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[Reponses of soil total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon to simulated nitrogen deposition in temperate typical steppe in Inner Mongolia, China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Based on a field manipulative nitrogen (N) addition experiment, the effects of atmospheric N deposition level change on the contents, inter-annual variation and profile distribution of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were investigated from May, 2008 to October, 2011 in a temperate typical steppe in Inner Mongolia of China, and the relationship between TOC and DOC was also discussed. The treatments in the manipulative experiment included N additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g x (m2 x a)(-1), representing the control (CK), low N (LN), medium N (MN), and high N (HN) treatment, respectively. The results indicated that the concentrations of soil TOC and DOC decreased progressively with soil depth in all cases except for the DOC at 10-20 cm depth in individual years. The increase of N input in typical steppe did not change the vertical distribution of soil TOC and DOC, but reduced the vertical variation of TOC and increased the vertical variation of DOC in the surface soil horizon. In addition, the contents of soil TOC and DOC at 0- 10 cm and 10- 20 cm soil layers changed insignificantly after the continuous increase in anthropogenic N input for four years. The soil organic C density of 0-20 cm soil layer for different N treatment levels varied between 3.9 kg x m(-2) and 5.6 kg x m(-2), and the soil organic C densities of fertilized treatments in the first two years were similar to or slightly lower than those of CK, while in the following two years, the increase in N deposition gradually played a positive role in increasing soil organic C density, but the differences in soil TOC and DOC contents between CK and fertilized plots were not significant (P > 0.05). The ratio of soil DOC to TOC (DOC/TOC) varied from 0.32% to 1.09%. The increase in N deposition generally lowered the proportion of DOC in soil TOC, which was conducive to the accumulation of soil organic C. The change of soil DOC was positively correlated with that of TOC (P < 0.01). The temporal variations of soil DOC in different N treatments were all far greater than those of TOC, and the soil DOC was the important sensitive indicator for predicting and evaluating the response of soil C pool to the change in atmospheric N deposition in the temperate grassland ecosystem.
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Antiproliferative withanolides from several solanaceous species.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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To date, our work on solanaceous species (Datura wrightii, Jaborosa caulescens, Physalis hispida, Physalis longifolia, Vassobia breviflora and Withania somnifera) has resulted in the isolation of 65 withanolides, 31 of which were new, as well as the semi-synthesis of a further 30 withanolides. Structure identification and MTS assay-based antiproliferative evaluation of these 95 compounds revealed that a ?(2)-1-oxo functionality in ring A, in conjunction with either a 5?,6?-epoxy or 5?-chloro-6?-hydroxy moiety in ring B, is the minimum structural requirement for withanolides to produce potent cytotoxic activity. Such structure-activity relationship analysis also revealed that oxygenation (the -OH or -OR groups) at C-4, 7, 11 and 12, as well as C-14 to C-28, did not contribute towards the observed antiproliferative activity. Herein, we present a complete overview of our work as it relates to the withanolides reported from 1965 to 2013.
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Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses vasculogenic mimicry and proliferation of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer PaTu8988 cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a extremely low 5-year survival rate. Hence, the search for more effective anti-pancreatic cancer agents is urgent.
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Combined use of infrared and Raman spectra in the characterization of orthoclase under various hydrostatic pressures.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Colorless and pink orthoclase from Balikun granite body, East Zhunger in Xinjiang, served as the samples for the research on hydrostatic pressure experiment. The in-situ hydrostatic pressure test for orthoclases was conducted at the room temperature and pressures from 100 to 600 MPa using cubic zirconia anvil cell, with quartz as pressure gauge. The water located in the orthoclases for the conditions of different hydrostatic pressures was characterized through the methods of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra. The results showed that there was a linear correlation between the shifting of Raman bands and hydrostatic pressure applied to the feldspar. All of vibration peaks of M-O structural groups in orthoclases, the bending vibration peaks of Si(Al(IV))-O-Si bond and tetrahedron groups of [SiO4] in Raman spectra shifted toward the higher frequency regularly, the drift distance is 2, 2.19 and less than 2 cm(-1) respectively. The spectra of FTIR suggested that there was more water in colorless orthoclases than the pink one under certain conditions of hydrostatic pressure. The intensity and integral area centered at 3420 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra increased with the rising of hydrostatic pressure. The integral area for colorless and pink feldspar in FTIR spectra rose from 120, 1383 cm(-1) under normal pressure to 1570, 2001 cm(-1) at 600 MPa respectively. The experimental results might indicate that the water in the earth crust could enter the orthoclases in certain condition of the aqueous confining pressure.
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Requirement of G?i1/3-Gab1 Signaling Complex for Keratinocyte Growth Factor-Induced PI3K-AKT-mTORC1 Activation.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), also termed as fibroblast growth factor-7, promotes proliferation, migration, and adhesion of skin keratinocytes via binding to keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) and subsequent activation of downstream signaling including the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1 pathway. Here, we found that the ?-subunits of the G proteins (G?i1/3) and growth factor receptor binding 2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1) are required for this activation process. With KGF stimulation, G?i1/3 formed a complex with KGFR and was required for subsequent Gab1 recruitment, phosphorylation, and following PI3K-p85 activation. In addition, G?i1/3 short hairpin RNA knockdown largely inhibited KGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, and the accumulation of cyclin D1/fibronectin in cultured skin keratinocytes. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of G?i1/3 in wounded human skin and keloid skin tissues, suggesting the possible involvement of G?i1/3 in wound healing and keloid formation. Overall, we suggest that G?i1/3 proteins lie downstream of KGFR, but upstream of Gab1-mediated activation of PI3K-AKT-mTORC1 signaling, thus revealing a role for G?i proteins in mediating KGFR signaling, cell migration, and possible wound healing.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 11 September 2014; (2014) 0, 000-000. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.326.
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Withanolides from Physalis hispida.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Nine new withanolides (1-9), withahisolides A-I, were isolated along with nine known compounds (10-18) from the aerial parts of Physalis hispida. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated through a variety of spectroscopic techniques, while the structures of 1 and 2 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 1-3 are the first withanolides with nonaromatic six-membered ring D moieties. In addition, withanolide 8 represents a novel withanolide skeleton due to the absence of a C-13-C-17 bond within the steroidal nucleus.
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Long-term biodistribution in vivo and toxicity of radioactive/magnetic hydroxyapatite nanorods.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Although nanoscale hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HA] has been widely investigated as a carrier in the delivery of drugs, genes, or siRNA, the in vivo toxicity of nanoscale HA is not clear and the long-term dynamic distribution in vivo has not hitherto been visualized. In this work, gadolinium-doped HA nanorods (HA:Gd) with an r1 value of 5.49 s(-1) (mm)(-1) have been prepared by a hydrothermal method. Samarium-153 ((153)Sm) was then effectively post-labeled onto the HA:Gd ((153)Sm-HA:Gd) with a labeling rate of ?100% and a radio-labeling stability in vitro of ?100% over 48 h. The product could serve as a new dual-modality probe for SPECT and MR imaging in vivo. By means of SPECT and MRI, the HA:Gd nanorods were found to be quickly taken up by the mononuclear phagocyte system, especially the liver and spleen. The nanorods in the liver and lung tended to be eliminated within 24 h, but nanorods in the spleen behaved differently and proved difficult to excrete. In vitro studies by cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed good biocompatibility of the HA:Gd nanorods with HeLa cells, even at a high concentration. The indicators of body weight, histology, and serology demonstrated that the HA:Gd nanorods exhibited excellent biocompatibility in vivo for at least 61 days. Therefore, (153)Sm-HA:Gd nanorods with excellent relaxivity, ?-emission, and biosafety offer clear advantages and potential for bioapplications.
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Activation of STAT3 stimulates AHSP expression in K562 cells.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Studies on the chaperone protein ?-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) reveal that abundant AHSP in erythroid cells enhance the cells' tolerance to oxidative stress imposed by excess ?-hemoglobin in pathological conditions. However, the potential intracellular modulation of AHSP expression itself in response to oxidative stress is still unknown. The present study examined the effect and molecular mechanism of STAT3, an oxidative regulator, on the expression of AHSP. AHSP expression increased in K562 cells upon cytokine IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and decreased in STAT3 knock-down K562 cells. Regulation of AHSP in oxidative circumstance was then examined in ?-globin-overloaded K562 cells, and real-time PCR showed strengthened expression of both AHSP and STAT3. ChIP analysis showed binding of STAT3 to AHSP promoter and binding was significantly augmented with IL6 stimulation and upon ?-globin overexpression. Dual luciferase reporter assays of the wildtype and mutated SB3 element, an IL-6RE site, in the AHSP promoter in K562 cells highlighted the direct regulatory effect of STAT3 on AHSP gene. Finally, direct binding of STAT3 to SB3 site of AHSP promoter was confirmed with EMSA assays. Our work reveals an adaptive AHSP regulation mediated by the redox-sensitive STAT3 signaling pathway, and provides clues to the therapeutic strategy for AHSP enhancement.
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Salvianolic acid A protects RPE cells against oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) impair the physiological functions of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which is known as one major cause of age-related macular degeneration. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is the main effective aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. The aim of this study was to test the potential role of Sal A against oxidative stress in cultured RPE cells and to investigate the underlying mechanistic signaling pathways. We observed that Sal A significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced primary and transformed RPE cell death and apoptosis. H2O2-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, ROS production, and subsequent proapoptotic AMP-activated protein kinase activation were largely inhibited by Sal A. Further, Sal A stimulation resulted in a fast and dramatic activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, followed by phosphorylation, accumulation, and nuclear translocation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), along with increased expression of the antioxidant-response element-dependent gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Both Nrf2 and HO-1 were required for Sal A-mediated cytoprotective effect, as Nrf2/HO-1 inhibition abolished Sal A-induced beneficial effects against H2O2. Meanwhile, the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 chemical inhibitors not only suppressed Sal A-induced Nrf2/HO-1 activation, but also eliminated its cytoprotective effect in RPE cells. These observations suggest that Sal A activates the Nrf2/HO-1 axis in RPE cells and protects against oxidative stress via activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling.
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Osteopontin (OPN) is an important protein to mediate improvements in the biocompatibility of C ion-implanted silicone rubber.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Medical device implants are drawing increasing amounts of interest from modern medical practitioners. However, this attention is not evenly spread across all such devices; most of these implantable devices can cause adverse reactions such as inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis, and infection. In this work, the biocompatibility of silicone rubber (SR) was improved through carbon (C) ion implantation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that these newly generated carbon-implanted silicone rubbers (C-SRs) had large, irregular peaks and deep valleys on their surfaces. The water contact angle of the SR surface decreased significantly after C ion implantation. C ion implantation also changed the surface charge distribution, silicone oxygen rate, and chemical-element distribution of SR to favor cell attachment. The dermal fibroblasts cultured on the surface C-SR grew faster and showed more typical fibroblastic shapes. The expression levels of major adhesion proteins, including talin-1, zyxin, and vinculin, were significantly higher in dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR coated plates than in dermal fibroblasts cultured on SR. Those same dermal fibroblasts on C-SRs showed more pronounced adhesion and migration abilities. Osteopontin (OPN), a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, was up-regulated and secreted from dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also increased. These cells were highly mobile and were able to adhere to surfaces, but these abilities were inhibited by the monoclonal antibody against OPN, or by shRNA-mediated MMP-9 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that C ion implantation significantly improves SR biocompatibility, and that OPN is important to promote cell adhesion to the C-SR surface.
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Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in Coreano garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.
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Withanolide artifacts formed in methanol.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Methanol solutions of the main withanolides (6-8) naturally present in Physalis longifolia yielded five artificial withanolides (1-5), including three new compounds (1-3). Withanolides 1 and 2 were identified as intramolecular Michael addition derivatives, while withanolides 3-5 were the result of intermolecular Michael addition. A comprehensive literature investigation was conducted to identify potential withanolide Michael addition artifacts isolated from Solanaceous species to date.
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Withanolides from Jaborosa caulescens var. bipinnatifida.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Withanolides 2,3-dihydrotrechonolide A (1) and 2,3-dihydro-21-hydroxytrechonolide A (2) were isolated along with two known withanolides trechonolide A (3) and jaborosalactone 39 (4) from Jaborosa caulescens var. bipinnatifida (Solanaceae). The structures of 1-2 were elucidated through 2D NMR and other spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the structure of withanolide 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
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Atomic entanglement purification and concentration using coherent state input-output process in low-Q cavity QED regime.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We investigate an atomic entanglement purification protocol based on the coherent state input-output process by working in low-Q cavity in the atom-cavity intermediate coupling region. The information of entangled states are encoded in three-level configured single atoms confined in separated one-side optical micro-cavities. Using the coherent state input-output process, we design a two-qubit parity check module (PCM), which allows the quantum nondemolition measurement for the atomic qubits, and show its use for remote parities to distill a high-fidelity atomic entangled ensemble from an initial mixed state ensemble nonlocally. The proposed scheme can further be used for unknown atomic states entanglement concentration. Also by exploiting the PCM, we describe a modified scheme for atomic entanglement concentration by introducing ancillary single atoms. As the coherent state input-output process is robust and scalable in realistic applications, and the detection in the PCM is based on the intensity of outgoing coherent state, the present protocols may be widely used in large-scaled and solid-based quantum repeater and quantum information processing.
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Functional expression of TWEAK and the receptor Fn14 in human malignant ovarian tumors: possible implication for ovarian tumor intervention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) in human malignant ovarian tumors, and test TWEAKs potential role on tumor progression in cell models in-vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found that TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were expressed in human malignant ovarian tumors, but not in normal ovarian tissues or in borderline/benign epithelial ovarian tumors. High levels of TWEAK expression was detected in the majority of malignant tumors (36 out of 41, 87.80%). Similarly, 35 out of 41 (85.37%) malignant ovarian tumors were Fn14 positive. In these malignant ovarian tumors, however, TWEAK/Fn14 expression was not corrected with patients clinical subtype/stages or pathological features. In vitro, we demonstrated that TWEAK only inhibited ovarian cancer HO-8910PM cell proliferation in combination with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), whereas either TWEAK or TNF-? alone didnt affect HO-8910PM cell growth. TWEAK promoted TNF-? production in cultured THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, conditioned media from TWEAK-activated macrophages inhibited cultured HO-8910PM cell proliferation and invasion. Further, TWEAK increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in cultured HO-8910PM cells to possibly recruit macrophages. Our results suggest that TWEAK/Fn14, by activating macrophages, could be ovarian tumor suppressors. The unique expression of TWEAK/Fn14 in malignant tumors indicates that it might be detected as a malignant ovarian tumor marker.
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The synthetic melanocortin (CKPV)2 exerts anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects against Candida albicans vaginitis via inducing macrophage M2 polarization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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In this study, we examined anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects of the synthetic melanocortin peptide (Ac-Cys-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2)2 or (CKPV)2 against Candida albicans vaginitis. Our in vitro results showed that (CKPV)2 dose-dependently inhibited Candida albicans colonies formation. In a rat Candida albicans vaginitis model, (CKPV)2 significantly inhibited vaginal Candida albicans survival and macrophages sub-epithelial mucosa infiltration. For mechanisms study, we observed that (CKPV)2 inhibited macrophages phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Meanwhile, (CKPV)2 administration inhibited macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6) release, while increasing the arginase activity and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production, suggesting macrophages M1 to M2 polarization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) production was also induced by (CKPV)2 administration in macrophages. These above effects on macrophages by (CKPV)2 were almost reversed by melanocortin receptor-1(MC1R) siRNA knockdown, indicating the requirement of MC1R in the process. Altogether, our results suggest that (CKPV)2 exerted anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities against Candida albicans vaginitis probably through inducing macrophages M1 to M2 polarization and MC1R activation.
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Impairment of TrkB-PSD-95 signaling in Angelman syndrome.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment and a high rate of autism. AS is caused by disrupted neuronal expression of the maternally inherited Ube3A ubiquitin protein ligase, required for the proteasomal degradation of proteins implicated in synaptic plasticity, such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Mice deficient in maternal Ube3A express elevated levels of Arc in response to synaptic activity, which coincides with severely impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and deficits in learning behaviors. In this study, we sought to test whether elevated levels of Arc interfere with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) TrkB receptor signaling, which is known to be essential for both the induction and maintenance of LTP. We report that TrkB signaling in the AS mouse is defective, and show that reduction of Arc expression to control levels rescues the signaling deficits. Moreover, the association of the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with TrkB is critical for intact BDNF signaling, and elevated levels of Arc were found to impede PSD-95/TrkB association. In Ube3A deficient mice, the BDNF-induced recruitment of PSD-95, as well as PLC? and Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) with TrkB receptors was attenuated, resulting in reduced activation of PLC?-?-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PI3K-Akt, but leaving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathway intact. A bridged cyclic peptide (CN2097), shown by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies to uniquely bind the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 with high affinity, decreased the interaction of Arc with PSD-95 to restore BDNF-induced TrkB/PSD-95 complex formation, signaling, and facilitate the induction of LTP in AS mice. We propose that the failure of TrkB receptor signaling at synapses in AS is directly linked to elevated levels of Arc associated with PSD-95 and PSD-95 PDZ-ligands may represent a promising approach to reverse cognitive dysfunction.
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Ginsenoside Rg-1 Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Cells from Cobalt Chloride (CoCl2) and Hypoxia Assaults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Severe retinal ischemia causes persistent visual impairments in eye diseases. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are located near the choroidal capillaries, and are easily affected by ischemic or hypoxia. Ginsenoside Rg-1 has shown significant neuroprotective effects. This study was performed to test the cytoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg-1 in RPE cells against hypoxia and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) assaults, and to understand the underlying mechanisms. We found that Rg-1 pre-administration significantly inhibited CoCl2- and hypoxia-induced RPE cell death and apoptosis. Reactive oxygen specisis (ROS)-dependent p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNK) MAPK activation was required for CoCl2-induced RPE cell death, and Rg-1 pre-treatment significantly inhibited ROS production and following p38/JNK activation. Further, CoCl2 suppressed pro-survival mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation in RPE cells through activating of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), while Rg-1 restored mTORC1 activity through inhibiting AMPK activation. CoCl2-induced AMPK activation was also dependent on ROS production, and anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented AMPK activation and RPE cell death by CoCl2. Our results indicated that Rg-1 could be further investigated as a novel cell-protective agent for retinal ischemia.
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Genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation analysis of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, heterogeneous disorder of uncertain etiology. Recent studies suggested that insulin resistance (IR) plays an important role in the development of PCOS. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of IR in PCOS. We employed genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) analysis to characterize genes that are differentially methylated in PCOS patients vs. healthy controls. Besides, we also identified the differentially methylated genes between patients with PCOS-non-insulin resistance (PCOS-NIR) and PCOS-insulin resistance (PCOS-IR). A total of 79 genes were differentially methylated between PCOS-NIR vs. PCOS-IR patients, and 40 genes were differentially methylated in PCOS patients vs. healthy controls. We analyzed these differentially methylated genes by constructing regulatory networks and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Further, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis were also performed to investigate the biological functions of networks. We identified multiple categories of genes that were differentially methylated between PCOS-NIR and PCOS-IR patients, or between PCOS patients and healthy controls. Significantly, GO categories of immune response were differentially methylated in PCOS-IR vs. PCOS-NIR. Further, genes in cancer pathways were also differentially methylated in PCOS-NIR vs. PCOS-IR patients or in PCOS patients vs. healthy controls. The results of this current study will help to further understand the mechanism of PCOS.
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[Heavy metals in the surface sediment of the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay and their potential ecological risk].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Based on the monitoring data of heavy metals (Cr, Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) in the surface sediment of the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay from 2003 to 2008, the distribution patterns, factors controlling the distribution, and the potential ecological risks of heavy metals were studied with the data in 2007-08, and the fluctuation trends of heavy metals in the surface sediment over the 6 years were also discussed. The average concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu in the surface sediment were 29.47, 0.065, 0.105, 1.145, 9.63, 3.355 microg/g, respectively. Except for Cr, the concentration of heavy metals was high in the central dumping area while low outside the dumping ground, suggesting that the dredged material dumped was the main source of heavy metals. Organic carbon content in the surface sediment had a significant positive correlation with heavy metals except for Cr. Based on the results of ecological risk assessment, Hg had a medium potential ecological risk, while the other heavy metals had low potential ecological risk. The overall risk index (RI) of the heavy metals was 100.50, which was considered as a level of low potential ecological risk. The average concentration of heavy metals showed a decreasing trend over the 6 years, except Hg. In conclusion, the quality of surface sediment in term of heavy metals in the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay is relatively good.
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Plants as biofactories: physiological role of reactive oxygen species on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue under wounding and hyperoxia stress.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Plants subjected to postharvest abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties. Here, we report the potential use of carrots (Daucus carota) as biofactories of caffeoylquinic acids when subjected to wounding and hyperoxia stresses. Wounding stress induced an increase of ?287% in total phenolic content (PC) in carrots stored for 48 h at 20 °C. This increase was higher (?349%) in the wounded tissue treated with hyperoxia stress. To further understand the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of phenolics in carrots, the respiration rate as well as the enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. Likewise, shredded carrots were treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride solution to block NADPH oxidase ROS productions, and the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and total PC were evaluated. Results demonstrated that ROS play a key role as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of PC in carrots.
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A three-component gene expression system and its application for inducible flavonoid overproduction in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool to study and engineer genes whose overexpression could be detrimental for the host organisms. However, only limited systems have been adopted in plant biotechnology. We have developed an osmotically inducible system using three components of plant origin, RD29a (Responsive to Dehydration 29A) promoter, CBF3 (C-repeat Binding Factor 3) transcription factor and cpl1-2 (CTD phosphatase-like 1) mutation. The osmotic stress responsible RD29a promoter contains the CBF3 binding sites and thus RD29A-CBF3 feedforward cassette enhances induction of RD29a promoter under stress. The cpl1-2 mutation in a host repressor CPL1 promotes stress responsible RD29a promoter expression. The efficacy of this system was tested using PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1) transgene, a model transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pathway in Arabidopsis. While transgenic plants with only one or two of three components did not reproducibly accumulate anthocyanin pigments above the control level, transgenic cpl1 plants containing homozygous RD29a-PAP1 and RD29a-CBF3 transgenes produced 30-fold higher level of total anthocyanins than control plants upon cold treatment. Growth retardation and phytochemical production of transgenic plants were minimum under normal conditions. The flavonoid profile in cold-induced transgenic plants was determined by LC/MS/MS, which resembled that of previously reported pap1-D plants but enriched for kaempferol derivatives. These results establish the functionality of the inducible three-component gene expression system in plant metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we show that PAP1 and environmental signals synergistically regulate the flavonoid pathway to produce a unique flavonoid blend that has not been produced by PAP1 overexpression or cold treatment alone.
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Two new flavan-flavanones from Sarcandra hainanensis.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
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Chemical study of the whole plants of Sarcandra hainanensis yielded two new biflavonoids with a flavan-flavanone skeleton, sarcandrone C (1), D (2) and 6 known compounds (3-8). Structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic methods.
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[Marine inorganic carbon system responses to macro-DIN supply coupled with Ulva pertusa in simulated experiments].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2009
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Effects of macronutrient (NO3(-) -N and NH4(+) -N) on inorganic carbon system of water with Ulva pertusa existed were studied in laboratory simulation experiments. The results demonstrated that nutrient enrichment induced DIC, HCO3- and p(CO2) decreased while pH and CO3(2-) increased. The seawater changed from carbon source to carbon sink. During the experiments, the concentration of DIC, HCO3- and p(CO2) decreased with increasing concentration of nutrient when the NO3(-) -N and N4(+) -N were less than critical concentration. The concentration of DIC changed most at the NO3(-3) and NH4(-)3 groups, which decreased 151 micromol x L(-1) and 232 micromol x L(-1) compared with the control groups in the end of experiment. The increased dry weight of Ulva pertusa (deltam) of nutrient addition groups showed a significant negative correlation with deltaDIC (r = - 0.91, p < 0.0001, n = 11). The main controlling factor to inorganic carbon variation is the adaptation of Ulva pertusa to different DIN. When the concentration of DIN facilitates the growth of Ulva pertusa, the concentration of DIC decreased and dry weight of Ulva pertusa increased. NH(4) -N has more influence on inorganic carbon system than NO(3-) -N.
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Two flavonoid dimers from Sarcandra hainanensis (PEI) SWAMY et BAILEY.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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Two new flavonoid dimers (1, 2) consisting of flavan-chalcone together with three known compounds (3-5) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plants of Sarcandra hainanensis. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 integrase inhibition activities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated and they showed weak activities with IC(50) at 18.05 and 25.27 muM, respectively.
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Biological and antibacterial properties of plasma sprayed wollastonite/silver coatings.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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In this work, plasma sprayed wollastonite/silver coatings were prepared to obtain an implant material having excellent bioactivity, cytocompatibility as well as antibacterial property. The surface characteristics of wollastonite/silver coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, atomic absorbance spectroscope and x-ray diffraction. The bioactivity was examined by simulated body fluid soaking test. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was examined by bacterial counting method. And the cytocompatibility and in vitro osteotoxicity was evaluated by alamarBlue Assay using MG-63 osteoblasts. The results showed that silver existed in the wollastonite coating homogeneously as silver oxide and metal silver, which ensured a sustained release of silver for 28 days in deionized water. The loaded silver showed strong inhibition against the growth of Escherichia coli, however exhibited no osteotoxicity. Although the wollastonite/silver coating can not induce apatite formation as quickly as the wollastonite coating did in simulated body fluid, it still exhibited good bioactivity. Therefore, the plasma sprayed wollastonite/silver coating is a promising implant material to be applied in surgery, reducing postoperative infections.
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MEK/ERK pathway mediates UVB-induced AQP1 downregulation and water permeability impairment in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of 13 small ( approximately 30 kDa/monomer), hydrophobic, integral membrane proteins. AQPs are expressed in various epithelial and endothelial cells involved in fluid transport. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that AQP1 is expressed in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (ARPE-19 cell line). Ultraviolet radiation (UVB) and H2O2, two major factors causing RPE cell damage, induced AQP1 downregulation which was mediated by MEK/ERK activation. UV and H2O2 as well as AQP1-specific siRNA knockdown impaired water permeability of ARPE-19 cells. Notably, pretreatment with all-trans retinoic acid attenuated UV- and H2O2-induced AQP1 downregulation and water permeability impairment. Considering that water permeability is involved in multiple functions of RPE cells such as cellular junction formation, fluid or protein exchange and barrier formation, our data elucidated a novel mechanism through which UV radiation and oxidative stress induce eye cell damage. Our results further support the notion that all-trans retinoic acid might be useful for protection against UV or oxidative stress-induced eye cell damage.
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Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i3) are required for epidermal growth factor-mediated activation of the Akt-mTORC1 pathway.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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The precise mechanism whereby epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates the serine-threonine kinase Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) remains elusive. Here, we report that the alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i3) are critical for this activation process. Both Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i3) formed complexes with growth factor receptor binding 2 (Grb2)-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1) and the EGF receptor (EGFR) and were required for the phosphorylation of Gab1 and its subsequent interaction with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in response to EGF. Loss of Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i3) severely impaired the activation of Akt and of p70 S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, downstream targets of mTORC1, in response to EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and transforming growth factor alpha, but not insulin, insulin-like growth factor, or platelet-derived growth factor. In addition, ablation of Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i3) largely inhibited EGF-induced cell growth, migration, and survival and the accumulation of cyclin D1. Overall, this study suggests that Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i3) lie downstream of EGFR, but upstream of Gab1-mediated activation of Akt and mTORC1, thus revealing a role for Galpha(i) proteins in mediating EGFR signaling.
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Parameters of protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cell damage.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Epidemiological and experimental evidence has supported the notion that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the leading cause of skin cell damage and skin cancer. Non-melanoma skin cancer, one of the malignancies with the most rapidly increasing incidence, is suggested to be directly related to the total exposure to solar UV light. Over the past few years, the mechanisms of cellular responses to UV radiation have received unprecedented attention. Understanding how skin cells respond to UV radiation will undoubtedly help decipher what goes wrong in a variety of clinical skin disorders including skin cancer and will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In the past decade, studies have established that UV radiation induces multifarious signal transduction pathways, some of which lead to apoptotic cell death, while others protect against this process. In this review, we summarize some of the most recent progresses regarding the involvement of multiple signal pathways in UV radiation-induced apoptosis in skin cells, especially in keratinocytes. These pathways include pro-apoptosis components such as MAPK, AMPK, and p53 as well as pro-survival components, namely, AKT and mTORC complexes.
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SIRT1 confers protection against UVB- and H2O2-induced cell death via modulation of p53 and JNK in cultured skin keratinocytes.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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SIRT1 is a member of a highly conserved gene family (sirtuins) encoding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+)-dependent deacetylases, originally found to deacetylate histones leading to increased DNA stability and prolonged survival in yeast and higher organisms, including mammals. SIRT1 has been found to function as a deacetylase for numerous protein targets involved in various cellular pathways, including stress responses, apoptosis and axonal degeneration. However, the role of SIRT1 in ultraviolet (UV) signalling pathways remains unknown. Using cell culture and Western blot analysis in this study we found that SIRT1 is expressed in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Both UV radiation and H(2)O(2), two major inducers of skin cell damage, down-regulate SIRT1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We observed that reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK activation is involved in this SIRT1 down-regulation. SIRT1 activator, resveratrol, which has been considered as an important antioxidant, protects against UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death, whereas SIRT inhibitors such as sirtinol and nicotinamide enhance cell death. Activation of SIRT1 negatively regulates UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced p53 acetylation, because nicotinamide and sirtinol as well as SIRT1 siRNA enhance UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced p53 acetylation, whereas SIRT1 activator resveratrol inhibits it. We also found that SIRT1 is involved in UV-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), phosphofructose kinase-2 (PFK-2) phosphorylation. Collectively, our data provide new insights into understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-induced skin aging, suggesting that SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol could serve as new anti-skin aging agents.
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Trojan-horse nanotube on-command intracellular drug delivery.
Nano Lett.
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A major challenge to nanomaterial-based medicine is the ability to release drugs on-command. Here, we describe an innovative drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which compounds can be released inside cells from within the nanotube "on-command" by inductive heating with an external alternating current or pulsed magnetic field. Without inductive heating the drug remains safely inside the CNTs, showing no toxicity in cell viability tests. Similar to the "Trojan-Horse" in function, we demonstrate the delivery of a combination of chemotherapeutic agents with low aqueous solubility, paclitaxel (Taxol), and C6-ceramide, to multidrug resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Nanotube encapsulation permitted the drugs to be used at a 100-fold lower concentration compared to exogenous treatment yet achieve a comparable ~70% cancer kill rate.
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Effect of large incisor retraction on upper airway morphology in adult bimaxillary protrusion patients.
Angle Orthod
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To evaluate, using multislice computed tomography (MSCT), the morphologic changes in the upper airway after large incisor retraction in adult bimaxillary protrusion patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.