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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genomic analysis of bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes reveals phenotypic and diagnostic complexity.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Accurate and timely diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure and inherited myelodysplastic syndromes is essential to guide clinical management. Distinguishing inherited from acquired bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome poses a significant clinical challenge. At present, diagnostic genetic testing for inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome is performed gene-by-gene, guided by clinical and laboratory evaluation. We hypothesized that standard clinically-directed genetic testing misses patients with cryptic or atypical presentations of inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to screen simultaneously for mutations of all classes in bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome genes, we developed and validated a panel of 85 genes for targeted capture and multiplexed massively-parallel sequencing. In patients with clinical diagnoses of Fanconi anemia, genomic analysis resolved subtype assignment, including those of patients with inconclusive complementation test results. Eight out of 71 patients with idiopathic bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome were found to harbor damaging germline mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, DKC1, or LIG4. All eight of these patients lacked classical clinical stigmata or laboratory findings of these syndromes and only four had a family history suggestive of inherited disease. These results reflect the extensive genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic complexity of bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome phenotypes. This study supports the integration of broad unbiased genetic screening into the diagnostic workup of children and young adults with bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes.
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Participant and caregiver experience of the Nintendo Wii SportsTM after stroke: qualitative study of the trial of WiiTM in stroke (TWIST).
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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To understand stroke survivors and their caregivers' experience and acceptability of using the Nintendo Wii Sports(TM) games (Wii(TM)) as a home-based arm rehabilitation tool.
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Microsatellite instability detection by next generation sequencing.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a useful phenotype in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Nevertheless, methods to detect MSI status from next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) data are underdeveloped.
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Design and Analysis for Studying microRNAs in Human Disease: A Primer on -Omic Technologies.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are fundamental to cellular biology. Although only approximately 22 bases long, miRNAs regulate complex processes in health and disease, including human cancer. Because miRNAs are highly stable in circulation when compared with several other classes of nucleic acids, they have generated intense interest as clinical biomarkers in diverse epidemiologic studies. As with other molecular biomarker fields, however, miRNA research has become beleaguered by pitfalls related to terminology and classification; procedural, assay, and study cohort heterogeneity; and methodological inconsistencies. Together, these issues have led to both false-positive and potentially false-negative miRNA associations. In this review, we summarize the biological rationale for studying miRNAs in human disease with a specific focus on circulating miRNAs, which highlight some of the most challenging topics in the field to date. Examples from lung cancer are used to illustrate the potential utility and some of the pitfalls in contemporary miRNA research. Although the field is in its infancy, several important lessons have been learned relating to cohort development, sample preparation, and statistical analysis that should be considered for future studies. The goal of this primer is to equip epidemiologists and clinical researchers with sound principles of study design and analysis when using miRNAs.
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Colon and Endometrial Cancers with Mismatch Repair Deficiency can Arise from Somatic, Rather Than Germline, Mutations.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Patients with Lynch syndrome carry germline mutations in single alleles of genes encoding the MMR proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2; when the second allele becomes mutated, cancer can develop. Increased screening for Lynch syndrome has identified patients with tumors that have deficiency in MMR, but no germline mutations in genes encoding MMR proteins. We investigated whether tumors with deficient MMR had acquired somatic mutations in patients without germline mutations in MMR genes using next-generation sequencing.
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An analysis of National Health Service Trust websites on the occupational backgrounds of 'Non-Executive Directors' on England's Acute Trusts.
JRSM Open
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To explore the occupational backgrounds of English Non-Executive Directors (NED) on Acute National Health Service (NHS) Trusts.
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Improved pregnancy and birth rates with routine application of nonsurgical embryo transfer.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Nonsurgical embryo transfer (NSET) of blastocysts to pseudopregnant female recipients provides many benefits over surgical implantation with less distress for the mice, no anesthesia or analgesia required and a considerable reduction in implantation time per mouse. Although a disposable device to perform NSET is on the market since 2009, it is not generally used in transgenic facilities, most likely because surgical implantation is efficient and inexpensive. Here, we report that with several refinements to the original protocol, the NSET method becomes very attractive and outperforms the traditional surgical transfer on basis of pregnancy rate, birth rate and implantation-related discomfort. Furthermore, repeated use of the same NSET device on several recipient females reduces the costs to a reasonable level. The data presented covers all embryo transfers over the last 5 years at the transgenic facility of the Netherlands Cancer Institute, of which the last 2 years were performed exclusively with NSET.
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Complex MSH2 and MSH6 mutations in hypermutated microsatellite unstable advanced prostate cancer.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A hypermutated subtype of advanced prostate cancer was recently described, but prevalence and mechanisms have not been well-characterized. Here we find that 12% (7 of 60) of advanced prostate cancers are hypermutated, and that all hypermutated cancers have mismatch repair gene mutations and microsatellite instability (MSI). Mutations are frequently complex MSH2 or MSH6 structural rearrangements rather than MLH1 epigenetic silencing. Our findings identify parallels and differences in the mechanisms of hypermutation in prostate cancer compared with other MSI-associated cancers.
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Molecular profiling of soft tissue sarcomas using next-generation sequencing: a pilot study toward precision therapeutics.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can provide in-depth detection of numerous gene alterations. To date, there are very few reports describing the use of this technique in soft tissue sarcomas. Herein, we aim to test the utility of NGS in identifying targetable mutations in these tumors. NGS was performed using a clinically validated multiplexed gene sequencing panel interrogating the full coding sequence of 194 cancer-related genes. A custom bioinformatics pipeline was developed to detect all classes of mutations directly from the NGS data, including single-nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, copy number variation, and complex structural variations. Twenty-five soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed; 18 of these patients had metastatic disease and 7 primary locally advanced tumors. Targetable mutations for which clinical trials are available were identified in 60% of the cases. MAP2K4, AURKA, AURKB, and c-MYC amplification were recurrent events in leiomyosarcomas. Frequent non-targetable variants included copy losses of the TP53 (24%), PTEN (16%), and CDKN2A (20%). Additional frameshift mutations, deletion mutations, and single-nucleotide variants involving numerous genes, including RB1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, PDGFRB, EPHA5, KDM6A, NF1, and FLT4 genes, were also identified. NGS is useful in identifying targetable mutations in soft tissue sarcomas that can serve as a rationale for inclusion of patients with advanced disease in ongoing clinical trials and allow for better risk stratification.
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Detection of gene rearrangements in targeted clinical next-generation sequencing.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The identification of recurrent gene rearrangements in the clinical laboratory is the cornerstone for risk stratification and treatment decisions in many malignant tumors. Studies have reported that targeted next-generation sequencing assays have the potential to identify such rearrangements; however, their utility in the clinical laboratory is unknown. We examine the sensitivity and specificity of ALK and KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement detection by next-generation sequencing in the clinical laboratory. We analyzed a series of seven ALK rearranged cancers, six KMT2A rearranged leukemias, and 77 ALK/KMT2A rearrangement-negative cancers, previously tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Rearrangement detection was tested using publicly available software tools, including Breakdancer, ClusterFAST, CREST, and Hydra. Using Breakdancer and ClusterFAST, we detected ALK rearrangements in seven of seven FISH-positive cases and KMT2A rearrangements in six of six FISH-positive cases. Among the 77 ALK/KMT2A FISH-negative cases, no false-positive identifications were made by Breakdancer or ClusterFAST. Further, we identified one ALK rearranged case with a noncanonical intron 16 breakpoint, which is likely to affect its response to targeted inhibitors. We report that clinically relevant chromosomal rearrangements can be detected from targeted gene panel-based next-generation sequencing with sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of FISH while providing finer-scale information and increased efficiency for molecular oncology testing.
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Deep sequencing with intronic capture enables identification of an APC exon 10 inversion in a patient with polyposis.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Single-exon inversions have rarely been described in clinical syndromes and are challenging to detect using Sanger sequencing. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with adenomatous colon polyps too numerous to count and who had a complex inversion spanning the entire exon 10 in APC (the gene encoding for adenomatous polyposis coli), causing exon skipping and resulting in a frameshift and premature protein truncation.
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Rapid target gene validation in complex cancer mouse models using re-derived embryonic stem cells.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Human cancers modeled in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models (GEMMs) can provide important mechanistic insights into the molecular basis of tumor development and enable testing of new intervention strategies. The inherent complexity of these models, with often multiple modified tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, has hampered their use as preclinical models for validating cancer genes and drug targets. In our newly developed approach for the fast generation of tumor cohorts we have overcome this obstacle, as exemplified for three GEMMs; two lung cancer models and one mesothelioma model. Three elements are central for this system; (i) The efficient derivation of authentic Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) from established GEMMs, (ii) the routine introduction of transgenes of choice in these GEMM-ESCs by Flp recombinase-mediated integration and (iii) the direct use of the chimeric animals in tumor cohorts. By applying stringent quality controls, the GEMM-ESC approach proofs to be a reliable and effective method to speed up cancer gene assessment and target validation. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that MycL1 is a key driver gene in Small Cell Lung Cancer.
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Does the use of Nintendo Wii Sports™ improve arm function and is it acceptable to patients after stroke? Publication of the Protocol of the Trial of Wii™ in Stroke - TWIST.
Int J Gen Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many stroke patients experience loss of arm function requiring rehabilitation, which is expensive, repetitive, and does not always translate into "real life." Nintendo Wii Sports™ (Wii™) may offer task-specific training that is repetitive and motivating. The Trial of Wii™ in Stroke (TWIST) is designed to investigate feasibility, efficacy, and acceptability using Wii™ to improve affected arm function for patients after stroke.
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Germline and Somatic Mutations in Homologous Recombination Genes Predict Platinum Response and Survival in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Carcinomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes is uncertain.
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Molecular Alterations and Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.
Toxicol Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer (CRC) are leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing CRCs for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor. In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CRC and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers).
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Actionable, pathogenic incidental findings in 1,000 participants exomes.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The incorporation of genomics into medicine is stimulating interest on the return of incidental findings (IFs) from exome and genome sequencing. However, no large-scale study has yet estimated the number of expected actionable findings per individual; therefore, we classified actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 500 European- and 500 African-descent participants randomly selected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. The 1,000 individuals were screened for variants in 114 genes selected by an expert panel for their association with medically actionable genetic conditions possibly undiagnosed in adults. Among the 1,000 participants, 585 instances of 239 unique variants were identified as disease causing in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The primary literature supporting the variants pathogenicity was reviewed. Of the identified IFs, only 16 unique autosomal-dominant variants in 17 individuals were assessed to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and one participant had two pathogenic variants for an autosomal-recessive disease. Furthermore, one pathogenic and four likely pathogenic variants not listed as disease causing in HGMD were identified. These data can provide an estimate of the frequency (?3.4% for European descent and ?1.2% for African descent) of the high-penetrance actionable pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in adults. The 23 participants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were disproportionately of European (17) versus African (6) descent. The process of classifying these variants underscores the need for a more comprehensive and diverse centralized resource to provide curated information on pathogenicity for clinical use to minimize health disparities in genomic medicine.
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Validation and implementation of targeted capture and sequencing for the detection of actionable mutation, copy number variation, and gene rearrangement in clinical cancer specimens.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Recent years have seen development and implementation of anticancer therapies targeted to particular gene mutations, but methods to assay clinical cancer specimens in a comprehensive way for the critical mutations remain underdeveloped. We have developed UW-OncoPlex, a clinical molecular diagnostic assay to provide simultaneous deep-sequencing information, based on >500× average coverage, for all classes of mutations in 194 clinically relevant genes. To validate UW-OncoPlex, we tested 98 previously characterized clinical tumor specimens from 10 different cancer types, including 41 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Mixing studies indicated reliable mutation detection in samples with ?10% tumor cells. In clinical samples with ?10% tumor cells, UW-OncoPlex correctly identified 129 of 130 known mutations [sensitivity 99.2%, (95% CI, 95.8%-99.9%)], including single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, internal tandem duplications, gene copy number gains and amplifications, gene copy losses, chromosomal gains and losses, and actionable genomic rearrangements, including ALK-EML4, ROS1, PML-RARA, and BCR-ABL. In the same samples, the assay also identified actionable point mutations in genes not previously analyzed and novel gene rearrangements of MLL and GRIK4 in melanoma, and of ASXL1, PIK3R1, and SGCZ in acute myeloid leukemia. To best guide existing and emerging treatment regimens and facilitate integration of genomic testing with patient care, we developed a framework for data analysis, decision support, and reporting clinically actionable results.
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A mosaic PTEN mutation causing Cowden syndrome identified by deep sequencing.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Purpose:Mosaic PTEN mutations are not well described in Cowden syndrome. We report a 40-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome including Lhermitte-Duclos disease, who had a mosaic PTEN mutation detected by next-generation deep sequencing.Methods:Complete PTEN gene sequencing by the Sanger method and deletion/duplication analysis performed on DNA extracted from blood leukocytes at a commercial clinical laboratory did not identify a mutation. Because of high suspicion of a PTEN mutation, we repeated testing by next-generation sequencing using the ColoSeq assay, which sequences the entire PTEN locus at >320-fold average coverage.Results:ColoSeq identified a frameshift PTEN mutation (c.767_768delAG) in 1.7% of sequencing reads from peripheral blood leukocytes (21/1,184 reads), which is below the limit of detection of most Sanger sequencing methods. The mutation was detected at full heterozygous levels in skin fibroblasts and a cerebellar tumor, and at approximately the 25% level in colonic and endocervical mucosa, confirming somatic mosaicism.Conclusion:Our report highlights the power of deep next-generation sequencing to identify mosaic mutations that can be missed by traditional less sensitive approaches. We speculate that mosaic PTEN mutations are more common in Cowden syndrome than previously described.Genet Med 15 12, 1004-1007.Genetics in Medicine (2013); 15 12, 1004-1007. doi:10.1038/gim.2013.51.
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Single molecule molecular inversion probes for targeted, high-accuracy detection of low-frequency variation.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The detection and quantification of genetic heterogeneity in populations of cells is fundamentally important to diverse fields, ranging from microbial evolution to human cancer genetics. However, despite the cost and throughput advances associated with massively parallel sequencing, it remains challenging to reliably detect mutations that are present at a low relative abundance in a given DNA sample. Here we describe smMIP, an assay that combines single molecule tagging with multiplex targeted capture to enable practical and highly sensitive detection of low-frequency or subclonal variation. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simultaneously resequenced 33 clinically informative cancer genes in eight cell line and 45 clinical cancer samples. Single molecule tagging facilitated extremely accurate consensus calling, with an estimated per-base error rate of 8.4 × 10(-6) in cell lines and 2.6 × 10(-5) in clinical specimens. False-positive mutations in the single molecule consensus base-calls exhibited patterns predominantly consistent with DNA damage, including 8-oxo-guanine and spontaneous deamination of cytosine. Based on mixing experiments with cell line samples, sensitivity for mutations above 1% frequency was 83% with no false positives. At clinically informative sites, we identified seven low-frequency point mutations (0.2%-4.7%), including BRAF p.V600E (melanoma, 0.2% alternate allele frequency), KRAS p.G12V (lung, 0.6%), JAK2 p.V617F (melanoma, colon, two lung, 0.3%-1.4%), and NRAS p.Q61R (colon, 4.7%). We anticipate that smMIP will be broadly adoptable as a practical and effective method for accurately detecting low-frequency mutations in both research and clinical settings.
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Plasma processing conditions substantially influence circulating microRNA biomarker levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Circulating, cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising candidate biomarkers, but optimal conditions for processing blood specimens for miRNA measurement remain to be established. Our previous work showed that the majority of plasma miRNAs are likely blood cell-derived. In the course of profiling lung cancer cases versus healthy controls, we observed a broad increase in circulating miRNA levels in cases compared to controls and that higher miRNA expression correlated with higher platelet and particle counts. We therefore hypothesized that the quantity of residual platelets and microparticles remaining after plasma processing might impact miRNA measurements. To systematically investigate this, we subjected matched plasma from healthy individuals to stepwise processing with differential centrifugation and 0.22 µm filtration and performed miRNA profiling. We found a major effect on circulating miRNAs, with the majority (72%) of detectable miRNAs substantially affected by processing alone. Specifically, 10% of miRNAs showed 4-30x variation, 46% showed 30-1,000x variation, and 15% showed >1,000x variation in expression solely from processing. This was predominantly due to platelet contamination, which persisted despite using standard laboratory protocols. Importantly, we show that platelet contamination in archived samples could largely be eliminated by additional centrifugation, even in frozen samples stored for six years. To minimize confounding effects in microRNA biomarker studies, additional steps to limit platelet contamination for circulating miRNA biomarker studies are necessary. We provide specific practical recommendations to help minimize confounding variation attributable to plasma processing and platelet contamination.
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PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES); a protocol for two open-label randomised trials of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus routine care in the emergency department.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Pain is the commonest reason that patients present to an emergency department (ED), but it is often not treated effectively. Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is used in other hospital settings but there is little evidence to support its use in emergency patients. We describe two randomised trials aiming to compare PCA to nurse titrated analgesia (routine care) in adult patients who present to the ED requiring intravenous opioid analgesia for the treatment of moderate to severe pain and are subsequently admitted to hospital.
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Modified attitudes to psychiatry scale created using principal-components analysis.
Acad Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire.
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Poverty and child (0-14 years) mortality in the USA and other Western countries as an indicator of "how well a country meets the needs of its children" (UNICEF).
Int J Adolesc Med Health
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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Childrens (0-14 years) mortality rates in the USA and 19 Western countries (WCs) were examined in the context of a nation-specific measure of relative poverty and the Gross Domestic Product Health Expenditure (GDPHE) of countries to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems "to meet the needs of its children" (UNICEF).
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Blood cell origin of circulating microRNAs: a cautionary note for cancer biomarker studies.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Circulating, cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as a new class of cancer biomarkers due to their surprisingly high stability in plasma, association with disease states, and ease of sensitive measurement. Yet little is known about the origin of circulating miRNAs in either healthy or sick people or what factors influence levels of circulating miRNA biomarkers. Of 79 solid tumor circulating miRNA biomarkers reported in the literature, we found that 58% (46 of 79) are highly expressed in one or more blood cell type. Plasma levels of miRNA biomarkers expressed by myeloid (e.g., miR-223, miR-197, miR-574-3p, and let-7a) and lymphoid (e.g., miR-150) blood cells tightly correlated with corresponding white blood cell counts. Plasma miRNA biomarkers expressed by red blood cells (e.g., miR-486-5p, miR-451, miR-92a, and miR-16) could not be correlated to red cell counts due to limited variation in hematocrit in the cohort studied but were significantly increased in hemolyzed specimens (20- to 30-fold plasma increase; P < 0.0000001). Finally, in a patient undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, plasma levels of myeloid- and lymphoid-expressed miRNAs (miR-223 and miR-150, respectively) tracked closely with changes in corresponding blood counts. We present evidence that blood cells are a major contributor to circulating miRNA and that perturbations in blood cell counts and hemolysis can alter plasma miRNA biomarker levels by up to 50-fold. Given that a majority of reported circulating miRNA cancer biomarkers are highly expressed in blood cells, we suggest caution in interpretation of such results as they may reflect a blood cell-based phenomenon rather than a cancer-specific origin.
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Comparing the USA, UK and 17 Western countries efficiency and effectiveness in reducing mortality.
JRSM Short Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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To test the hypothesis that the USA healthcare system was superior to the NHS and 17 other Western countries in reducing feasible mortality rates over the period 1979-2005.
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Re-evaluating the National Subarachnoid Haemorrhage study (2006) from a Patient-Related-Outcome-Measure perspective: comparing fiscal outcomes of Treatment-as-Usual with an enhanced service.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is neurological catastrophe, creating major disruption for patient and family, hence the importance of considering Patient-Related-Outcome-Measures (PROM). This study uses the National Study of SAH (2006) to explore any fiscal benefits to patients and NHS if they had an enhanced Neuro-Vascular-Specialist-Nurse (NVSN) service compared to Treatment-as-Usual (TAU).
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Argonaute2 complexes carry a population of circulating microRNAs independent of vesicles in human plasma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the bloodstream in a highly stable, extracellular form and are being developed as blood-based biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, the mechanism underlying their remarkable stability in the RNase-rich environment of blood is not well understood. The current model in the literature posits that circulating miRNAs are protected by encapsulation in membrane-bound vesicles such as exosomes, but this has not been systematically studied. We used differential centrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography as orthogonal approaches to characterize circulating miRNA complexes in human plasma and serum. We found, surprisingly, that the majority of circulating miRNAs cofractionated with protein complexes rather than with vesicles. miRNAs were also sensitive to protease treatment of plasma, indicating that protein complexes protect circulating miRNAs from plasma RNases. Further characterization revealed that Argonaute2 (Ago2), the key effector protein of miRNA-mediated silencing, was present in human plasma and eluted with plasma miRNAs in size-exclusion chromatography. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation of Ago2 from plasma readily recovered non-vesicle-associated plasma miRNAs. The majority of miRNAs studied copurified with the Ago2 ribonucleoprotein complex, but a minority of specific miRNAs associated predominantly with vesicles. Our results reveal two populations of circulating miRNAs and suggest that circulating Ago2 complexes are a mechanism responsible for the stability of plasma miRNAs. Our study has important implications for the development of biomarker approaches based on capture and analysis of circulating miRNAs. In addition, identification of extracellular Ago2-miRNA complexes in plasma raises the possibility that cells release a functional miRNA-induced silencing complex into the circulation.
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IRIZIO: a novel gene cooperating with PAX3-FOXO1 in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children with an annual incidence of five new cases per million. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is characterized by the t(2;13) or t(1;13) chromosomal translocations, which generate the PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusion genes, respectively. The oncogenic activity of PAX3-FOXO1 has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, yet expression of the fusion protein alone in primary myoblasts or a mouse model is insufficient for tumorigenic transformation. To identify genes cooperating with PAX3-FOXO1 in ARMS tumorigenesis, we generated a retroviral complementary DNA (cDNA) expression library from the Rh30 ARMS cell line. Arf-/- myoblasts expressing PAX3-FOXO1 and the retroviral cDNA library rapidly formed tumors after subcutaneous injection into NOD-SCID mice. Tumors formed by Arf-/-/PAX3-FOXO1/MarX-library myoblasts contained an unknown cDNA, encoding the C-terminus of the Homo sapiens hypothetical protein, FLJ10404, herein named IRIZIO. Expression of full length IRIZIO cDNA also cooperated with PAX3-FOXO1 in the transformation of Arf-/- myoblasts. Given that IRIZIO is expressed at increased levels in RMS, it might contribute to rhabdomyosarcomagenesis in humans.
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Colorectal cancer molecular biology moves into clinical practice.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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The promise of personalised medicine is now a clinical reality, with colorectal cancer genetics at the forefront of this next major advance in clinical medicine. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing of colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor. In this review, genetic mechanisms of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers) and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers) are examined.
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COLD-PCR enhanced melting curve analysis improves diagnostic accuracy for KRAS mutations in colorectal carcinoma.
BMC Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2010
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KRAS mutational analysis is the standard of care prior to initiation of treatments targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Sensitive methods are required to reliably detect KRAS mutations in tumor samples due to admixture with non-mutated cells. Many laboratories have implemented sensitive tests for KRAS mutations, but the methods often require expensive instrumentation and reagents, parallel reactions, multiple steps, or opening PCR tubes.
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Predicting the unpredictable? Identifying high-risk versus low-risk parents with intellectual disabilities.
Child Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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This study set out to identify risk factors affecting parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) by determining: (i) whether perception of family support differs between parents with IDs, referring professionals, and a specialist parenting service; (ii) whether multivariate familial and demographic factors differentiates high-risk from low-risk parenting; and (iii) the impact of partner relationships on parental competency and risk status.
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Insertional mutagenesis in mice deficient for p15Ink4b, p16Ink4a, p21Cip1, and p27Kip1 reveals cancer gene interactions and correlations with tumor phenotypes.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15, p16, p21, and p27 are frequently deleted, silenced, or downregulated in many malignancies. Inactivation of CDK inhibitors predisposes mice to tumor development, showing that these genes function as tumor suppressors. Here, we describe high-throughput murine leukemia virus insertional mutagenesis screens in mice that are deficient for one or two CDK inhibitors. We retrieved 9,117 retroviral insertions from 476 lymphomas to define hundreds of loci that are mutated more frequently than expected by chance. Many of these loci are skewed toward a specific genetic context of predisposing germline and somatic mutations. We also found associations between these loci with gender, age of tumor onset, and lymphocyte lineage (B or T cell). Comparison of retroviral insertion sites with single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed a significant overlap between the datasets. Together, our findings highlight the importance of genetic context within large-scale mutation detection studies, and they show a novel use for insertional mutagenesis data in prioritizing disease-associated genes that emerge from genome-wide association studies.
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Communicating the results of research: how do participants of a cardiac rehabilitation RCT prefer to be informed?
Health Expect
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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To determine the preferred means by which participants in a study of cardiac rehabilitation wish to be informed of the studys results.
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Management of minor upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the community using the Glasgow Blatchford Score.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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The Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) is a validated risk assessment tool in primary upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, which accurately predicts the need for intervention (endoscopic therapy, blood transfusion or surgery) or death.
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What stops us from healing the healers: a survey of help-seeking behaviour, stigmatisation and depression within the medical profession.
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Doctors are poor at help-seeking, particularly for mental ill health; attitudes of colleagues reflecting stigmatisation may be important factors influencing decisions to seek support.
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Conserved gene expression programs integrate mammalian prostate development and tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Studies centered at the intersection of embryogenesis and carcinogenesis have identified striking parallels involving signaling pathways that modulate both developmental and neoplastic processes. In the prostate, reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma are known to influence neoplasia and also exert morphogenic effects via the urogenital sinus mesenchyme. In this study, we sought to determine molecular relationships between aspects of normal prostate development and prostate carcinogenesis. We first characterized the gene expression program associated with key points of murine prostate organogenesis spanning the initial in utero induction of prostate budding through maturity. We identified a highly reproducible temporal program of gene expression that partitioned according to the broad developmental stages of prostate induction, branching morphogenesis, and secretory differentiation. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of murine prostate cancers arising in the context of genetically engineered alterations in the Pten tumor suppressor and Myc oncogene identified significant associations between the profile of branching morphogenesis and both cancer models. Further, the expression of genes comprising the branching morphogenesis program, such as PRDX4, SLC43A1, and DNMT3A, was significantly altered in human neoplastic prostate epithelium. These results indicate that components of normal developmental processes are active in prostate neoplasia and provide further rationale for exploiting molecular features of organogenesis to understand cancer phenotypes.
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ColoSeq provides comprehensive lynch and polyposis syndrome mutational analysis using massively parallel sequencing.
J Mol Diagn
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Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) and adenomatous polyposis syndromes frequently have overlapping clinical features. Current approaches for molecular genetic testing are often stepwise, taking a best-candidate gene approach with testing of additional genes if initial results are negative. We report a comprehensive assay called ColoSeq that detects all classes of mutations in Lynch and polyposis syndrome genes using targeted capture and massively parallel next-generation sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 instrument. In blinded specimens and colon cancer cell lines with defined mutations, ColoSeq correctly identified 28/28 (100%) pathogenic mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM, APC, and MUTYH, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions, and large copy number variants. There was 100% reproducibility of detection mutation between independent runs. The assay correctly identified 222 of 224 heterozygous SNVs (99.4%) in HapMap samples, demonstrating high sensitivity of calling all variants across each captured gene. Average coverage was greater than 320 reads per base pair when the maximum of 96 index samples with barcodes were pooled. In a specificity study of 19 control patients without cancer from different ethnic backgrounds, we did not find any pathogenic mutations but detected two variants of uncertain significance. ColoSeq offers a powerful, cost-effective means of genetic testing for Lynch and polyposis syndromes that eliminates the need for stepwise testing and multiple follow-up clinical visits.
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MicroRNA profiling: approaches and considerations.
Nat. Rev. Genet.
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms in both normal physiological contexts and in disease contexts. miRNA expression profiling is gaining popularity because miRNAs, as key regulators in gene expression networks, can influence many biological processes and also show promise as biomarkers for disease. Technological advances have spawned a multitude of platforms for miRNA profiling, and an understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches can aid in their effective use. Here, we review the major considerations for carrying out and interpreting results of miRNA-profiling studies.
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Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bmi1 modulates its oncogenic potential, E3 ligase activity, and DNA damage repair activity in mouse prostate cancer.
J. Clin. Invest.
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency. In addition, Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway were coactivated in a substantial fraction of human high-grade tumors. We found that Akt mediated Bmi1 phosphorylation, enhancing its oncogenic potential in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. This process also modulated the DNA damage response and affected genomic stability. Together, our findings demonstrate the etiological role of Bmi1 in PCa, unravel an oncogenic collaboration between Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and provide mechanistic insights into the modulation of Bmi1 function by phosphorylation during prostate carcinogenesis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.