The nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) have been shown to exert a modulatory effect on immune cells during sepsis. We evaluated the suitability of an experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model for studying changes in the nociceptin system. C57BL/6 mice BALB/c mice and Wistar rats were inoculated with different doses of LPS with or without a nociceptin receptor antagonist (UFP-101 or SB-612111). In C57BL/6 mice LPS 0.85mg/kg injection produced no septic response, whereas 1.2mg/kg produced a profound response within 5h. In BALB/c mice, LPS 4mg/kg produced no response, whereas 7mg/kg resulted in a profound response within 24h. In Wistar rats LPS 15mg/kg caused no septic response in 6/10 animals, whereas 25mg/kg resulted in marked lethargy before 24h. Splenic interleukin-1? mRNA in BALB/c mice, and serum TNF-? concentrations in Wistar rats increased after LPS injection in a dose-dependent manner, but were undetectable in control animals, indicating that LPS had stimulated an inflammatory reaction. IL-1? and TNF-? concentrations in LPS-treated animals were unaffected by administration of a NOP antagonist. Similarly NOP antagonists had no effect on survival or expression of mRNA for NOP or ppN/OFQ (the N/OFQ precursor) in a variety of tissues. In these animal models, the dose-response curve for LPS was too steep to allow use in survival studies and no changes in the N/OFQ system occurred within 24h. We conclude that LPS-inoculation in rodents is an unsuitable model for studying possible changes in the NOP-N/OFQ system in sepsis.
Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) has been described as the essential enzyme for the lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation. Since there is strong published evidence indicating that complement activation via the LP critically contributes to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, we assessed the effect of MASP-2 deficiency in an isogenic mouse model of renal transplantation. The experimental transplantation model used included nephrectomy of the remaining native kidney at d 5 post-transplantation. While wild-type (WT) kidneys grafted into WT recipients (n=7) developed acute renal failure (control group), WT grafts transplanted into MASP-2-deficient recipients (n=7) showed significantly better kidney function, less C3 deposition, and less IR injury. In the absence of donor or recipient complement C4 (n=7), the WT to WT phenotype was preserved, indicating that the MASP-2-mediated damage was independent of C4 activation. This C4-bypass MASP-2 activity was confirmed in mice deficient for both MASP-2 and C4 (n=7), where the protection from postoperative acute renal failure was no greater than in mice with MASP-2 deficiency alone. Our study highlights the role of LP activation in renal IR injury and indicates that injury occurs through MASP-2-dependent activation events independent of C4.-Asgari, E., Farrar, C. A., Lynch, N., Ali, Y. M., Roscher, S., Stover, C., Zhou, W., Schwaeble, W. J., Sacks, S. H. Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 is critical for the development of renal ischemia reperfusion injury and mediates tissue injury in the absence of complement C4.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogens which can cause severe infectious disease in human, were used to infect properdin-deficient and wildtype mice. The aim was to deduce a role for properdin, positive regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, by comparing and contrasting the immune response of the two genotypes in vivo. We show that properdin-deficient and wildtype mice mounted antipneumococcal serotype-specific IgM antibodies, which were protective. Properdin-deficient mice, however, had increased survival in the model of streptococcal pneumonia and sepsis. Low activity of the classical pathway of complement and modulation of Fc?R2b expression appear to be pathogenically involved. In listeriosis, however, properdin-deficient mice had reduced survival and a dendritic cell population that was impaired in maturation and activity. In vitro analyses of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived myeloid cells support the view that the opposing outcomes of properdin-deficient and wildtype mice in these two infection models is likely to be due to a skewing of macrophage activity to an M2 phenotype in the properdin-deficient mice. The phenotypes observed thus appear to reflect the extent to which M2- or M1-polarised macrophages are involved in the immune responses to S. pneumoniae and L. monocytogenes. We conclude that properdin controls the strength of immune responses by affecting humoral as well as cellular phenotypes during acute bacterial infection and ensuing inflammation.
The nociceptin system comprises the nociceptin receptor (NOP) and the ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) that binds to the receptor. The archetypal role of the system is in pain processing but the NOP receptor is also expressed on immune cells. Activation of the NOP receptor is known to modulate inflammatory responses, such as mast-cell degranulation, neutrophil rolling, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, adhesion molecule regulation and leucocyte recruitment. As there is a loss of regulation of inflammatory responses during sepsis, the nociceptin system could be a target for therapies aimed at modulating sepsis. This review details the known effects of NOP activation on leucocytes and the vascular endothelium and discusses the most recent human and animal data on the role of the nociceptin system in sepsis.
Genetic, dietary and immune factors contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans and mice. Complement activation is an integral part of the innate immune defence but also shapes cellular responses and influences directly triglyceride synthesis. Deficiency of Factor B of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement is beneficial in LDLR(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. The serum glycoprotein properdin is a key positive regulator of the AP but has not been studied in experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was assessed after feeding low fat (LFD) or high fat (HFD) Western type diets to newly generated LDLR(-/-) Properdin(KO) (LDLR(-/-)P(KO)) and LDLR-/-PWT mice. Lipids, lymphocytes and monocytes were similar among genotypes, genders and diets. Complement C3, but not C3adesarg, levels were enhanced in LDLR(-/-)P(KO) mice regardless of diet type or gender. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were decreased in male LDLR(-/-)P(KO) fed a HFD compared with controls. All mice showed significant atherosclerotic burden in aortae and at aortic roots but male LDLR(-/-) mice fed a LFD were affected to the greatest extent by the absence of properdin. The protective effect of properdin expression was overwhelmed in both genders of LDLR(-/-)mice when fed a HFD. We conclude that properdin plays an unexpectedly beneficial role in the development and progression of early atherosclerotic lesions.
Properdin and factor H are two key regulatory proteins having opposite functions in the alternative complement pathway. Properdin up-regulates the alternative pathway by stabilizing the C3bBb complex, whereas factor H downregulates the pathway by promoting proteolytic degradation of C3b. While factor H is mainly produced in the liver, there are several extrahepatic sources. In addition to the liver, factor H is also synthesized in fetal tubuli, keratinocytes, skin fibroblasts, ocular tissue, adipose tissue, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, and placenta. Neutrophils are the major source of properdin, and it is also produced by monocytes, T cells and bone marrow progenitor cell line. Properdin is released by neutrophils from intracellular stores following stimulation by N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). The HEP G2 cells derived from human liver has been found to produce functional properdin. Endothelial cells also produce properdin when induced by shear stress, thus is a physiological source for plasma properdin. The diverse range of extrahepatic sites for synthesis of these two complement regulators suggests the importance and need for local availability of the proteins. Here, we discuss the significance of the local synthesis of properdin and factor H. This assumes greater importance in view of recently identified unexpected and novel roles of properdin and factor H that are potentially independent of their involvement in complement regulation.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the major clinical pathogens that burden immuno-compromised patients and patients with cystic fibrosis. The present study aimed to define the role of the lectin pathway of complement in the immune-defence against P. aeruginosa in a mouse model of invasive pneumonia. Using in vitro assays specific for each of the three complement pathways, we demonstrate that some strains of P. aeruginosa bind lectin pathway recognition sub-components and initiate complement activation in a lectin pathway-specific mode. All of the tested strains activated complement via classical and alternative pathways. We assessed the importance of lectin pathway activation in fighting P. aeruginosa infections by testing a lectin pathway activating strain in a mouse model of intra-nasal infection. MASP-2 (mannan binding lectin associated serine protease-2) deficient mice, which have no lectin pathway activity, had no significant survival disadvantage compared to wild type littermates (72.7% and 81.8% survival, respectively, p=0.48). Likewise, no difference in opsonising activity was seen between MASP-2 sufficient and MASP-2 deficient mouse sera. Moreover, cytokine expression profiles in the lungs of WT mice and MASP-2-/- mice were similar throughout the course of P. aeruginosa infection. We conclude that the lectin pathway does not play an essential role in fighting P. aeruginosa infection in mice.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease which manifests in the arterial vascular tree. It is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and contributes significantly to mortality in the developed world. Triggers for this inflammatory process are elevated levels of cholesterol, bacterial infection and obesity. The immune response in atherosclerosis is essentially pro-atherogenic, leading to lipid accumulation and cellular changes within the arterial wall. Small-animal models of atherosclerosis are used to study the relevance of candidate factors (cells, genes, diets) in the development and progression of lesions. From a multidisciplinary viewpoint, there are challenges and limitations to this approach. Activation of complement determines or modifies the outcome of acute and chronic inflammation. This review dissects the role of complement in the early development as well as the progressive manifestation of murine atherosclerosis and the advances in knowledge provided by the use of specific mouse models. It gives a critical overview of existing models, analyses seemingly conflicting results obtained with complement-deficient mouse models, highlights the importance of interrelationships between pro-coagulpant activity, adipose tissue, macrophages and complement, and uncovers exciting avenues of topical research.
Complement research experienced a renaissance with the discovery of a third activation route, the lectin pathway. We developed a unique model of total lectin pathway deficiency, a mouse strain lacking mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), and analyzed the role of MASP-2 in two models of postischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). In a model of transient myocardial IRI, MASP-2-deficient mice had significantly smaller infarct volumes than their wild-type littermates. Mice deficient in the downstream complement component C4 were not protected, suggesting the existence of a previously undescribed lectin pathway-dependent C4-bypass. Lectin pathway-mediated activation of C3 in the absence of C4 was demonstrated in vitro and shown to require MASP-2, C2, and MASP-1/3. MASP-2 deficiency also protects mice from gastrointestinal IRI, as do mAb-based inhibitors of MASP-2. The therapeutic effects of MASP-2 inhibition in this experimental model suggest the utility of anti-MASP-2 antibody therapy in reperfusion injury and other lectin pathway-mediated disorders.
Properdin, a serum glycoprotein, is an important component of innate immunity, the only known positive regulator of complement, acting as an initiation point for alternative pathway activation. As an X-linked protein, we hypothesized that properdin may play a modulatory role in the pathogenesis of viral wheeze in children, which tends to be more common and more severe in boys. We aimed to determine properdin levels in a community-based paediatric sample, and to assess whether levels of properdin were associated with childhood wheeze phenotypes and atopy. We studied 137 school-children aged 8-12 yrs, a nested sample from a cohort study. Properdin was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. We assessed wheeze by questionnaire, validated it by a nurse-led interview and performed skin prick tests and a methacholine challenge in all children. Forty children (29%) reported current wheeze. Serum properdin levels ranged between 18 and 40 microg/ml. Properdin was not associated with age, gender, atopy, bronchial responsiveness, current wheeze (neither the viral wheeze nor multiple-trigger wheeze phenotype) or severity of wheeze, but was slightly lower in south Asian (median 21.8 microg/ml) compared with white children (23.3 microg/ml; p = 0.006). Our data make it unlikely that properdin deficiency is common in healthy children or that levels of properdin are a major risk factor for wheeze or atopy.
An intact complement system is crucial for limiting West Nile virus (WNV) dissemination. Herein, we define how complement directly restricts flavivirus infection in an antibody-independent fashion. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognized N-linked glycans on the structural proteins of WNV and Dengue virus (DENV), resulting in neutralization through a C3- and C4-dependent mechanism that utilized both the canonical and bypass lectin activation pathways. For WNV, neutralization occurred with virus produced in insect cells, whereas for DENV, neutralization of insect and mammalian cell-derived virus was observed. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the MBL-dependent neutralization occurred, in part, by blocking viral fusion. Experiments in mice showed an MBL-dependent accelerated intravascular clearance of DENV or a WNV mutant with two N-linked glycans on its E protein, but not with wild-type WNV. Our studies show that MBL recognizes terminal mannose-containing carbohydrates on flaviviruses, resulting in neutralization and efficient clearance in vivo.
Complement-dependent cytotoxicity is one of the mechanisms by which therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are successful against cancer. Complement is one of the innate immune defence systems, whose activation products and membrane-bound regulators interact with cells of the adaptive immune response. The complement system is currently undergoing a re-appreciation in its role within the immune surveillance of tumour. The majority of human tumours are low immunogenic. Complement may be involved through direct, danger signal-elicited activation or via infiltration of inflammatory cells, which express complement components. Inflammatory cells may be associated with malignant transformation and tumour regression. The evidence for the effects of complement activation and regulation on tumour progression and expansion will be reviewed using in vivo, in vitro, and patient studies, and conclusions drawn for the implications in therapy and management of tumour patients.
Using properdin-deficient and wild-type mice, we have investigated the role of properdin in development and progression of zymosan-induced arthritis. At the initial phase of local, zymosan-induced inflammation, properdin-deficient and wild-type mice showed bone erosion, proteoglycan loss and cell infiltration. Compared to wild-type, properdin-deficient mice had reduced C5a and IL-6 but similar synovial TNF-alpha and sRANKL levels. Both groups showed a systemic immune response. Elevated IFN-gamma production and STAT1 signaling in splenocytes and a shift to Th1 response in popliteal lymph nodes were observed in properdin-deficient mice. Properdin-deficient mice had significantly less circulating zymosan-specific IgG antibodies than wild-type. In the chronic phase, the lack of properdin resulted in significant proteoglycan loss in the joints and lower cartilageneous STAT1 expression. The level of synovial C5a on day 30 was comparable in both groups, but C5aR staining was more apparent in the joints of properdin-deficient mice. Our data show that properdin is an important player in processes involved in inflammatory joint degradation.
Once thought of as purely the bodys chief energy store, adipose tissue and its constituent adipocytes have emerged as both a metabolic entity and an endocrine one. Complement is generally thought of as originating mainly from hepatic synthesis but also from synthesis by the macrophage phagocyte system. This review revisits early descriptions of adipocytic synthesis of complement components and highlights the need of a systematic analysis of the contribution of adipose tissue to systemic inflammation in order to appreciate the immunological activity of this tissue.
Complement factor H (CFH) is a negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement, and properdin is the sole positive regulator. CFH-deficient mice (CFH(-/-)) develop uncontrolled C3 activation and spontaneous renal disease characterized by accumulation of C3 along the glomerular basement membrane, but the role of properdin in the pathophysiology is unknown. Here, we studied mice deficient in both CFH and properdin (CFH(-/-).P(-/-)). Although CFH(-/-) mice had plasma depleted of both C3 and C5, CFH(-/-).P(-/-) animals exhibited depletion of C3 predominantly, recapitulating the plasma complement profile observed in humans with properdin-independent C3 nephritic factors. Glomerular inflammation, thickening of the capillary wall, and glomerular C3 staining were significantly increased in CFH(-/-).P(-/-) compared with CFH(-/-) mice. We previously reported that exogenous CFH ameliorates C3 staining of the glomerular basement membrane and triggers the appearance of mesangial C3 deposits in CFH(-/-) mice; here, we show that these effects require properdin. In summary, during uncontrolled activation of C3 driven by complete CFH deficiency, properdin influences the intraglomerular localization of C3, suggesting that therapeutic inhibition of properdin would be detrimental in this setting.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Properdin amplifies the alternative pathway of complement activation. In the present study, we evaluated its role in the development of collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). METHODS: Arthritis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a collagen antibody cocktail into properdin-deficient (KO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Symptoms of disease were evaluated daily. The degree of joint damage was assessed histologically and with immunostaining for bone-resorption markers. Phenotypes of cell populations, their receptor expression, and intracellular cytokine production were determined with flow cytometry. Osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow (BM) precursors was evaluated by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). RESULTS: Properdin-deficient mice developed less severe CAIA than did WT mice. They showed significantly improved clinical scores and downregulated expression of bone-resorption markers in the joints at day 10 of disease. The frequencies of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells were fewer in BM, blood, and synovial fluid (SF) of KO than of WT CAIA mice. The receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) was downregulated on arthritic KO neutrophils from BM and the periphery. Decreased C5a amounts in KO SF contributed to lower frequencies of CD5aR+-bearing neutrophils. In blood, surface C5aR was detected on KO Ly6G+ cells as a result of low receptor engagement. Circulating CD4+ T cells had an altered ability to produce interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-? and to express RANKL. In KO CAIA mice, decreased frequencies of CD4+ T cells in the spleen were related to low CD86 expression on Ly6GhighCD11b+ cells. Arthritic KO T cells spontaneously secreted IFN-? but not IL-17 and IL-6, and responded to restimulation with less-vigorous cytokine production in comparison to WT cells. Fewer TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts were found in KO BM cell cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the active involvement of properdin in arthritis is related to an increased proinflammatory cytokine production and RANKL expression on immune cells and to a stimulation of the RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation.
The complement system plays a key role in host defense against pneumococcal infection. Three different pathways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, mediate complement activation. While there is limited information available on the roles of the classical and the alternative activation pathways of complement in fighting streptococcal infection, little is known about the role of the lectin pathway, mainly due to the lack of appropriate experimental models of lectin pathway deficiency. We have recently established a mouse strain deficient of the lectin pathway effector enzyme mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and shown that this mouse strain is unable to form the lectin pathway specific C3 and C5 convertases. Here we report that MASP-2 deficient mice (which can still activate complement via the classical pathway and the alternative pathway) are highly susceptible to pneumococcal infection and fail to opsonize Streptococcus pneumoniae in the none-immune host. This defect in complement opsonisation severely compromises pathogen clearance in the lectin pathway deficient host. Using sera from mice and humans with defined complement deficiencies, we demonstrate that mouse ficolin A, human L-ficolin, and collectin 11 in both species, but not mannan-binding lectin (MBL), are the pattern recognition molecules that drive lectin pathway activation on the surface of S. pneumoniae. We further show that pneumococcal opsonisation via the lectin pathway can proceed in the absence of C4. This study corroborates the essential function of MASP-2 in the lectin pathway and highlights the importance of MBL-independent lectin pathway activation in the host defense against pneumococci.
The complement system is well known for its role in innate immunity via the classical, the alternative and the lectin pathways, although recent investigations suggest expanding roles in adipose tissue. Properdin stabilizes C3 convertase following alternative complement activation. Properdin is also present in adipose tissue, localized to adipocyte membranes.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex inflammatory vascular disease. There are currently limited treatment options for AAA when surgery is inapplicable. Therefore, insights into molecular mechanisms underlying AAA pathogenesis may reveal therapeutic targets that could be manipulated pharmacologically or biologically to halt disease progression. Using an elastase-induced AAA mouse model, we previously established that the complement alternative pathway (AP) plays a critical role in the development of AAA. However, the mechanism by which complement AP is initiated remains undefined. The complement protein properdin, traditionally viewed as a positive regulator of the AP, may also initiate complement activation by binding directly to target surfaces. In this study, we sought to determine whether properdin serves as a focal point for the initiation of the AP complement activation in AAA. Using a properdin loss of function mutation in mice and a mutant form of the complement factor B protein that produces a stable, properdin-free AP C3 convertase, we show that properdin is required for the development of elastase-induced AAA in its primary role as a convertase stabilizer. Unexpectedly, we find that, in AAA, natural IgG antibodies direct AP-mediated complement activation. The absence of IgG abrogates C3 deposition in elastase-perfused aortic wall and protects animals from AAA development. We also determine that blockade of properdin activity prevents aneurysm formation. These results indicate that an innate immune response to self-antigens activates the complement system and initiates the inflammatory cascade in AAA. Moreover, the study suggests that properdin-targeting strategies may halt aneurysmal growth.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.