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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Targeting the MYC and PI3K Pathways Eliminates Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Disease relapse remains the major clinical challenge in treating T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), particularly those with PTEN loss. We hypothesized that leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) are responsible for T-ALL development and treatment relapse. In this study, we used a genetically engineered mouse model of Pten(-/-) T-ALL with defined blast and LIC-enriched cell populations to demonstrate that LICs are responsible for therapeutic resistance. Unlike acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia, LICs in T-ALL were actively cycling, were distinct biologically, and responded differently to targeted therapies in comparison with their differentiated blast cell progeny. Notably, we found that T-ALL LICs could be eliminated by cotargeting the deregulated pathways driven by PI3K and Myc, which are altered commonly in human T-ALL and are associated with LIC formation. Our findings define critical events that may be targeted to eliminate LICs in T-ALL as a new strategy to treat the most aggressive relapsed forms of this disease. Cancer Res; 74(23); 1-12. ©2014 AACR.
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Development of an ELISA microarray assay for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of ten biodefense toxins.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Plant and microbial toxins are considered bioterrorism threat agents because of their extreme toxicity and/or ease of availability. Additionally, some of these toxins are increasingly responsible for accidental food poisonings. The current study utilized an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the multiplexed detection of ten biothreat toxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) A, B, C, D, E, F, ricin, shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx), and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), in buffer and complex biological matrices. The multiplexed assay displayed a sensitivity of 1.3 pg mL(-1) (BoNT/A, BoNT/B, SEB, Stx-1 and Stx-2), 3.3 pg mL(-1) (BoNT/C, BoNT/E, BoNT/F) and 8.2 pg mL(-1) (BoNT/D, ricin). All assays demonstrated high accuracy (75-120 percent recovery) and reproducibility (most coefficients of variation <20%). Quantification curves for the ten toxins were also evaluated in clinical samples (serum, plasma, nasal fluid, saliva, stool, and urine) and environmental samples (apple juice, milk and baby food) with overall minimal matrix effects. The multiplex assays were highly specific, with little cross-reactivity observed between the selected toxin antibodies. The results demonstrate a multiplex microarray that improves current immunoassay sensitivity for biological warfare agents in buffer, clinical, and environmental samples.
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The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet.
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Associations of birth weight and postnatal weight gain with cardiometabolic risk parameters at 5 years of age.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The present prospective study assessed the impact of birth weight (BW) and postnatal weight gain on blood pressure and metabolic profile during the first 5 years of life. One hundred thirty-nine newborns (63 women) born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies and in the absence of perinatal illness were included. Subjects were divided according to size at birth in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. After the initial evaluation on the second day of life, infants were followed up at 6 months and 2 and 5 years. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured at each visit and metabolic assessment was performed at 5 years of age. Among the BW groups, mothers did not differ in terms of age, smoking, and weight gain during pregnancy. BW was a positive determinant of systolic blood pressure at birth. Afterward, current weight was the strongest determinant, becoming significant at 2 years of age and progressively increasing in influence. At 5 years insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index and triglycerides were dependent on BW, current weight, and postnatal weight gain. In addition, BW was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and inversely so to uric acid. A positive relationship among insulin, blood pressure values, and uric acid was observed even early in life. In conclusion, the acceleration of early infant weight gain may aggravate the effects of low BW. Multiple interactions between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters foreshadow the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors later in life.
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[Ethical questions in the Spanish journal "Medicina Paliativa": 1994 - 2013].
Cuad Bioet
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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"Medicina Paliativa" is the official journal of the Spanish Society of Palliative Care ("Sociedad Española de Cuidados Paliativos"; SECPAL) and it reflects the interests, also on bioethics, of the professionals caring terminal people. We want to know what the bioethical questions they discuss and their approaches are.
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Psychomotor and subjective effects of bilastine, hydroxyzine, and cetirizine, in combination with alcohol: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and positive-controlled and placebo-controlled Phase I clinical trials.
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of concomitant administration of alcohol and bilastine versus alcohol alone on the central nervous system.
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A salicylic acid-induced lectin-like protein plays a positive role in the effector-triggered immunity response of Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae Avr-Rpm1.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the key hormones that orchestrate the pathogen-induced immune response in plants. This response is often characterized by the activation of a local hypersensitive reaction involving programmed cell death, which constrains proliferation of biotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of an SA-induced legume lectin-like protein 1 (SAI-LLP1), which is coded by a gene that belongs to the group of early SA-activated Arabidopsis genes. SAI-LLP1 expression is induced upon inoculation with avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via an SA-dependent mechanism. Constitutive expression of SAI-LLP1 restrains proliferation of P. syringae pv. tomato Avr-Rpm1 and triggers more cell death in inoculated leaves. Cellular and biochemical evidence indicates that SAI-LLP1 is a glycoprotein located primarily at the apoplastic side of the plasma membrane. This work indicates that SAI-LLP1 is involved in resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato Avr-Rpm1 in Arabidopsis, as a component of the SA-mediated defense processes associated with the effector-triggered immunity response.
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Entamoeba histolytica P-glycoprotein (EhPgp) inhibition, induce trophozoite acidification and enhance programmed cell death.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Programmed cell death (PCD) is induced in Entamoeba histolytica by a variety of stimuli in vitro and in vivo. In mammals, intracellular acidification serves as a global switch for inactivating cellular processes and initiates molecular mechanisms implicated in the destruction of the genome. In contrast, intracellular alkalinization produced by P-glycoprotein overexpression in multidrug-resistant cells has been related to apoptosis resistance. Our previous studies showed that overexpression of E. histolytica P-glycoprotein (PGP) altered chloride-dependent currents and triggered trophozoite swelling, the reverse process of cell shrinkage produced during PCD. Here we showed that antisense inhibition of PGP expression produced a synchronous death of trophozoites and the enhancement of biochemical and morphological characteristics of PCD induced by G418. The nucleus was contracted, and the nuclear membrane was disrupted. Moreover, chromatin was extensively fragmented. Ca(2+) concentration was increased, while the intracellular pH (ipH) was acidified. In contrast, PGP overexpression prevented intracellular acidification and circumvented the apoptotic effect of G418.
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High cotinine levels are persistent during the first days of life in newborn second hand smokers.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Despite the adverse effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the newborns health are well-known, in the pediatric population, a high prevalence exists that is very much affected by second hand smoke (SHS). This study aims to investigate the impact of maternal smoking habits during pregnancy on cotinine levels in newborns during the first days of life. The high association between cotinine concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been previously reported, but the levels of blood cotinine that remain in infants born to smokers is unknown.
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Identification of the SV2 protein receptor-binding site of botulinum neurotoxin type E.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The highly specific binding and uptake of BoNTs (botulinum neurotoxins; A-G) into peripheral cholinergic motoneurons turns them into the most poisonous substances known. Interaction with gangliosides accumulates the neurotoxins on the plasma membrane and binding to a synaptic vesicle membrane protein leads to neurotoxin endocytosis. SV2 (synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2) mediates the uptake of BoNT/A and /E, whereas Syt (synaptotagmin) is responsible for the endocytosis of BoNT/B and /G. The Syt-binding site of the former was identified by co-crystallization and mutational analyses. In the present study we report the identification of the SV2-binding interface of BoNT/E. Mutations interfering with SV2 binding were located at a site that corresponds to the Syt-binding site of BoNT/B and at an extended surface area located on the back of the conserved ganglioside-binding site, comprising the N- and C-terminal half of the BoNT/E-binding domain. Mutations impairing the affinity also reduced the neurotoxicity of full-length BoNT/E at mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm preparations demonstrating the crucial role of the identified binding interface. Furthermore, we show that a monoclonal antibody neutralizes BoNT/E activity because it directly interferes with the BoNT/E-SV2 interaction. The results of the present study suggest a novel mode of binding for BoNTs that exploit SV2 as a cell surface receptor.
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Influence of physical properties of solid biomass fuels on the design and cost of storage installations.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The aim of this work consists on determining biomass fuels properties and studying their relation with fixed and variable costs of stores and handling systems. To do that, dimensions (length and diameter), bulk density, particle density and durability of several brands and batches of wood pellets and briquettes were tested, according to international standards. Obtained results were compared with those in literature. Bulk density tests were applied for several other biomass fuels too, and later used to determinate which ones of all the biomass-fuels tested are economically more profitable for a typical transport/store system made of a screw conveyor and a concrete bunker silo.
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Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins /B1, /B2, /B3, /B4, and /B5 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/B antibodies.
BMC Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), extremely toxic proteins which can induce respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care or death. Treatment for botulism includes administration of antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication; therefore, rapid determination of human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory reported on Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based activity method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We also demonstrated that antibody-capture is effective for purification and concentration of BoNTs from complex matrices such as clinical samples. However, some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the enzymatic activity of BoNT, so the choice of antibody for toxin extraction is critical.
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Human and mouse DOCK10 splicing isoforms with alternative first coding exon usage are differentially expressed in T and B lymphocytes.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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DOCK10 is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family of Rho GTPase activators preferentially expressed in lymphocytes. In this paper, we analyzed DOCK10 mRNA diversity produced because of alternative splicing. Alternative first coding exon usage led to 2 main protein-coding transcripts, DOCK10.1 and DOCK10.2. Full-length cDNA clones of both isoforms were obtained from both normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse spleen for the first time for human DOCK10.1, mouse DOCK10.1, and mouse DOCK10.2. Human and mouse DOCK10.1 clones corresponded to the protein coding assemblies provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information as Reference Sequences for DOCK10. Our analysis especially focused on human cDNA clones, of which 63% were alternatively spliced forms involving diverse exons and introns. DOCK10.1 expression was enriched in normal T cells, and DOCK10.2 expression was enriched in normal B cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Both isoforms were upregulated in response to interleukin-4 in B cells, both normal and CLL, but not in T cells. Our data suggest that cell-specific mechanisms regulate expression of the alternative first exon variants of DOCK10 in vertebrates.
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Suppression of leukemia development caused by PTEN loss.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Multiple genetic or molecular alterations are known to be associated with cancer stem cell formation and cancer development. Targeting such alterations, therefore, may lead to cancer prevention. By crossing our previously established phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten)-null acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) model onto the recombination-activating gene 1(-/-) background, we show that the lack of variable, diversity and joining [V(D)J] recombination completely abolishes the Tcr?/?-c-myc translocation and T-ALL development, regardless of ?-catenin activation. We identify mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a regulator of ?-selection. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, alters nutrient sensing and blocks T-cell differentiation from CD4(-)CD8(-) to CD4(+)CD8(+), the stage where the Tcr?/?-c-myc translocation occurs. Long-term rapamycin treatment of preleukemic Pten-null mice prevents Tcr?/?-c-myc translocation and leukemia stem cell (LSC) formation, and it halts T-ALL development. However, rapamycin alone fails to inhibit mTOR signaling in the c-Kit(mid)CD3(+)Lin(-) population enriched for LSCs and eliminate these cells. Our results support the idea that preventing LSC formation and selectively targeting LSCs are promising approaches for antileukemia therapies.
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Cryopreservation impact on blood progenitor cells: influence of diagnoses, mobilization treatments, and cell concentration.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of cryopreservation in series of peripheral blood progenitor cells stratified by diagnosis, mobilization treatments, and cell concentration, as well as the accuracy of the control aliquots.
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Splenic rupture in a plasma cell leukemia, mobilized with G-CSF for autologous stem cell transplant.
J Clin Apher
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Splenic rupture (SR) is a rare adverse event observed in patients treated with G-CSF as a peripheral hematopoietic stem cell (PHSC) mobilizing agent, mostly in myeloma multiple and amiloidosis; to date, to our knowledge, it has not been previously described in plasma-cell leukemia (PCL). We report a case of a woman with PCL, who presented a SR after PHSC mobilization with Cyclophosphamide+G-CSF. The spleen removed showed hematopoietic foci and amiloid material. In the course of a second mobilization, 2 months after, the patient died from sepsis. We considered it important to report this case, in order to keep in mind the possibility of SR in patients with malignant gammopathy.
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Rupatadine does not potentiate the CNS depressant effects of lorazepam: randomized, double-blind, crossover, repeated dose, placebo-controlled study.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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The main objective was to assess whether benzodiazepine intake when rupatadine plasma concentrations were at steady-state would increase the CNS depressant effects. Rupatadine is a new H(1)-antihistamine which also inhibits platelet activating factor (PAF) release and has been shown to be clinically effective at doses of 10 mg.
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Entamoeba histolytica: differential gene expression during programmed cell death and identification of early pro- and anti-apoptotic signals.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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We have demonstrated that programmed cell death (PCD) in Entamoeba histolytica is induced in vitro by G418 aminoglycoside antibiotic. To ascertain if biochemical and morphological changes previously observed are paired to molecular changes that reflect a genetic program, we looked here for early differential gene expression during the induction of PCD. Using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and in silico derived analysis we showed in E. histolytica a differential gene expression during PCD induced by G418. The genes identified encoded for proteins homologous to Glutaminyl-tRNA synthase, Ribosomal Subunit Proteins 40S and 18S, Saposin-like, Silent Information Regulator-2 (Sir-2), and Grainins 1 and 2. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT Q-PCR), we found that glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2, grainins and saposin-like genes were strongly overexpressed after 30min of PCD induction, while its expression dramatically decreased up to 60min. On the other hand, overexpression of ribosomal genes increased only 7-fold of basal expression, showing a progressive down-regulation up to 90min. glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2 and grainins could act as negative regulators of PCD, trying to control the biochemical changes related to PCD activation. Overexpression of saposin-like gene could act as up-regulator of some cell death pathways. Our results give evidence of the first genes identified during the early stage of PCD in E. histolytica that could be implicated in regulation of apoptotic pathways.
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Extraction of BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F with a single, high affinity monoclonal antibody for detection of botulinum neurotoxin by Endopep-MS.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care or death. The best treatment for botulism includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which are most effective when administered early in the course of the intoxication. Early confirmation of human exposure to any serotype of BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, we focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating the seven serotypes (BoNT/A-G) in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F (the four serotypes that commonly affect humans) in clinical samples. We have previously reported the success of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. However, to check for any one of the four serotypes of BoNT/A, /B, /E, or /F, each sample is split into 4 aliquots, and tested for the specific serotypes separately. The discovery of a unique monoclonal antibody that recognizes all four serotypes of BoNT/A, /B, /E and /F allows us to perform simultaneous detection of all of them. When applied in conjunction with the Endopep-MS assay, the detection limit for each serotype of BoNT with this multi-specific monoclonal antibody is similar to that obtained when using other serotype-specific antibodies.
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Birth weight and characteristics of endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures from human umbilical cord vessels.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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Low birth weight has been related to an increased risk for developing high blood pressure in adult life. The molecular and cellular analysis of umbilical cord artery and vein may provide information about the early vascular characteristics of an individual. We have assessed several phenotype characteristics of the four vascular cell types derived from human umbilical cords of newborns with different birth weight. Further follow-up studies could show the association of those vascular properties with infancy and adulthood blood pressure.
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Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/A antibodies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3 complex as well as the recombinant LC of A1. We also evaluated the same antibody panel for the ability to extract BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3. Among the mAbs, there were significant differences in extraction efficiency, ability to extract BoNT/A subtypes, and inhibitory effect on BoNT catalytic activity. The mAbs binding the C-terminal portion of the BoNT/A heavy chain had optimal properties for use in the Endopep-MS assay.
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Large-volume-apheresis facilitates autologous transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors in poor mobilizer patients.
J Clin Apher
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Given that pre-apheresis CD34(+) cell count (PA-CD34) predicts the apheresis yield, a minimum of 5 to 20 PA-CD34/microl is required in many institutions to initiate cell collection. The aim of this study was to clarify whether large-volume-apheresis (LVA) could facilitate progenitor cell transplantation in patients with low PA-CD34. Apheresis was initiated in 226 patients, disregarding PA-CD34, at days: +5 in G-CSF, +10 in cyclophosphamide+G-CSF, and +15 to +20 in other chemotherapy+G-CSF mobilization, when leucocytes >2.5 x 10(9)/L. Four times the blood volume was processed. Patients were grouped according to their PA-CD34: >or=10/microl (group-A, n = 143); <10/microl but >or=5/microl (group-B, n = 40) and <5/microl (group-C, n = 43). No differences were found in diagnoses, gender, age, previous treatments or mobilization regimen between groups. Enough CD34(+) cells (>1.9 x 10(6)/kg) were obtained in 31 patients (72%) from group-C, although in this group two mobilizations were needed in 20 patients (46.5%), compared to 5 (3.5%) and 1 (2.5%) in groups A and B, respectively (P < 0.01). Evenly three apheresis or more were required in 28 patients (65.1%) from group-C, compared to 8 (5.6%) and 6 (15.0%) in groups A and B, respectively (P < 0.01). In conclusion LVA can facilitate autologous transplantation in poor-mobilizer-patients, low PA-CD34 should not be an inflexible exclusion factor.
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Tris(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline-?(2)N,N)copper(II) bis-(hexa-fluorido-phosphate) acetonitrile monosolvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
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In the title compound, [Cu(C(14)H(12)N(2))(3)](PF(6))(2)·CH(3)CN, the [Cu(5,6-dmp)(3)](2+) cationic complex (5,6-dmp is 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) is stabilized by two hexa-fluorido-phosphate anions and one acetonitrile solvent mol-ecule. The coordination geometry around the Cu(II) atom can be described as distorted elongated octa-hedral with R(out) = 2.277?(2)?Å, R(in) = 2.052?(2)?Å and a tetra-gonality of 0.9011, acquiring a static stereochemistry. In the supra-molecular network, there are inter-molecular C-H?F and C-H?N inter-actions with R(3) (3)(16), R(2) (2)(7), R(1) (2)(4), R(3) (3)(16) and C(3) (2)(7) motifs that lead to an infinite three-dimensional network.
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Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns.
J Transl Med
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Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns.
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Blood pressure and obesity exert independent influences on pulse wave velocity in youth.
Hypertension
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The objective was to analyze pulse wave velocity (PWV) in normotensive, high-normal, and hypertensive youths by using aortic-derived parameters from peripheral recordings. The impact of obesity on vascular phenotypes was also analyzed. A total of 501 whites from 8 to 18 years of age were included. The subjects were divided according to BP criteria: 424 (85%) were normotensive, 56 (11%) high-normal, and 21 (4%) hypertensive. Obesity was present in 284 (56%) and overweight in 138 (28%). Pulse wave analysis using a SphygmoCor device was performed to determine central blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, and measurement of PWV. Among the BP groups, differences appeared in age, sex, and height but not in body mass index. Significant differences in peripheral and central systolic and diastolic BPs and pulse pressures were observed within groups. A graded increase in PWV was present across the BP strata without differences in augmentation index. Using a multiple regression analysis, age, BP groups, and obesity status were independently associated with PWV. Older and hypertensive subjects had the highest PWV, whereas, from normal weight status to obesity, PWV decreased. Likewise, PWV was positively related to peripheral or central systolic BP and negatively related to body mass index z score. For 1 SD of peripheral systolic BP, PWV increased 0.329 m/s, and for 1 SD of body mass index z score PWV decreased 0.129 m/s. In conclusion, PWV is increased in hypertensive and even in high-normal children and adolescents. Furthermore, obesity, the factor most frequently related to essential hypertension in adolescents, blunted the expected increment in PWV of hypertensive and high-normal subjects.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.