days to years, was measured for each epitope. While higher magnitude of an individual T cell response was associated with more rapid escape, the most significant T cell measure was its relative immunodominance measured in acute infection. This identified subject-level or "vertical" immunodominance as the primary determinant of in vivo CD8+ T cell pressure in HIV-1 infection. Conversely, escape was slowed significantly by lower population variability, or entropy, of the epitope targeted. Immunodominance and epitope entropy combined to explain half of all the variability in time to escape. These data explain how CD8+ T cells can exert significant and sustained HIV-1 pressure even when escape is very slow and that within an individual, the impacts of other T cell factors on HIV-1 escape should be considered in the context of immunodominance.
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Intersubtype differences in the effect of a rare p24 gag mutation on HIV-1 replicative fitness.
J. Virol.
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Certain immune-driven mutations in HIV-1, such as those arising in p24(Gag), decrease viral replicative capacity. However, the intersubtype differences in the replicative consequences of such mutations have not been explored. In HIV-1 subtype B, the p24(Gag) M250I mutation is a rare variant (0.6%) that is enriched among elite controllers (7.2%) (P = 0.0005) and appears to be a rare escape variant selected by HLA-B58 supertype alleles (P < 0.01). In contrast, in subtype C, it is a relatively common minor polymorphic variant (10 to 15%) whose appearance is not associated with a particular HLA allele. Using site-directed mutant viruses, we demonstrate that M250I reduces in vitro viral replicative capacity in both subtype B and subtype C sequences. However, whereas in subtype C downstream compensatory mutations at p24(Gag) codons 252 and 260 reduce the adverse effects of M250I, fitness costs in subtype B appear difficult to restore. Indeed, patient-derived subtype B sequences harboring M250I exhibited in vitro replicative defects, while those from subtype C did not. The structural implications of M250I were predicted by protein modeling to be greater in subtype B versus C, providing a potential explanation for its lower frequency and enhanced replicative defects in subtype B. In addition to accounting for genetic differences between HIV-1 subtypes, the design of cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-based vaccines may need to account for differential effects of host-driven viral evolution on viral fitness.
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Increased memory differentiation is associated with decreased polyfunctionality for HIV but not for cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T cells.
J. Immunol.
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The generation of polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells, in response to vaccination or natural infection, has been associated with improved protective immunity. However, it is unclear whether the maintenance of polyfunctionality is related to particular cellular phenotypic characteristics. To determine whether the cytokine expression profile is linked to the memory differentiation stage, we analyzed the degree of polyfunctionality of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells within different memory subpopulations in 20 antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1-infected individuals at ?34 wk postinfection. These profiles were compared with CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in HIV-uninfected control subjects and in individuals chronically infected with HIV. Our results showed that the polyfunctional abilities of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells differed according to their memory phenotype. Early-differentiated cells (CD45RO(+)CD27(+)) exhibited a higher proportion of cells positive for three or four functions (p < 0.001), and a lower proportion of monofunctional cells (p < 0.001) compared with terminally differentiated (TD; CD45RO(-)CD27(-)) HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. The majority of TD HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were monofunctional (median 69% [interquartile range: 57-83]), producing predominantly CD107a or MIP1?. Moreover, proportions of HIV-specific monofunctional CD8(+) T cells positively associated with proportions of TD HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells (p = 0.019, r = 0.54). In contrast, CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell polyfunctional capacities were similar across all memory subpopulations, with terminally and early-differentiated cells endowed with comparable polyfunctionality. Overall, these data show that the polyfunctional abilities of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells are influenced by the stage of memory differentiation, which is not the case for CMV-specific responses.
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Effect of standard tuberculosis treatment on plasma cytokine levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
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Sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) culture is commonly used to assess response to antibiotic treatment in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Such techniques are constrained by the slow growth rate of Mtb, and more sensitive methods to monitor Mtb clearance are needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in plasma cytokines in patients undergoing treatment for TB as a means of identifying candidate host markers associated with microbiologic response to therapy.
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Distinct kinetics of Gag-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during acute HIV-1 infection.
J. Immunol.
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HIV infection is characterized by a gradual deterioration of immune function, mainly in the CD4 compartment. To better understand the dynamics of HIV-specific T cells, we analyzed the kinetics and polyfunctional profiles of Gag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in 12 subtype C-infected individuals with different disease-progression profiles, ranging from acute to chronic HIV infection. The frequencies of Gag-responsive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells showed distinct temporal kinetics. The peak frequency of Gag-responsive IFN-?(+)CD4(+) T cells was observed at a median of 28 d (interquartile range: 21-81 d) post-Fiebig I/II staging, whereas Gag-specific IFN-?(+)CD8(+) T cell responses peaked at a median of 253 d (interquartile range: 136-401 d) and showed a significant biphasic expansion. The proportion of TNF-?-expressing cells within the IFN-?(+)CD4(+) T cell population increased (p = 0.001) over time, whereas TNF-?-expressing cells within IFN-?(+)CD8(+) T cells declined (p = 0.005). Both Gag-responsive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells showed decreased Ki67 expression within the first 120 d post-Fiebig I/II staging. Prior to the disappearance of Gag-responsive Ki67(+)CD4(+) T cells, these cells positively correlated (p = 0.00038) with viremia, indicating that early Gag-responsive CD4 events are shaped by viral burden. No such associations were observed in the Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell compartment. Overall, these observations indicated that circulating Gag-responsive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell frequencies and functions are not synchronous, and properties change rapidly at different tempos during early HIV infection.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.