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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for circadian time-place learning in mice.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. The TPL task applied in this study consists of three daily sessions in a three-arm maze, with a food reward at the end of each arm. During each session, mice should avoid one specific arm to avoid a foot-shock. We previously demonstrated that, rather than using external cue-based strategies, mice use an internal clock (circadian strategy) for TPL, referred to as circadian TPL (cTPL). It is unknown in which brain region(s) or peripheral organ(s) the consulted clock underlying cTPL resides. Three candidates were examined in this study: (a) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a light entrainable oscillator (LEO) and considered the master circadian clock in the brain, (b) the food entrainable oscillator (FEO), entrained by restricted food availability, and (c) the adrenal glands, harboring an important peripheral oscillator. cTPL performance should be affected if the underlying oscillator system is abruptly phase-shifted. Therefore, we first investigated cTPL sensitivity to abrupt light and food shifts. Next we investigated cTPL in SCN-lesioned- and adrenalectomized mice. Abrupt FEO phase-shifts (induced by advancing and delaying feeding time) affected TPL performance in specific test sessions while a LEO phase-shift (induced by a light pulse) more severely affected TPL performance in all three daily test sessions. SCN-lesioned mice showed no TPL deficiencies compared to SHAM-lesioned mice. Moreover, both SHAM- and SCN-lesioned mice showed unaffected cTPL performance when re-tested after bilateral adrenalectomy. We conclude that, although cTPL is sensitive to timing manipulations with light as well as food, neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for cTPL in mice.
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Decrease in unmet needs contributes to improved motivation for treatment in elderly patients with severe mental illness.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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To investigate the pattern of associations between changes in unmet needs and treatment motivation in elderly patients with severe mental illness.
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Changes in individual needs for care and quality of life in Assertive Community Treatment patients: an observational study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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BackgroundIt is largely unknown which unmet needs in the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS) need to be resolved in order to improve a patients¿ subjective quality of life (QoL). We therefore investigated the pattern of individual unmet needs over time and its relation to QoL over time.MethodsUsing data gathered from 251 patients in a Routine Outcome Monitoring procedure in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams, we used paired samples tests to analyze differences in QoL total scores and the number of unmet needs between baseline and follow-up data. Ordinal regression was used to analyze the relationship between outcome in individual unmet needs and QoL.ResultsAs well as small improvements in QoL over time in patients in contact with ACT, we found a small to moderate decrease in unmet needs over time. While a decreasing number of unmet needs was associated with an increase in QoL, outcomes in QoL and individual unmet needs were weakly related (r¿¿¿.165). Ordinal regression analysis showed that a better outcome in individual unmet needs related to accommodation and day-time activities was weakly related to a better outcome in QoL.ConclusionsPatients receiving ACT make small improvements in their QoL and ACT may help to solve some of their needs. QoL benefits from reducing needs for care, in particular the need for appropriate housing and meaningful daytime activities.
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The effectiveness of assertive community treatment for elderly patients with severe mental illness: a randomized controlled trial.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Due to fragmented mental, somatic, and social healthcare services, it can be hard to engage into care older patients with severe mental illness (SMI). In adult mental health care, assertive community treatment (ACT) is an organizational model of care for treating patients with SMI who are difficult to engage. So far all outcome studies of assertive community treatment have been conducted in adults.
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[Payment for accepting depot medication].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Non-compliance with medication constitutes a large problem in medicine. Recently the results of a cluster randomised controlled trial were published in which financial incentives were offered to patients with psychotic disorders. The objective of this study was to test if financial incentives effectively improved adherence to maintenance treatment with depot antipsychotics. The financial incentives increased acceptance of depot medication but did not lead to any clinical benefits. Therefore, the implementation of contingency management using financial incentives is not yet desirable.
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Measures of Motivation for Psychiatric Treatment Based on Self-Determination Theory: Psychometric Properties in Dutch Psychiatric Outpatients.
Assessment
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Self-determination theory is potentially useful for understanding reasons why individuals with mental illness do or do not engage in psychiatric treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of three questionnaires based on self-determination theory-The Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ), and the Short Motivation Feedback List (SMFL)-in a sample of 348 Dutch adult outpatients with primary diagnoses of mood, anxiety, psychotic, and personality disorders. Structural equation modeling showed that the empirical factor structures of the TEQ and SMFL were adequately represented by a model with three intercorrelated factors. These were interpreted as identified, introjected, and external motivation. The reliabilities of the Dutch TEQ, HCCQ, and SMFL were found to be acceptable but can be improved on; congeneric estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 depending on the measure and patient subsample. Preliminary support for the construct validities of the questionnaires was found in the form of theoretically expected associations with other scales, including therapist-rated motivation and treatment engagement and with legally mandated treatment. Additionally, the study provides insights into the relations between measures of motivation based on self-determination theory, the transtheoretical model and the integral model of treatment motivation in psychiatric outpatients with severe mental illness.
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The use of coercive interventions in mental health care in Germany and the Netherlands. A comparison of the developments in two neighboring countries.
Front Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this review, we compare the use of coercion in mental health care in Germany and in the Netherlands. Legal frameworks and published data on involuntary commitment, involuntary medication, seclusion, and restraint are highlighted as well as the role of guidelines, training, and attitudes held by psychiatrists and the public. Legal procedures regulating involuntary admission and commitment are rather similar, and so is the percentage of involuntary admissions and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. However, opposing trends can be observed in the use of coercive interventions during treatment, which in both countries are considered as a last resort after all other alternative approaches have failed. In the Netherlands, for a long time seclusion has been considered as preferred intervention while the use of medication by force was widely disapproved as being unnecessarily invasive. However, after increasing evidence showed that number and duration of seclusions as well as the number of aggressive incidents per admission were considerably higher than in other European countries, attitudes changed within recent years. A national program with spending of 15 million € was launched to reduce the use of seclusion, while the use of medication was facilitated. A legislation is scheduled, which will allow also outpatient coercive treatment. In Germany, the latter was never legalized. While coercive treatment in Germany was rather common for involuntarily committed patients and mechanical restraint was preferred to seclusion in most hospital as a containment measure, the decisions of the Constitutional Court in 2011 had a high impact on legislation, attitudes, and clinical practice. Though since 2013 coercive medication is approvable again under strict conditions, it is now widely perceived as very invasive and last resort. There is evidence that this change of attitudes lead to a considerable increase of the use of seclusion and restraint for some patients.
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Effect of crisis plans on admissions and emergency visits: a randomized controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To establish whether patients with a crisis plan had fewer voluntary or involuntary admissions, or fewer outpatient emergency visits, than patients without such a plan.
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Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so), few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population.
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Analysis of cognition, motor performance and anxiety in young and aged tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 and 2 deficient mice.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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TNF-? plays important functional roles in the central nervous system during normal physiological circumstances via intricate signaling mechanisms between its receptors, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2). Although the roles of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in the diseased brain have received considerable attention, their functions on behavior and cognition in a non-inflammatory physiological aged environment are still unknown. In the present study we investigated the functional roles of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in learning and memory, motor performance and anxiety-like behavior via several behavioral and cognitive assessments in young and aged mice, deficient of either TNFR1 or TNFR2. Results from this study show that deletion of TNFR2 impairs novel object recognition, spatial memory recognition, contextual fear conditioning, motor performance and can increase anxiety-like behavior in young adult mice. Concerning the functions of TNFR1 and TNFR2 functioning in an aged environment, age caused memory impairment in spatial memory recognition independent of genotype. However, both young and aged mice deficient of TNFR2 performed poorly in the contextual fear conditioning test. These mice displayed decreased anxiety-like behavior, whereas mice deficient of TNFR1 were insusceptible to the effect of aging on anxiety-like behavior. This study provides novel knowledge on TNFR1 and TNFR2 functioning in behavior and cognition in young and aged mice in a non-inflammatory physiological environment.
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Lack of motivation for treatment associated with greater care needs and psychosocial problems.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To compare the care needs and severity of psychosocial problems in older patients with severe mental illness (SMI) between those who were and were not motivated for treatment.
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Defining multiple criteria for meaningful outcome in routine outcome measurement using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Using the reliable and clinically significant change approach, we aimed to identify meaningful outcome indicators for the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and to combine them in a single model. We applied these indicators to the 1-year outcome of two large samples of people attending community mental health services in Italy (cohort 1) and the Netherlands (cohort 2).
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Assertive Community Treatment and Associations with Substance Abuse Problems.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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This study examined the associations between substance abuse problems in severely mentally ill patients, outcome and Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model fidelity. In a prospective longitudinal study, ACT model fidelity and patient outcomes were assessed in 20 outpatient treatment teams using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, Camberwell Assessment of Needs short appraisal schedule and measures of service use. Five hundred and thirty severely mentally ill patients participated in the study. Substance abuse problems were assessed three times during a 2-year follow-up period. This study found that among patients with severe mental illness, patients with an addiction problem had more serious psychosocial problems at baseline. Substance abuse problems showed improvement over time, but this was not associated with ACT model fidelity. The study indicates that investment by teams to improve a patients psychosocial situation can lead to improvements on substance problems.
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The availability and quality across Europe of outpatient care for difficult-to-engage patients with severe mental illness: A survey among experts.
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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BACKGROUND: As many patients with severe mental illness (SMI) who have complex needs are difficult to engage, outreach mental health services are needed to engage them into treatment. The extent to which these services exist in large European cities is unknown. METHODS: Experts in 29 European countries were sent a structured questionnaire containing two case vignettes of difficult-to-engage patients (a first-episode psychosis patient and a homeless chronic schizophrenia patient). The type and quality of outpatient care was assessed and related to several national indices. RESULTS: The questionnaire was returned by experts from 22 countries (76%) representing 92% of the EU population. Six countries (21%) had a systematic method for detecting difficult-to-engage patients. The most important route whereby such patients entered the mental health system was through informal care; the most important reasons for entering it were the level of psychiatric symptoms, nuisance and violence. Assertive outreach was available in nine countries (41%), with coverage ranging from a few teams (sometimes for a specific target group) to most of the country. The case vignettes showed that outpatient care for these difficult-to-engage patients varied widely. In seven (30%) of the 22 countries, a hospital would take no action if such patients who had been admitted voluntarily discharged themselves prematurely. On a scale of 0-10, the experts mean scores regarding the quality of outpatient care for patients with SMI in general were 5.2 (SD = 1.9) and 3.2 (SD = 2.2) in difficult-to-engage ones. Explorative analyses showed that the quality of outpatient care for difficult-to-engage patients was associated with gross national income and the number of psychiatrists per capita. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient mental health services for difficult-to-engage SMI patients varied widely among European countries; experts judged their overall quality to be poor. It is now important to achieve consensus on a minimum European standard for the quality of care for such patients.
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A multi-site single blind clinical study to compare the effects of prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and waiting list on patients with a current diagnosis of psychosis and co morbid post traumatic stress disorder: study pro
Trials
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Trauma contributes to psychosis and in psychotic disorders post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often a comorbid disorder. A problem is that PTSD is underdiagnosed and undertreated in people with psychotic disorders. This studys primary goal is to examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD in patients with both psychotic disorders and PTSD, as compared to a waiting list. Secondly, the effects of both treatments are determined on (a) symptoms of psychosis, in particular verbal hallucinations, (b) depression and social performance, and (c) economic costs. Thirdly, goals concern links between trauma exposure and psychotic symptomatology and the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events, and of PTSD. Fourthly predictors, moderators, and mediators for treatment success will be explored. These include cognitions and experiences concerning treatment harm, credibility and burden in both participants and therapists.
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The motivation paradox: higher psychosocial problem levels in severely mentally ill patients are associated with less motivation for treatment.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Lack of motivation for treatment makes a subgroup of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) difficult to engage in psychiatric treatment. Such difficult-to-engage patients may also be the most in need of treatment. We hypothesized that the level of psychosocial problems would be inversely related to motivation for treatment.
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Improved insight affects social outcomes in involuntarily committed psychotic patients: a longitudinal study in the Netherlands.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Lack of insight in schizophrenia is associated with negative social outcomes mediated by symptom severity, but longitudinal studies show contradicting findings.
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Patient perspectives and the risk of compulsory admission: The Amsterdam Study of Acute Psychiatry V.
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Compulsory admission to a psychiatric hospital is associated with a three- to fourfold increase in the risk of another compulsory admission. Given the rising numbers of civil detentions in the Netherlands and other European countries, it is important to understand the mechanism behind this association. Our aim is to study the links between opinions about prior psychiatric treatment, insight, service engagement and the risk of (new) civil detentions. METHODS: We took a random sample of 252 from the 2,682 patients consecutively coming into contact with two psychiatric emergency teams in Amsterdam between September 2004 and September 2006. We recorded socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and information about prior involuntary admissions. We interviewed the patients using the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale (Verona-EU), the Birchwood Insight Scale and the Service Engagement Scale. During a two-year follow-up period we noted their use of mental health care facilities. RESULTS: Patients with a satisfactory score on the Verona-EU had significantly lower odds for civil detentions during follow-up compared to patients with a dissatisfactory score on this scale (OR = 0.3). Level of insight did not influence the risk of detention during follow-up. Furthermore, of the 131 patients admitted involuntarily the year before, one-third looked back on their involuntary admission with unambiguous satisfaction. CONCLUSION: More satisfaction with prior treatment seems to reduce the risk of civil detention remarkably. Low levels of satisfaction seem to be mainly dependent on a history of previous involuntary admission. These findings seem to open up a new perspective for diminishing the risk of (new) civil detention by trying to enhance satisfaction with treatment, especially for patients under detention.
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A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms.
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Why do patients with schizophrenia who have poor insight still take antipsychotics? Memory deficits as moderators between adherence belief and behavior.
J Psychiatr Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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While lack of insight is often predictive of antipsychotic nonadherence, some inconsistency in the literature remains unexplained. Verbal memory deficits may moderate the association between insight and adherence. Based on cross-sectional data, outpatients treated with antipsychotics for a psychotic disorder were divided into those with good (n=53) and poor (n=59) memory. Poor insight predicted nonadherence only among the subgroup with relatively good memory (r=0.43; P<0.01), but had no effect in the subgroup with worse memory (r=0.08; ns). Structural equation modelling revealed significant moderation (?=4.72; df=1; P<0.05), which means that a significantly better model fit was found by allowing the analysis to differentiate between the two memory groups. Thus, poor insight was only associated with poor medication adherence among patients with relatively good memory. We speculate that memory deficits commonly associated with schizophrenia may partly explain why poor insight does not always lead to poor medication adherence.
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Anxiety disorders and comorbid depression in community dwelling older adults.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Anxiety disorder is a common psychiatric problem during late-life, and frequently co-occurs with depression. High comorbidity between anxiety and depression may partly be explained by the definition of the disorders and the assessment of both disorders with one instrument at the same time. The current study investigates the relation of current and past depression with anxiety disorders in the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based cohort study of older adults in the Netherlands (n study population?=?5565). DSM-IV anxiety disorder was ascertained with the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. DSM-IV depression was diagnosed with the Schedules for Clinical Assessment of Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) on a different day. Past depression was assessed from general practitioners records, self-report, and a prior SCAN interview. Of the 457 persons with an anxiety disorder, 11.6% had a comorbid major depression, and another 6.3% had other depressive syndromes. However, 49.3% of persons with an anxiety disorder experienced or had in the past experienced a depressive episode. Our study suggests that comorbid depression in older adults with anxiety disorders may be less prevalent than previously suggested. However, the relation of current anxiety disorders with past depression is substantial.
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Factors associated with higher risks of emergency compulsory admission for immigrants: a report from the ASAP study.
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Specific ethnic groups appear to be disproportionally represented in emergency compulsory admissions. This may be due to a parallel higher risk of psychopathology, but different pathways to care in patients from ethnic minorities may also be an explanatory factor. In this article we concentrate on the influence of ethnic background, pathways to psychiatric emergency services and the amount of past psychiatric treatment as predictors of emergency compulsory admission.
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Recovery style predicts remission at one-year follow-up in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Although people with schizophrenia use various coping strategies, it is largely unknown how their coping style contributes to remission of the illness. The concept of recovery style-either by sealing over or integrating-reflects an important distinction. We wanted to examine whether recovery style predicts remission at a 1-year follow-up. We examined the recovery style, insight, therapeutic alliance, and symptoms in 103 patients with psychotic disorders. To assess the remission status, the symptoms were measured at 6 and 12 months. Logistic regression analyses were used. Results showed that scoring an extra category toward integration (six categories exist) increased the odds of remission 1.84-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 3.03). Insight and therapeutic alliance were not predictive. Although remission was also predicted by positive symptom levels at baseline, this did not influence the effect of recovery style. In conclusion, independently of symptom levels, insight, or therapeutic alliance, an integrating recovery style increases the odds of remission at a 1-year follow-up.
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Assertive community treatment in the Netherlands: outcome and model fidelity.
Can J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The implementation of assertive community treatment (ACT) varies widely. To date, the association between model fidelity and effect has not been investigated in Europe. We investigated the association between model fidelity and outcome in the Dutch mental health system.
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Breakdown of continuity in public mental healthcare in the Netherlands: a longitudinal case study.
Int J Integr Care
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Continuity of care for long-term service-dependent patients in the public mental health system requires intensive collaboration between all agencies involved. Understanding the ways in which various aspects of continuity of care interact may reveal help to find out more about how care delivered over time improves outcomes.
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The PCLO gene and depressive disorders: replication in a population-based study.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Previous genome-wide association analysis revealed a new putative candidate gene for major depression: the PCLO gene. Replication in one population-based cohort did not yield genome-wide significance and further replication efforts in clinical studies were unsuccessful. We aimed to validate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2522833 in the PCLO gene with depression in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort of elderly persons. In the Rotterdam Study, we identified 579 persons with a broad depression phenotype (depressive syndromes) of whom 178 cases with DSM-defined depressive disorder. The control group consisted of 912 persons free of depression during the follow-up period and in their histories. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between rs2522833 and depressive disorders (P = 0.0025). However, no association between the broader depressive syndrome group and this SNP was observed (P = 0.20). A meta-analysis combining all studies from the original publication and our study yielded a P-value of 2.16 x 10(-3) for the association between SNP rs2522833 and depressive disorders. However, as in the previous publication, high heterogeneity between studies was observed. Thus, a meta-analysis with the findings from three population-based studies was performed. This demonstrated a genome-wide significant P-value (P = 1.93 x 10(-9)). In conclusion, this study provides additional evidence for an association between PCLO and depressive disorders in a population-based study; no association with a broader syndromal phenotype was observed.
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Involuntary admission of emergency psychiatric patients: report from the Amsterdam Study of Acute Psychiatry.
Psychiatr Serv
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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This brief report presents initial data from the Amsterdam Study of Acute Psychiatry (ASAP-I) about factors associated with the decision to admit patients compulsorily (involuntarily) to emergency psychiatric services in the Amsterdam region of the Netherlands.
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Beliefs about mental health problems and help-seeking behavior in Dutch young adults.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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Mental health problems in young adults are frequent and impairing, but are often left untreated. This study among young adults with self-perceived mental health problems examines beliefs about mental health problems (i.e. their cause, consequences, timeline, and controllability) and help-seeking behaviour.
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Reconstructing continuity of care in mental health services: a multilevel conceptual framework.
J Health Serv Res Policy
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Continuity of mental health care is a key issue in the organization and evaluation of services for patients with disabling chronic conditions. Over many years, health services researchers have been exploring the conceptual boundaries between continuity of care and other service characteristics. On the basis of papers published over the past decade, we argue that while conceptual consensus is growing, there is room to improve continuity measures, and the development of practical interventions is still at an early stage. There is growing consensus that continuity of care is a multidimensional concept. We identified four core elements: continuous care; care of an individual patient; cross-boundary care; and care recorded objectively. These elements help clarify conceptual boundaries, and incorporate measurement guidelines. With reference to these core elements, we define types of continuity of care, including informational continuity, management continuity, relational continuity and contact continuity. In order to improve continuity of care, better understanding is needed of the complex inter-relationship of core elements and types of continuity. A multilevel perspective on continuity of care can guide research to develop and evaluate new interventions. Achieving continuity of care is hindered by the lack of standard measures and administrative data appropriate to assessing continuity. Account should be taken not only of the nature of the patient population, but also of local conditions. To address these topics and identify best practices, research should be multidisciplinary and take a comparative, naturalistic form.
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Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?
Int J Integr Care
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services.
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The effects of a nationwide program to reduce seclusion in the Netherlands.
BMC Psychiatry
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From 2006 to 2009, the Dutch government provided €5 m annually for a nationwide program to reduce seclusion in psychiatric hospitals by 10% a year. We aimed to establish whether the numbers of both seclusion and involuntary medication changed significantly after the start of this national program.
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Is vitamin D deficiency a confounder in alcoholic skeletal muscle myopathy?
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
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Excessive intake of alcohol is often associated with low or subnormal levels of vitamin D even in the absence of active liver disease. As vitamin D deficiency is a well-recognized cause of myopathy, alcoholic myopathy might be related to vitamin D deficiency. Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects approximately half of chronic alcoholics and is characterized by the insidious development of muscular weakness and wasting. Although alcohol or its metabolites may have a direct toxic effect on muscles, the relationship between alcoholic myopathy and vitamin D deficiency has not been examined extensively.
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Motivation and treatment engagement intervention trial (MotivaTe-IT): the effects of motivation feedback to clinicians on treatment engagement in patients with severe mental illness.
BMC Psychiatry
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Treatment disengagement and non-completion poses a major problem for the successful treatment of patients with severe mental illness. Motivation for treatment has long been proposed as a major determinant of treatment engagement, but exact mechanisms remain unclear. This current study serves three purposes: 1) to determine whether a feedback intervention based on the patients motivation for treatment is effective at improving treatment engagement (TE) of severe mentally ill patients in outpatient psychiatric treatment, 2) to gather insight into motivational processes and possible mechanisms regarding treatment motivation (TM) and TE in this patient population and 3) to determine which of three theories of motivation is most plausible for the dynamics of TM and TE in this population.
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Reducing seclusion through involuntary medication: a randomized clinical trial.
Psychiatry Res
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The study evaluated whether seclusion and coercive incidents would be reduced in extent and number if involuntary medication was the first choice of intervention. Patients admitted to an acute psychiatric ward were randomly allocated to two groups. In Group 1, involuntary medication was the intervention of first choice for dealing with agitation and risk of violence. In Group 2, seclusion was the intervention of first choice. Patients characteristics between the groups were compared by Pearson ?(2) and two-sample t-tests; the incidence rates and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated to examine differences in number and duration of coercive incidents. In Group 1, the relative risk of being secluded was lower than in Group 2, whereas the risk of receiving involuntary medication was higher. However, the mean duration of the seclusion incidents did not differ significantly between the two groups; neither did the total number of coercive incidents. Although the use of involuntary medication could successfully replace and reduce the number of seclusions, alternative interventions are needed to reduce the overall number and duration of coercive incidents. A new policy for managing acute aggression - such as involuntary medication - can be implemented effectively only if certain conditions are met.
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Determinants of seclusion after aggression in psychiatric inpatients.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
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Some aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards result in seclusion, whereas others do not. We used the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised and the mental health trusts database to identify determinants that predicted seclusion after aggression. These consisted of demographic, diagnostic, contextual, and aggression characteristics and were analyzed in a multilevel logistic regression. This showed associations between seclusion and aggression for the following: younger age, involuntary status, history of previous aggression, physical or dangerous violence, aggression being directed against objects, and a more severe incident. Thus, seclusion after aggression appears to be mainly predicted by aggression itself.
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Anxiety disorders and salivary cortisol levels in older adults: a population-based study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the bodys main systems that controls response to stress. It acts through the hormone cortisol. While the dysregulation of cortisol has been associated with anxiety disorders, the evidence is inconsistent. Moreover, only a few small studies have assessed this relationship in older adults.
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Symptomatic and functional remission and its associations with quality of life in patients with psychotic disorder in Assertive Community Treatment teams.
Compr Psychiatry
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The aims of the present study were (1) to determine the proportion and characteristics of patients treated in Assertive Community Treatment teams who achieve symptomatic remission (SR) and/or functional remission (FR) and (2) to explore the association between both types of remission and (3) their bearing on quality of life (QoL).
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Evaluation of behavioral changes and subjective distress after exposure to coercive inpatient interventions.
BMC Psychiatry
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There is a lack of evidence to underpin decisions on what constitutes the most effective and least restrictive form of coercive intervention when responding to violent behavior. Therefore we compared ratings of effectiveness and subjective distress by 125 inpatients across four types of coercive interventions.
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Social support and risk of compulsory admission: part IV of the Amsterdam Study of Acute Psychiatry.
Psychiatr Serv
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Social support for patients with a mental illness has been associated with a lower rate of hospitalization. It is important to clarify the role played by a lack of social support as a possible predictor of emergency compulsory admission.
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Duration of assertive community treatment and the interpretation of routine outcome data.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
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Statistical inferences based on routine outcome monitoring data are susceptible to biases. Because this process may be influenced by differences in attrition and treatment duration, we wished to gain an insight into the relationship between treatment duration and clinical outcome.
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Consumer-providers in assertive community treatment programs: associations with client outcomes.
Psychiatr Serv
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This study examined whether employing mental health consumers as consumer-providers in assertive community treatment teams can enhance outcomes for clients with severe mental illness.
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Early detection of risk factors for seclusion and restraint: a prospective study.
Early Interv Psychiatry
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The study aims to examine the predictive power of static and dynamic risk factors assessed at admission to an acute psychiatric ward and to develop a prediction model evaluating the risk of seclusion and restraint.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.