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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Factors associated with recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, Brazil, 2009.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This open retrospective cohort study aimed to describe the incidence of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria and associated factors in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, Brazil, in 2009. Data were collected from the National Information System for Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance. There were 23,365 reported P. vivax malaria cases in 2009, 23% of which were classified as relapses. Incidence density of P. vivax recurrence was 45.1/100 patient-years, mostly occurring between the 4th and 13th week after initiating treatment. Male gender, shorter time since onset of symptoms, and higher parasitemia in the initial infection increased the risk of relapse during the year, with a 10% reduction in relative risk for longer symptoms and 11% and 15% increases in relative risk for males and higher initial parasitemia, respectively. However, the results show low clinical relevance for these associations, thereby limiting their applicability to decision-making at the public health level.
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Standardization of blood smears prepared in transparent acetate: an alternative method for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Due to students' initial inexperience, slides are frequently broken and blood smears are damaged in microscopy training, leading to the need for their constant replacement. To minimize this problem a method of preparing blood smears on transparent acetate sheets was developed with the goal of implementing appropriate and more readily available teaching resources for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria.
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Fatal fungemia due to Paracoccidioides lutzii.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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We report the first case of fungemia caused by Paracoccidioides lutzii in a 51-year-old male farm worker from the central-west region of Brazil. The fungus was isolated from blood cultures and the species was confirmed by phylogenetic identification. Despite specific treatment and intensive care, the patient died 39 days after admission.
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Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year). The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.
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Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.
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The exponential-Poisson model for recurrent event data: An application to a set of data on malaria in Brazil.
Biom J
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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In this paper, we introduce a new model for recurrent event data characterized by a baseline rate function fully parametric, which is based on the exponential-Poisson distribution. The model arises from a latent competing risk scenario, in the sense that there is no information about which cause was responsible for the event occurrence. Then, the time of each recurrence is given by the minimum lifetime value among all latent causes. The new model has a particular case, which is the classical homogeneous Poisson process. The properties of the proposed model are discussed, including its hazard rate function, survival function, and ordinary moments. The inferential procedure is based on the maximum likelihood approach. We consider an important issue of model selection between the proposed model and its particular case by the likelihood ratio test and score test. Goodness of fit of the recurrent event models is assessed using Cox-Snell residuals. A simulation study evaluates the performance of the estimation procedure in the presence of a small and moderate sample sizes. Applications on two real data sets are provided to illustrate the proposed methodology. One of them, first analyzed by our team of researchers, considers the data concerning the recurrence of malaria, which is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite that infects red blood cells.
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In vitro antimalarial activity of tigecycline against Plasmodium falciparum culture-adapted reference strains and clinical isolates from the Brazilian Amazon.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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We evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of tigecycline as an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria.
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Sensitivity of nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled whole blood samples and its usefulness to blood donor screening in endemic areas.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a severe disease with high fatality rate. Most Brazilian blood banks in the Amazon region perform malaria screening using microscopic examination (thick smears). Since low parasite concentrations are expected in asymptomatic blood donors a high sensitivity test should be used for donor screening. This study determined the sensitivity of a nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled samples. We performed a one-stage criterion validation study with 21 positive samples pooled with samples from ten negative volunteer until three different concentrations were reached (0.33; 0.25; 0.20 parasites/?L - p/?L). Nested PCR was performed as described by Snounou et al. (1993). Sensitivities (and confidence intervals) were determined by stratum of final parasite concentration on the pooled samples. All samples with parasitemia values of 0.33 and 0.25 p/?L had 100% sensitivity (95%CI=86.3-100). One negative result was obtained from a sample with 0.20 p/?L sensitivity=95.2% (95%CI=76.2-99.9). Compared to parasitemia detectable under ideal conditions of thick smear, this nested-PCR in pooled sample was able to detect 40 times more parasites per microliter. Nested-PCR in pooled samples should be considered as a high sensitive alternative to thick smear for donor screening in blood banks at endemic regions. Local authorities need to assess cost:benefit advantages of this method compared to alternatives.
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Angiopoietin-2 and angiopoietin-2/angiopoietin-1 ratio as indicators of potential severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in patients with thrombocytopenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angiogenic factors such as angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) are biomarkers produced during activation and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium in several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 and to establish their relationship with the main indicators of worst-case prognosis in patients with P. vivax malaria.
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Assumed white blood cell count of 8,000 cells/?L overestimates malaria parasite density in the Brazilian Amazon.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/?L to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/?L, and 5,500 cells/?L in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/?L could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.
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Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine (DARC) polymorphisms and its involvement in acquisition of inhibitory anti-duffy binding protein II (DBPII) immunity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its erythrocytic receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), are involved in the major P. vivax erythrocyte invasion pathway. An open cohort study to analyze DARC genotypes and their relationship to PvDBP immune responses was carried out in 620 volunteers in an agricultural settlement of the Brazilian Amazon. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted at 6-month intervals, comprising 395, 410, and 407 subjects, respectively. The incidence rates of P. vivax infection was 2.32 malaria episodes per 100 person-months under survey (95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.92-2.80/100 person-month) and, of P. falciparum, 0.04 per 100 person-months (95% CI of 0.007-0.14/100 person-month). The distribution of DARC genotypes was consistent with the heterogeneous ethnic origins of the Amazon population, with a predominance of non-silent DARC alleles: FY*A > FY*B. The 12-month follow-up study demonstrated no association between DARC genotypes and total IgG antibodies as measured by ELISA targeting PvDBP (region II, DBPII or regions II-IV, DBPII-IV). The naturally acquired DBPII specific binding inhibitory antibodies (BIAbs) tended to be more frequent in heterozygous individuals carrying a DARC-silent allele (FY*BES). These results provide evidence that DARC polymorphisms may influence the naturally acquired inhibitory anti-Duffy binding protein II immunity.
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Altered platelet indices as potential markers of severe and complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax: a cross-sectional descriptive study.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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This study described altered platelet indices in patients with acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and determined whether these alterations are associated with warning signs of severe and complicated malaria.
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Analysis of lymphocytes in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria and its relation to the annexin-A1 and IL-10.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic disease in the world. In Brazil, the largest number of malaria cases (98%) is within the Legal Amazon region, where Plasmodium vivax is responsible for over 80% of diagnosed cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the annexin-A1 expression in CD4+, CD8+ T cells, regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytokine IL-10 quantification in plasma from patients with malaria caused by P. vivax.
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Selective intermittent preventive treatment of vivax malaria: reduction of malaria incidence in an open cohort study in brazilian Amazon.
Malar Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150?mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon.
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Phlebotomine sandfly fauna and natural Leishmania infection rates in a rural area of Cerrado (tropical savannah) in Nova Mutum, State of Mato Grosso in Brazil.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has been reported in every municipality of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, but the transmission epidemiology remains poorly understood. Our study was developed in a rural area of the Nova Mutum municipality where four autochthonous cases of ACL were reported in 2009. Our aims were to describe the local phlebotomine sandfly fauna and to investigate the infection rates and infecting Leishmania species in the captured sandflies.
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Low sensitivity of malaria rapid diagnostic tests stored at room temperature in the Brazilian Amazon Region.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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In remote areas of the Amazon Region, diagnosis of malaria by microscopy is practically impossible. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting different malaria antigens stored at room temperature in the Brazilian Amazon Region.
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Leishmanicidal effect of Spiranthera odoratíssima (Rutaceae) and its isolated alkaloid skimmianine occurs by a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected diseases. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of resistance by the parasites has a negative impact on the current treatment options. Thus, the search for a new, effective and safer anti-leishmanial drug becomes of paramount importance. Compounds derived from natural products may be a better and cheaper source in this regard. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of Spiranthera odoratíssima (Rutaceae) fractions and isolated compounds, using promastigote and amastigote forms of different Leishmania species. J774 A.1 macrophage was used as the parasite host cell for the in vitro assays. Evaluations of cytoxicity, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-10 and in silico analysis were carried out. In vitro experiments showed that the fruit hexanic fraction (Fhf) and its alkaloid skimmianine (Skm) have a significant (P<0·001) effect against L. braziliensis. This anti-L. braziliensis activity of Fhf and Skm was due to increased production of NO and attenuation of IL-10 production in the macrophages at concentrations ranging from 1·6 to 40·0 ?g/ml. The in silico assay demonstrated significant interaction between Skm and amino acid residues of NOS2. Skm is thus a promising drug candidate for L. braziliensis due to its potent immunomodulatory activity.
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Adherence to Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon Region.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Patients adherence to malaria treatment is an important factor in determining the therapeutic response to anti-malarial drugs. It contributes to the patients complete recovery and prevents the emergence of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Brazil, the low compliance with malaria treatment probably explains the large number of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses observed in the past years. The goal of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients adhering to the P. vivax malaria treatment with chloroquine + primaquine in the dosages recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.
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Identification of a highly antigenic linear B cell epitope within Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is considered to be a major candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. Previous immunoepidemiological studies of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) have shown a higher prevalence of specific antibodies to domain II (DII) of AMA-1. In the present study, we confirmed that specific antibody responses from naturally infected individuals were highly reactive to both full-length AMA-1 and DII. Also, we demonstrated a strong association between AMA-1 and DII IgG and IgG subclass responses. We analyzed the primary sequence of PvAMA-1 for B cell linear epitopes co-occurring with intrinsically unstructured/disordered regions (IURs). The B cell epitope comprising the amino acid sequence 290-307 of PvAMA-1 (SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK), with the highest prediction scores, was identified in domain II and further selected for chemical synthesis and immunological testing. The antigenicity of the synthetic peptide was identified by serological analysis using sera from P. vivax-infected individuals who were knowingly reactive to the PvAMA-1 ectodomain only, domain II only, or reactive to both antigens. Although the synthetic peptide was recognized by all serum samples specific to domain II, serum with reactivity only to the full-length protein presented 58.3% positivity. Moreover, IgG reactivity against PvAMA-1 and domain II after depletion of specific synthetic peptide antibodies was reduced by 18% and 33% (P?=?0.0001 for both), respectively. These results suggest that the linear epitope SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK is highly antigenic during natural human infections and is an important antigenic region of the domain II of PvAMA-1, suggesting its possible future use in pre-clinical studies.
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Plasma circulating nucleic acids levels increase according to the morbidity of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Given the increasing evidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with severe and fatal disease, the identification of sensitive and reliable markers for vivax severity is crucial to improve patient care. Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been increasingly recognized as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools for various inflammatory diseases and tumors as their plasma concentrations increase according to malignancy. Given the marked inflammatory status of P. vivax infection, we investigated here the usefulness of CNAs as biomarkers for malaria morbidity.
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Analysis of the genetic variability of PvMSP-3? among Plasmodium vivax in Brazilian field isolates.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
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Reliable molecular markers are essential for a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, which is a neglected human malaria parasite. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of P. vivax isolates from the Brazilian Amazon using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the highly polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMSP-3?) gene. To accomplish this, 60 isolates of P. vivax from different endemic areas in the Brazilian Amazon were collected. The PvMSP-3? gene was amplified by nested-PCR. Three major types of the PvMSP-3? locus were detected at different frequencies: type A (68%), B (15%) and C (17%). A single sample showed two PCR fragments, which corresponded to infection with types A and C. PCR-RFLP analysis using the HhaI restriction enzyme for 52 isolates clearly identified 11 haplotypes, eight of which were from type A, two from type B and only one from type C. Seven other isolates did not show a clear pattern using PCR-RFLP. This result might be due to multiple clone infections. This study showed a high diversity of the PvMSP-3? gene among P. vivax isolates from the Brazilian Amazon, but also indicated that the detection performance of PCR-RFLP of the PvMSP-3? gene may not be sufficient to detect multiple clone infections.
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Augmented plasma microparticles during acute Plasmodium vivax infection.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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In the last few years, the study of microparticles (MPs)--submicron vesicles released from cells upon activation or apoptosis--has gained growing interest in the field of inflammation and in infectious diseases. Their role in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax remains unexplored. Because acute vivax malaria has been related to pro-inflammatory responses, the main hypothesis investigated in this study was that Plasmodium vivax infection is associated with elevated levels of circulating MPs, which may play a role during acute disease in non-immune patients.
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Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII), which is the most variable segment of the protein.
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Validation of a particle gel immunoassay for Trypanosoma cruzi antibody detection using plasma samples collected with capillary tubes.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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The Chagas disease particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA-Chagas) is a simple, fast and practical test used for the diagnosis of the chronic Chagas disease and is based on anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody detection in serum. This study aimed to validate the PaGIA-Chagas on plasma collected with capillary tubes.
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Simultaneous infection of human host with genetically distinct isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtained from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28% genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.
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Immunoglobulin GM 3 23 5,13,14 phenotype is strongly associated with IgG1 antibody responses to Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate antigens PvMSP1-19 and PvAMA-1.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Humoral immune responses play a key role in the development of immunity to malaria, but the host genetic factors that contribute to the naturally occurring immune responses to malarial antigens are not completely understood. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether, in subjects exposed to malaria, GM and KM allotypes--genetic markers of immunoglobulin gamma and kappa-type light chains, respectively--contribute to the magnitude of natural antibody responses to target antigens that are leading vaccine candidates for protection against Plasmodium vivax.
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[Systemic mycosis: factors associated with death among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, 2005-2008].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Between 2005 and 2008, the prevalence of systemic mycosis among 1,300 HIV/AIDS patients in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, was 4.6%. The fungus species isolated were Cryptococcus neoformans in 50%, Cryptococcus gattii in 1.6%, Cryptococcus spp in 6.6%, Histoplasma capsulatum in 38.3% and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in 3.3%. Death was recorded in the cases of 32 patients (53.3%), and cryptococcosis was the main cause. The CD4+ T lymphocyte count was low and similar among patients who survived or died due to systemic mycosis. The factors independently associated with the deaths of these patients were alcoholism (OR: 8.2; 95% CI: 1.4-62.1; p = 0005) and the mean level of lactate dehydrogenase [758 (182) U/l vs. 416 (268) U/l; p < 0001]. The findings showed that systemic mycosis was highly lethal among the patients with HIV/AIDS in Cuiabá and suggested that clinical-laboratory characteristics such as alcoholism and early elevation of lactate dehydrogenase may be factors relating to worse prognosis under these conditions.
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants and Duffy blood group genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon region.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the Plasmodium vivax infective sporozoite is considered to be a major target for the development of recombinant malaria vaccines. The Duffy blood group molecule acts as the red blood cell receptor for P. vivax. We review the frequency of P. vivax CSP variants and report their association with the Duffy blood group genotypes from Brazilian Amazon patients carrying P. vivax malaria. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 155 P. vivax-infected individuals from five Brazilian malaria-endemic areas. The P. vivax CSP variants and the Duffy blood group genotypes were assessed using PCR/RFLP. In single infections, the VK210 variant was the commonest followed by the P. vivax-like variant. The typing of P. vivax indicated that the frequency of variants among the study areas was significantly different from one to another. This is the first detection of the VK247 and P. vivax-like variant in single infections in endemic areas of Brazil. Association of the CSP P. vivax variants with the heterozygous Duffy blood group system genotype was significant for VK210 single infection. These observations provide additional data on the Plasmodium-host interactions concerning the Duffy blood group and P. vivax capability of causing human malaria.
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Plasmodium vivax recombinant vaccine candidate AMA-1 plays an important role in adaptive immune response eliciting differentiation of dendritic cells.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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The Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) is a well-characterized and functionally important merozoite protein and is currently considered a major candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. Previously, we showed that AMA-1 has an influence on cellular immune responses of malaria-naïve subjects, resulting in an alternative activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and induction of a pro-inflammatory response by stimulated PBMCs. Although there is evidence, from human and animal malaria model systems that cell-mediated immunity may contribute to both protection and pathogenesis, the knowledge on cellular immune responses in vivax malaria and the factors that may regulate this immunity are poorly understood. In the current work, we describe the maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells of P. vivax naturally infected individuals and the effect of P. vivax vaccine candidate Pv-AMA-1 on the immune responses of the same donors. We show that malaria-infected subjects present modulation of DC maturation, demonstrated by a significant decrease in expression of antigen-presenting molecules (CD1a, HLA-ABC and HLA-DR), accessory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) and FcgammaRI (CD64) receptor (P < or = 0.05). Furthermore, Pv-AMA-1 elicits an upregulation of CD1a and HLA-DR molecules on the surface of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (P=0.0356 and P=0.0196, respectively), and it is presented by AMA-1-stimulated DCs. A significant pro-inflammatory response elicited by Pv-AMA-1-pulsed PBMCs is also demonstrated, as determined by significant production of TNF-alpha, IL-12p40 and IFN-gamma (P < or = 0.05). Our results suggest that Pv-AMA-1 may partially revert DC down-modulation observed in infected subjects, and exert an important role in the initiation of pro-inflammatory immunity that might contribute substantially to protection.
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Analysis of genetic variability of Plasmodium vivax isolates from different Brazilian Amazon areas using tandem repeats.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Few genetic markers have been described to analyze populations of Plasmodium vivax. The genetic variability of P. vivax has been analyzed mainly among isolates taken from areas ranging from hyper- to holoendemic areas. These studies of genetic variability have neglected many areas with different epidemiologic profiles. The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of P. vivax isolates from four different Brazilian Amazon areas. We chose to study the five most polymorphic tandem repeats (TRs) identified so far. All TRs studied were polymorphic in at least one studied population, with a modal allele at nearly all loci. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.462 to 0.666 and did not correlate with the repeat array length. The genetic distances among the populations varied from 0.027 to 0.241, and did not correlate with their geographic separation. Tandem repeats identified in P. vivax isolates failed to allow geographic clustering.
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[First description of phenotypic profile and in vitro drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp yeast isolated from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in State of Mato Grosso].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
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Thirty-seven isolates from 10 HIV-negative and 26 HIV-positive patients in Mato Grosso were evaluated. Direct examination, culturing and chemotyping of species were performed. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B were evaluated. Thirty-seven yeasts of Cryptococcus spp were identified, of which 26 were from HIV-positive patients (25 Cryptococcus neoformans and one Cryptococcus gattii) and 10 from HIV-negative patients (five Cryptococcus neoformans and five Cryptococcus gattii). The Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from HIV-positive patients showed resistance (8% and 8.7%) and dose-dependent susceptibility (20% and 17.4%) to fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. Among the Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from HIV-negative patients, there was dose-dependent susceptibility (40%) to fluconazole. Cryptococcus gattii isolates from HIV-negative patients were shown to be susceptible to all antifungal agents, except for one isolate of Cryptococcus gattii that showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole (20%). The Cryptococcus gattii isolate from an HIV-positive patient showed resistance to fluconazole (MIC > or = 256 (1/4)g/ml) and itraconazole (MIC = 3 (1/4)microg/ml).
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Species structure of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna in the Brazilian western Amazon.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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We surveyed areas of the state of Rondônia in western Amazon for phlebotomine, which are potential vectors of leishmaniasis. A total of 5,998 specimens were captured, resulting in the identification of 48 species within the Lutzomyia (99.98%) and Brumptomyia (0.02%) genera. The predominant species was Lutzomyia davisi, followed by Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi, Lutzomyia c. carrerai, Lutzomyia dendrophyla, Lutzomyia nevesi and Lutzomyia whitmani. All sand flies identified as vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, i.e., Lu. davisi, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. c. carrerai and Lu. whitmani, were found in the surveyed areas.
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[Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, 2006].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, is unknown. Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among puerperae attended at three public maternity hospitals in Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, was defined. Between April and September 2006, 3,831 deliveries took place and 2,965 puerperae underwent serological tests for HTLV-1/2: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. The mean age of the women studied was 23.9 years. The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 0.2%, i.e. similar to the prevalence observed in the general population of many developed centers in Brazil. This finding of low prevalence suggests that there is still no justification for introducing public health interventions for the population of pregnant women in our setting, to reduce the vertical transmission of HTLV-1/2.
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Genetic variability in platelet integrin ?2?1 density: possible contributor to Plasmodium vivax-induced severe thrombocytopenia.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Understanding the pathogenesis of Plasmodium vivax malaria is challenging. We hypothesized that susceptibility to P. vivax-induced thrombocytopenia could be associated with polymorphisms on relevant platelet membrane integrins: integrin ?2 (C807T), and integrin ?3 (T1565C). Although ?3 polymorphism was not related with P. vivax malaria, ?2 807T carriers, which show high levels of integrin ?2?1, had a higher probability for severe thrombocytopenia than wild-type carriers. This evidence of the association of integrin polymorphism and P. vivax morbidity was further demonstrated by a moderate but significant correlation between clinical disease and surface levels of the integrin ?2?1.
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Multiple-clone activation of hypnozoites is the leading cause of relapse in Plasmodium vivax infection.
PLoS ONE
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Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by a dormant hepatic stage, the hypnozoite that is activated at varying periods of time after clearance of the primary acute blood-stage, resulting in relapse. Differentiation between treatment failure and new infections requires characterization of initial infections, relapses, and clone multiplicity in vivax malaria infections.
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Improving N-terminal protein annotation of Plasmodium species based on signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins.
Malar. J.
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Signal peptide is one of the most important motifs involved in protein trafficking and it ultimately influences protein function. Considering the expected functional conservation among orthologs it was hypothesized that divergence in signal peptides within orthologous groups is mainly due to N-terminal protein sequence misannotation. Thus, discrepancies in signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins were used to identify misannotated proteins in five Plasmodium species.
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Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein: baseline antibody responses and parasite polymorphisms in a well-consolidated settlement of the Amazon Region.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To investigate risk factors associated with the acquisition of antibodies against Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) - a leading malaria vaccine candidate - in a well-consolidated agricultural settlement of the Brazilian Amazon Region and to determine the sequence diversity of the PvDBP ligand domain (DBP(II)) within the local malaria parasite population.
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Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage vaccine candidates (PvMSP-1?? and PvMSP-3???????? and their relationship with hematological features in malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon.
Microbes Infect.
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An important step when designing a vaccine is identifying the antigens that function as targets of naturally acquired antibodies. We investigated specific antibody responses against two Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidates, PvMSP-1?? and PvMSP-3????????. Moreover, we assessed the relationship between these antibodies and morbidity parameters. PvMSP-1?? was the most immunogenic antigen and the frequency of responders to this protein tended to increase in P. vivax patients with higher parasitemia. For both antigens, IgG antibody responses tended to be lower in patients who had experienced their first bout of malaria. Furthermore, anemic patients presented higher IgG antibody responses to PvMSP-3????????. Since the humoral response involves a number of antibodies acting simultaneously on different targets, we performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Anemic patients had, on average, higher first principal component scores (IgG1/IgG2/IgG3/IgG4 anti-MSP3?), which were negatively correlated with hemoglobin levels. Since antibodies against PfMSP-3 have been strongly associated with clinical protection, we cannot exclude the possibility of a dual role of PvMSP-3 specific antibodies in both immunity and pathogenesis of vivax malaria. Our results confirm the high immunogenicity of the conserved C terminus of PvMSP-1 and points to the considerable immunogenicity of polymorphic PvMSP-3???????? during natural infection.
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Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in Inland Brazil: an analysis of pooled epidemiological sectional studies.
J. Med. Virol.
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In order to assess the contribution of different parenteral routes as risk exposure to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), samples from nine surveys or cross-sectional studies conducted in two Brazilian inland regions were pooled, including a total of 3,910 subjects. Heterogeneity among the study results for different risk factors was tested and the results were shown to be homogeneous. Anti-HCV antibodies were observed in 241 individuals, of which 146 (3.7%, 95% CI?=?3.2-4.4) had HCV exposure confirmed by immunoblot analysis or PCR test. After adjustment for relevant variables, a correlation between confirmed HCV exposure and injection drug use, tattooing, and advance age was observed. In a second logistic model that included exposures not searched in all nine studies, a smaller sample was analyzed, revealing an independent HCV association with past history of surgery and males who have sex with other males, in addition to repeated injection drug use. Overall, these analyses corroborate the finding that injection drug use is the main risk factor for HCV exposure and spread, in addition to other parenteral routes.
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Fungal agents in different anatomical sites in Public Health Services in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
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A contribution to the regional epidemiological profile of the most common fungal agents in Public Health Services in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, including university hospitals and polyclinics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.