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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ex Vivo Expanded Autologous Polyclonal Regulatory T Cells Suppress Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilia.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Adoptive cell therapy utilizing ex vivo expanded polyclonal CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) is in use in clinical trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes and prevention of graft vs host disease in bone marrow transplantation. Here we seek to evaluate this approach in the treatment of inherited protein deficiencies, i.e. hemophilia, which is often complicated by antibody formation against the therapeutic protein. Treg from mice that express GFP-marked FoxP3 were highly purified by two-step magnetic/flow sorting and ex vivo expanded 50- to 80-fold over a 2-week culture period upon stimulation with antibody-coated microbeads. FoxP3 expression was maintained in >80% of expanded Treg, which also expressed high levels of CD62L and CTLA-4. Transplanted Treg suppressed inhibitory antibody formation against coagulation factors VIII and IX in protein and gene therapies in strain-matched hemophilia A and B mice, including in mice with pre-existing antibodies. Although transplanted Treg became undetectable within two weeks, suppression persisted for >2 months. Additional studies suggested that antigen-specific suppression emerged due to induction of endogenous Treg. The outcomes of these studies support the concept that cell therapy with ex vivo expanded autologous Treg can be used successfully to minimize immune responses in gene and protein replacement therapies.
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SAP-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Innate T Cell Development Involving SLAMF Receptors.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8(+) T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1?+?6](-/-) and Slamf[1?+?5?+?6](-/-) B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8(+) T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1?+?5?+?6](-/-) , but not in the Slamf[1?+?6](-/-) strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8(+) T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5(-/-) B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8(+) T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7(-/-) strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8(+) T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3(-/-) BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF(hi)) NKT cells and innate CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8(-/-) BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8(+) T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8(+) T cells.
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Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor Family-Related Protein Ligand is Requisite for Optimal Functioning of Regulatory CD4(+) T Cells.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (TNFRSF18, CD357) is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and is inducible on effector T cells. In this report, we examine the role of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein ligand (GITR-L), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, on the development and expansion of Tregs. We found that GITR-L is dispensable for the development of naturally occurring FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the thymus. However, the expansion of Treg in GITR-L (-/-) mice is impaired after injection of the dendritic cells (DCs) inducing factor Flt3 ligand. Furthermore, DCs from the liver of GITR-L (-/-) mice were less efficient in inducing proliferation of antigen-specific Treg cells in vitro than the same cells from WT littermates. Upon gene transfer of ovalbumin into hepatocytes of GITR-L (-/-)FoxP3(GFP) reporter mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV8-OVA) the number of antigen-specific Treg in liver and spleen is reduced. The reduced number of Tregs resulted in an increase in the number of ovalbumin specific CD8(+) T effector cells. This is highly significant because proliferation of antigen-specific CD8(+) cells itself is dependent on the presence of GITR-L, as shown by in vitro experiments and by adoptive transfers into GITR-L (-/-) Rag (-/-) and Rag (-/-) mice that had received AAV8-OVA. Surprisingly, administering ?CD3 significantly reduced the numbers of FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the liver and spleen of GITR-L (-/-) but not WT mice. Because soluble Fc-GITR-L partially rescues ?CD3 induced in vitro depletion of the CD103(+) subset of FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Treg cells, we conclude that expression of GITR-L by antigen presenting cells is requisite for optimal Treg-mediated regulation of immune responses including those in response during gene transfer.
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Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein ligand regulates the migration of monocytes to the inflamed intestine.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein (GITR) regulates the function of both T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs), while the function of GITR ligand (GITR-L) is largely unknown. Here we evaluate the role of GITR-L, whose expression is restricted to APCs, in the development of enterocolitis. On injecting naive CD4(+) T cells, GITR-L(-/-)Rag(-/-) mice develop a markedly milder colitis than Rag(-/-) mice, which correlates with a 50% reduction of Ly6C(+)CD11b(+)MHCII(+) macrophages in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. The same result was observed in ?CD40-induced acute colitis and during peritonitis, suggesting an altered monocyte migration. In line with these observations, the number of nondifferentiated monocytes was approximately 3-fold higher in the spleen of GITR-L(-/-)Rag(-/-) mice than in Rag(-/-) mice after ?CD40 induction. Consistent with the dynamic change in the formation of an active angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) dimer in GITR-L(-/-) splenic monocytes during intestinal inflammation, the migratory capability of splenic monocytes from GITR-L-deficient mice was impaired in an in vitro transwell migration assay. Conversely, ?GITR-L reduces the number of splenic Ly6C(hi) monocytes, concomitantly with an increase in AT1 dimers. We conclude that GITR-L regulates the number of proinflammatory macrophages in sites of inflammation by controlling the egress of monocytes from the splenic reservoir.-Liao, G., van Driel, B., Magelky, E., OKeeffe, M. S., de Waal Malefyt, R., Engel, P., Herzog, R. W., Mizoguchi, E., Bhan, A. K., Terhorst, C. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein ligand regulates the migration of monocytes to the inflamed intestine.
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T cell CD3? deficiency enables multiorgan tissue inflammation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Although a population of T cells with CD3? chain deficiency has been found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and infectious disease, the role of CD3? chain in the disease pathogenesis remains unknown. To understand the contribution of CD3? deficiency to the expression of organ injury, we have performed the following studies. We used CD3?-deficient mice to investigate the role of CD3? in the pathogenesis of organ tissue inflammation. We found that the CD3?(-/-) mice can spontaneously develop significant organ inflammation that can be accelerated following the administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or allogeneic cells (graft versus host). T cells from CD3?(-/-) mice display increased expression of the adhesion molecules CD44 and CCR2 and produce increased amounts of IFN-? blockade, which mitigates tissue inflammation. Our results demonstrate that CD3? deficiency bestows T cells with the ability to infiltrate various tissues and instigate inflammation. Decreased CD3? expression noted in T cells from various diseases contributes independently to tissue inflammation and organ damage. Approaches to restore CD3? expression of the surface of T cells should be expected to mitigate tissue inflammation.
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GEF-H1 controls microtubule-dependent sensing of nucleic acids for antiviral host defenses.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Detailed understanding of the signaling intermediates that confer the sensing of intracellular viral nucleic acids for induction of type I interferons is critical for strategies to curtail viral mechanisms that impede innate immune defenses. Here we show that the activation of the microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1, encoded by Arhgef2, is essential for sensing of foreign RNA by RIG-I-like receptors. Activation of GEF-H1 controls RIG-I-dependent and Mda5-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3 and induction of IFN-? expression in macrophages. Generation of Arhgef2(-/-) mice revealed a pronounced signaling defect that prevented antiviral host responses to encephalomyocarditis virus and influenza A virus. Microtubule networks sequester GEF-H1 that upon activation is released to enable antiviral signaling by intracellular nucleic acid detection pathways.
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SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients.
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Expansion of an osteopontin-expressing T follicular helper cell subset correlates with autoimmunity in B6.Sle1b mice and is suppressed by the H1-isoform of the Slamf6 receptor.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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The costimulatory receptor Slamf6 partially controls lupus-related autoimmunity in congenic Sle1b mice; for instance, the presence of the protein isoform Slamf6-H1 in Sle1b.Slamf6-H1 mice mitigates disease. Here, we report that young Sle1b mice, but not Sle1b.Slamf6-H1 or B6 mice, contain a memory T-helper cell subset identified by ]mt]2-fold increase in expression of 17 genes, chief among which is Spp1, encoding the cytokine osteopontin (OPN). These T follicular helper (TFH) cells, including OPN(+) TFH cells, expand concomitantly with severity of the disease. By contrast, Sle1b.Slamf6-H1 or Sle1b.SAP(-)/(-) mice do not develop autoantibodies and the number of T(FH) cells is 5 times lower than in age-matched Sle1b mice. By comparing Sle1b and Sle1b.OPN(-)/(-) mice, we find that the lack of OPN expression impedes early autoantibody production. Furthermore, on the adoptive transfer of Sle1b.OPN(-)/(-) CD4(+) T cells into bm12 recipients autoantibody production and germinal center formation is reduced compared to recipients of Sle1b.OPN(+/+) CD4(+) T cells. We propose a model in which OPN provides a survival signal for a precursor T(FH) cell subset, which is a key factor in autoimmunity.
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Engineered AAV vector minimizes in vivo targeting of transduced hepatocytes by capsid-specific CD8+ T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Recent clinical trials have shown that evasion of CD8(+) T-cell responses against viral capsid is critical for successful liver-directed gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for hemophilia. Preclinical models to test whether use of alternate serotypes or capsid variants could avoid this deleterious response have been lacking. Here, the ability of CD8(+) T cells ("cap-CD8," specific for a capsid epitope presented by human B*0702 or murine H2-L(d) molecules) to target AAV-infected hepatocytes was investigated. In a murine model based on adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded cap-CD8, AAV2-transduced livers showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltrates, transaminitis, significant reduction in factor IX transgene expression, and loss of transduced hepatocytes. AAV8 gene transfer resulted in prolonged susceptibility to cap-CD8, consistent with recent clinical findings. In contrast, using an AAV2(Y-F) mutant capsid, which is known to be less degraded by proteasomes, preserved transgene expression and largely avoided hepatotoxicity. In vitro assays confirmed reduced major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of this capsid and killing of human or murine hepatocytes compared with AAV2. In conclusion, AAV capsids can be engineered to substantially reduce the risk of destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas use of alternative serotypes per se does not circumvent this obstacle.
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Ly9 (CD229) Cell-Surface Receptor is Crucial for the Development of Spontaneous Autoantibody Production to Nuclear Antigens.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) genes, which encode cell-surface receptors that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, lay within a genomic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 that confers a predisposition for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we demonstrate that the SLAMF member Ly9 arises as a novel receptor contributing to the reinforcement of tolerance. Specifically, Ly9-deficient mice spontaneously developed features of systemic autoimmunity such as the production of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), -dsDNA, and -nucleosome autoantibodies, independently of genetic background [(B6.129) or (BALB/c.129)]. In aged (10- to 12-month-old) Ly9 (-/-) mice key cell subsets implicated in autoimmunity were expanded, e.g., T follicular helper (Tfh) as well as germinal center (GC) B cells. More importantly, in vitro functional experiments showed that Ly9 acts as an inhibitory receptor of IFN-? producing CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the Ly9 receptor triggers cell intrinsic safeguarding mechanisms to prevent a breach of tolerance, emerging as a new non-redundant inhibitory cell-surface receptor capable of disabling autoantibody responses.
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Increased expression of SLAM receptors SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 in systemic lupus erythematosus T lymphocytes promotes Th17 differentiation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Altered T cell function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is determined by various molecular and cellular abnormalities, including increased IL-17 production. Recent evidence suggests a crucial role for signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (SLAMs) in the expression of autoimmunity. In this study, we demonstrate that SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 expression is increased on the surface of SLE T cells compared with normal cells. SLAM coengagement with CD3 under Th17 polarizing conditions results in increased IL-17 production. SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 T cell surface expression and IL-17 levels significantly correlate with disease activity in SLE patients. Both naive and memory CD4(+) T cells produce more IL-17 in response to SLAM costimulation as compared with CD28 costimulation. In naive CD4(+) cells, IL-17 production after CD28 costimulation peaks on day 3, whereas costimulation with anti-SLAMF3 and anti-SLAMF6 Abs results in a prolonged and yet increasing production during 6 d. Unlike costimulation with anti-CD28, SLAM costimulation requires the presence of the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein. Thus, engagement of SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 along with Ag-mediated CD3/TCR stimulation represents an important source of IL-17 production, and disruption of this interaction with decoy receptors or blocking Abs should mitigate disease expression in SLE and other autoimmune conditions.
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Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein regulates CD4(+)T cell-mediated colitis in mice.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR; also called TNFRSF18 or CD357) regulates the T cell-mediated immune response and is present on surfaces of regulatory T (Treg) cells and activated CD4(+) T cells. We investigated the roles of GITR in the development of colitis in mice.
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Cutting edge: an NK cell-independent role for Slamf4 in controlling humoral autoimmunity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Several genes within a syntenic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 are associated with predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus. Analyses of lupus-prone congenic mice have pointed to an important role for the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family (slamf)6 surface receptor in lupus pathogenesis. In this article, we demonstrate that a second member of the Slamf gene family, Slamf4 (Cd244), contributes to lupus-related autoimmunity. B6.Slamf4(-/-) mice spontaneously develop activated CD4 T cells and B cells and increased numbers of T follicular helper cells and a proportion develop autoantibodies to nuclear Ags. B6.Slamf4(-/-) mice also exhibit markedly increased autoantibody production in the B6.C-H-2bm12/KhEg ? B6 transfer model of lupus. Although slamf4 function is best characterized in NK cells, the enhanced humoral autoimmunity of B6.Slamf4(-/-) mice is NK cell independent, as judged by depletion studies. Taken together, our findings reveal that slamf4 has an NK cell-independent negative regulatory role in the pathogenesis of lupus a normally non-autoimmune prone genetic background.
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Tight regulation of memory CD8(+) T cells limits their effectiveness during sustained high viral load.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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To design successful vaccines for chronic diseases, an understanding of memory CD8(+) T cell responses to persistent antigen restimulation is critical. However, most studies comparing memory and naive cell responses have been performed only in rapidly cleared acute infections. Herein, by comparing the responses of memory and naive CD8(+) T cells to acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we show that memory cells dominated over naive cells and were protective when present in sufficient numbers to quickly reduce infection. In contrast, when infection was not rapidly reduced, because of high antigen load or persistence, memory cells were quickly lost, unlike naive cells. This loss of memory cells was due to a block in sustaining cell proliferation, selective regulation by the inhibitory receptor 2B4, and increased reliance on CD4(+) T cell help. Thus, emphasizing the importance of designing vaccines that elicit effective CD4(+) T cell help and rapidly control infection.
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The homolog of the five SH3-domain protein (HOFI/SH3PXD2B) regulates lamellipodia formation and cell spreading.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Motility of normal and transformed cells within and across tissues requires specialized subcellular structures, e.g. membrane ruffles, lamellipodia and podosomes, which are generated by dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Because the formation of these sub-cellular structures is complex and relatively poorly understood, we evaluated the role of the adapter protein SH3PXD2B [HOFI, fad49, Tks4], which plays a role in the development of the eye, skeleton and adipose tissue. Surprisingly, we find that SH3PXD2B is requisite for the development of EGF-induced membrane ruffles and lamellipodia, as well as for efficient cellular attachment and spreading of HeLa cells. Furthermore, SH3PXD2B is present in a complex with the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Src, phosphorylated by Src, which is consistent with SH3PXD2B accumulating in Src-induced podosomes. Furthermore, SH3PXD2B closely follows the subcellular relocalization of cortactin to Src-induced podosomes, EGF-induced membrane ruffles and lamellipodia. Because SH3PXD2B also forms a complex with the C-terminal region of cortactin, we propose that SH3PXD2B is a scaffold protein that plays a key role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton via Src and cortactin.
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A novel isoform of the Ly108 gene ameliorates murine lupus.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Studies of human systemic lupus erythematosus patients and of murine congenic mouse strains associate genes in a DNA segment on chromosome 1 with a genetic predisposition for this disease. The systematic analysis of lupus-prone congenic mouse strains suggests a role for two isoforms of the Ly108 receptor in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we demonstrate that Ly108 is involved in the pathogenesis of lupus-related autoimmunity in mice. More importantly, we identified a third protein isoform, Ly108-H1, which is absent in two lupus-prone congenic animals. Introduction of an Ly108-H1-expressing transgene markedly diminishes T cell-dependent autoimmunity in congenic B6.Sle1b mice. Thus, an immune response-suppressing isoform of Ly108 can regulate the pathogenesis of lupus.
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Nonredundant roles of IL-10 and TGF-? in suppression of immune responses to hepatic AAV-factor IX gene transfer.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Hepatic gene transfer using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been shown to efficiently induce immunological tolerance to a variety of proteins. Regulatory T-cells (Treg) induced by this route suppress humoral and cellular immune responses against the transgene product. In this study, we examined the roles of immune suppressive cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) in the development of tolerance to human coagulation factor IX (hF.IX). Interestingly, IL-10 deficient C57BL/6 mice receiving gene transfer remained tolerant to hF.IX and generated Treg that suppressed anti-hF.IX formation. Effects of TGF-? blockade were also minor in this strain. In contrast, in C3H/HeJ mice, a strain known to have stronger T-cell responses against hF.IX, IL-10 was specifically required for the suppression of CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of the liver. Furthermore, TGF-? was critical for tipping the balance toward an regulatory immune response. TGF-? was required for CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg induction, which was necessary for suppression of effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses as well as antibody formation. These results demonstrate the crucial, nonredundant roles of IL-10 and TGF-? in prevention of immune responses against AAV-F.IX-transduced hepatocytes.
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Auto-antibody production and glomerulonephritis in congenic Slamf1-/- and Slamf2-/- [B6.129] but not in Slamf1-/- and Slamf2-/- [BALB/c.129] mice.
Int. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Several genes in an interval of human and mouse chromosome 1 are associated with a predisposition for systemic lupus erythematosus. Congenic mouse strains that contain a 129-derived genomic segment, which is embedded in the B6 genome, develop lupus because of epistatic interactions between the 129-derived and B6 genes, e.g. in B6.129chr1b mice. If a gene that is located on chromosome 1 is altered through homologous recombination in 129-derived embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and if the resultant knockout mouse is backcrossed with B6, interpretation of the phenotype of the mutant mouse may be affected by epistatic interactions between the 129 and B6 genomes. Here, we report that knockout mice of two adjacent chromosome 1 genes, Slamf1(-/-) and Slamf2(-/-), which were generated with the same 129-derived ES cell line, develop features of lupus, if backcrossed on to the B6 genetic background. By contrast, Slamf1(-/-) [BALB/c.129] and Slamf2(-/-) [BALB/c.129] do not develop disease. Surprisingly, Slamf1(-/-) [B6.129] mice develop both auto-antibodies and glomerulonephritis between 3 and 6 months of age, while disease fully develops in Slamf1(-/-) [B6.129] mice after 9-14 months. Functional analyses of CD4(+) T cells reveals that Slamf2(-/-) T cells are resistant to tolerance induction in vivo. We conclude that the Slamf2(-/-) mutation may have a unique influence on T-cell tolerance and lupus.
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SLAMF6-driven co-stimulation of human peripheral T cells is defective in SLE T cells.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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The CD28 co-stimulatory pathway is well established for T cell activation. However, there is evidence suggesting the existence of additional co-stimulatory pathways. Here we report that a member of the SLAM superfamily, SLAMF6, or CD352 plays an important role in T cell co-stimulation. Cross-linking of SLAMF6 with anti-CD3 primes human T cell to secrete Th1 cytokines. Among the T cell subsets, CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) cells display the highest Th1 production responses. Engagement of SLAMF6 mobilizes the modulation of the same set of NF-?B-associated genes. Although the expression of SLAMF6 on the surface of T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) T cells is comparable to that on the normal T cells, engagement of SLAMF6 results in severely reduced Th1 and IL-2 cytokine production. Our results suggest the existence of an additional co-stimulatory pathway in human T cells, which is defective in SLE T cells.
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Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.
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Mouse CD84 is a pan-leukocyte cell-surface molecule that modulates LPS-induced cytokine secretion by macrophages.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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CD84 is 1 of the 9 SLAM family cell-surface receptors involved in leukocyte activation. The CD84 ectodomain is highly glycosylated, and its cytoplasmic tail contains 2 copies of an ITSM, which can be phosphorylated. Here, we report that although mouse CD84 was present on all BM HSCs, its expression declined in developing thymic and BM lymphocytes. However, CD84 expression levels did increase significantly during the later maturation stages and were expressed abundantly on mature B and T cells. Among lymphocyte subsets, the highest expression was found on innate-like lymphocytes; specifically, on NKT and marginal zone B cells. Splenic CD4+ T(FH) cells exhibited higher levels of CD84 compared with the other CD4+ T cell subsets. CD84 was expressed abundantly on monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and DCs. Moreover, as the function of CD84 in myeloid cells remains unknown, we focused on the role this receptor plays in mouse macrophage activation. Transfection of CD84 in RAW-264.7 macrophages led to an increase in MAPK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation upon LPS stimulation. Concomitantly, the presence of CD84 increased the LPS-induced secretion of TNF-? and MCP-1 but lowered IL-10 and IL-6 production significantly. This modulatory effect was mediated by Y(300) within the second ITSM of CD84. Additionally, CD84 knock-down decreased TNF-? and IL-6 production in LPS-activated BMDMs. Taken together, these results show that mouse CD84 is a pan-leukocyte receptor, able to modulate signaling pathways downstream of TLR4, and regulates macrophage cell-fate decisions and effector functions.
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SLAM is a microbial sensor that regulates bacterial phagosome functions in macrophages.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Phagocytosis is a pivotal process by which macrophages eliminate microorganisms after recognition by pathogen sensors. Here we unexpectedly found that the self ligand and cell surface receptor SLAM functioned not only as a costimulatory molecule but also as a microbial sensor that controlled the killing of gram-negative bacteria by macrophages. SLAM regulated activity of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 complex and phagolysosomal maturation after entering the phagosome, following interaction with the bacterial outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF. SLAM recruited a complex containing the intracellular class III phosphatidylinositol kinase Vps34, its regulatory protein kinase Vps15 and the autophagy-associated molecule beclin-1 to the phagosome, which was responsible for inducing the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, a regulator of both NOX2 function and phagosomal or endosomal fusion. Thus, SLAM connects the gram-negative bacterial phagosome to ubiquitous cellular machinery responsible for the control of bacterial killing.
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Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4(+) T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations.
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T cells as therapeutic targets in SLE.
Nat Rev Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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T cells contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and seem to be directly involved in the development of related organ pathology. Defects associated with CD8(+) and T-regulatory (T(REG)) cell function manifest in parallel with the expanded CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cell lineage. The cytokine expression pattern is uniquely characterized by decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and increased production of IL-17 and related cytokines. Therapeutic approaches that limit the cognate interaction between T cells and B cells, prevent inappropriate tissue homing and restore T(REG) cell function and the normal cytokine milieu have been entertained. Biochemical characterization of SLE T cells has revealed distinct early and late signaling aberrations, and has enabled the identification of novel molecular targets that can be corrected with small molecules, and biomarkers that may foretell disease activity and predict organ damage.
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SLAM family receptors and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) modulate T cell functions.
Semin Immunopathol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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One or more of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family (SLAMF) of cell surface receptors, which consists of nine transmembrane proteins, i.e., SLAMF1-9, are expressed on most hematopoietic cells. While most SLAMF receptors serve as self-ligands, SLAMF2 and SLAMF4 use each other as counter structures. Six of the receptors carry one or more copies of a unique intracellular tyrosine-based switch motif, which has high affinity for the single SH2-domain signaling molecules SLAM-associated protein and EAT-2. Whereas SLAMF receptors are costimulatory molecules on the surface of CD4+, CD8+, and natural killer (NK) T cells, they also involved in early phases of lineage commitment during hematopoiesis. SLAMF receptors regulate T lymphocyte development and function and modulate lytic activity, cytokine production, and major histocompatibility complex-independent cell inhibition of NK cells. Furthermore, they modulate B cell activation and memory generation, neutrophil, dendritic cell, macrophage and eosinophil function, and platelet aggregation. In this review, we will discuss the role of SLAM receptors and their adapters in T cell function, and we will examine the role of these receptors and their adapters in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and their contribution to disease susceptibility in systemic lupus erythematosus.
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GITR engagement preferentially enhances proliferation of functionally competent CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.
Int. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg) express high levels of glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR). However, studies of the role of GITR in Treg biology has been complicated by the observation that upon activation effector CD4(+) T (Teff) cells also express the receptor. Here, we dissect the contribution of GITR-induced signaling networks in the expansion and function of FoxP3(+) Treg. We demonstrate that a high-affinity soluble Fc-GITR-L dimer, in conjugation with alphaCD3, specifically enhances in vitro proliferation of Treg, which retain their phenotypic markers (CD25 and FoxP3) and their suppressor function, while minimally affecting Teff cells. Furthermore, Fc-GITR-L does not impair Teff susceptibility to suppression, as judged by cocultures employing GITR-deficient and GITR-sufficient CD4(+) T-cell subsets. Notably, this expansion of Treg could also be seen in vivo, by injecting FoxP3-IRES-GFP mice with Fc-GITR-L even in the absence of antigenic stimulation. In order to test the efficacy of these findings therapeutically, we made use of a C3H/HeJ hemophilia B-prone mouse model. The use of liver-targeted human coagulation factor IX (hF.IX) gene therapy in this model has been shown to induce liver toxicity and the subsequent failure of hF.IX expression. Interestingly, injection of Fc-GITR-L into the hemophilia-prone mice that were undergoing liver-targeted hF.IX gene therapy increased the expression of F.IX and reduced the anticoagulation factors. We conclude that GITR engagement enhances Treg proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and that Fc-GITR-L may be a useful tool for in vivo tolerance induction.
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Homozygous DNA ligase IV R278H mutation in mice leads to leaky SCID and represents a model for human LIG4 syndrome.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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DNA ligase IV (LIG4) is an essential component of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and plays a key role in V(D)J recombination. Hypomorphic LIG4 mutations in humans are associated with increased cellular radiosensitivity, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, growth retardation, developmental delay, and a variable degree of immunodeficiency. We have generated a knock-in mouse model with a homozygous Lig4 R278H mutation that corresponds to the first LIG4 mutation reported in humans. The phenotype of homozygous mutant mice Lig4(R278H/R278H) (Lig4(R/R)) includes growth retardation, a decreased life span, a severe cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation, and a very severe, but incomplete block in T and B cell development. Peripheral T lymphocytes show an activated and anergic phenotype, reduced viability, and a restricted repertoire, reminiscent of human leaky SCID. Genomic instability is associated with a high rate of thymic tumor development. Finally, Lig4(R/R) mice spontaneously produce low-affinity antibodies that include autoreactive specificities, but are unable to mount high-affinity antibody responses. These findings highlight the importance of LIG4 in lymphocyte development and function, and in genomic stability maintenance, and provide a model for the complex phenotype of LIG4 syndrome in humans.
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Blocking CD27-CD70 costimulatory pathway suppresses experimental colitis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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The pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and most experimental models of IBD is dependent on the activation and expansion of CD4(+) T cells via interaction with mucosal APCs. The costimulatory receptor CD70 is transiently expressed on the surface of conventional dendritic cells, but is constitutively expressed by a unique APC population in the intestinal lamina propria. We used two experimental IBD models to evaluate whether interfering the interaction between CD70 and its T cell ligand CD27 would affect the development of colitis. Adoptive transfer of naive CD27-deficient CD45RB(high) CD4(+) T cells into Rag-1(-/-) mice resulted in significantly less disease than when wild-type CD45RB(high)CD4(+) T cells were used. Moreover, a monoclonal anti-CD70 Ab prevented the disease caused by the transfer of wild-type CD45RB(high) CD4(+) T cells into Rag-1(-/-) mice and the same Ab also ameliorated an established disease. The colitis associated proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were significantly reduced after anti-CD70 Ab treatment, suggesting an overall reduction in inflammation due to blockade of pathogenic T cell expansion. Anti-CD70 Ab treatment also suppressed trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in SJL/J mice. Because anti-CD70 Ab treatment suppressed multiple proinflammatory cytokines, this may be a more potent therapeutic approach for IBD than blockade of individual cytokines.
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Tolerance induction to cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase by hepatic AAV gene transfer: implications for antigen presentation and immunotoxicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Hepatic gene transfer, in particular using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, has been shown to induce immune tolerance to several protein antigens. This approach has been exploited in animal models of inherited protein deficiency for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. Adequate levels of transgene expression in hepatocytes induce a suppressive T cell response, thereby promoting immune tolerance. This study addresses the question of whether AAV gene transfer can induce tolerance to a cytoplasmic protein.
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Improved induction of immune tolerance to factor IX by hepatic AAV-8 gene transfer.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Gene therapy for hemophilia B has been shown to result in long-term expression and immune tolerance to factor IX (F.IX) after in vivo transduction of hepatocytes with adeno-associated viral (AAV-2) vectors in experimental animals. An optimized protocol was effective in several strains of mice with a factor 9 gene deletion (F9(-/-)). However, immune responses against F.IX were repeatedly observed in C3H/HeJ F9(-/-) mice. We sought to establish a gene transfer protocol that results in sustained expression without a requirement for additional manipulation of the immune system. Compared with AAV-2, AAV-8 was more efficient in transgene expression and induction of tolerance to F.IX in three different strains of wild-type mice. At equal vector doses, AAV-8 induced transgene product-specific regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells at significantly higher frequency. Moreover, sustained correction of hemophilia B in C3H/HeJ F9(-/-) mice without antibody formation was documented in all animals treated with > or =4 x 10(11) vector genomes (VG)/kg and in 80% of mice treated with 8 x 10(10) VG/kg. Therefore, it is possible to develop a gene transfer protocol that reliably induces tolerance to F.IX largely independent of genetic factors. A comparison with other studies suggests that additional parameters besides plateau levels of F.IX expression contributed to the improved success rate of tolerance induction.
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Circulatory antigen processing by mucosal dendritic cells controls CD8(+) T cell activation.
Immunity
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Circulatory antigens transit through the small intestine via the fenestrated capillaries in the lamina propria prior to entering into the draining lymphatics. But whether or how this process controls mucosal immune responses remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that dendritic cells (DCs) of the lamina propria can sample and process both circulatory and luminal antigens. Surprisingly, antigen cross-presentation by resident CX3CR1(+) DCs induced differentiation of precursor cells into CD8(+) T cells that expressed interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-13, and IL-9 and could migrate into adjacent compartments. We conclude that lamina propria CX3CR1(+) DCs facilitate the surveillance of circulatory antigens and act as a conduit for the processing of self- and intestinally absorbed antigens, leading to the induction of CD8(+) T cells, that partake in the control of T cell activation during mucosal immune responses.
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Cutting edge: Ly9 (CD229), a SLAM family receptor, negatively regulates the development of thymic innate memory-like CD8+ T and invariant NKT cells.
J. Immunol.
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Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors and the specific adapter signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein modulate the development of innate-like lymphocytes. In this study, we show that the thymus of Ly9-deficient mice contains an expanded population of CD8 single-positive cells with the characteristic phenotype of innate memory-like CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, the proportion of these innate CD8(+) T cells increased dramatically postinfection with mouse CMV. Gene expression profiling of Ly9-deficient mice thymi showed a significant upregulation of IL-4 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger. Analyses of Ly9(-/-)IL4ra(-/-) double-deficient mice revealed that IL-4 was needed to generate the thymic innate CD8(+) T cell subset. Furthermore, increased numbers of invariant NKT cells were detected in Ly9-deficient thymi. In wild-type mice, IL-4 levels induced by ?-galactosylceramide injection could be inhibited by a mAb against Ly9. Thus, Ly9 plays a unique role as an inhibitory cell surface receptor regulating the size of the thymic innate CD8(+) T cell pool and the development of invariant NKT cells.
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Mechanism of oral tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins.
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
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Oral tolerance is defined as the specific suppression of humoral and/or cellular immune responses to an antigen by administration of the same antigen through the oral route. Due to its absence of toxicity, easy administration, and antigen specificity, oral tolerance is a very attractive approach to prevent unwanted immune responses that cause a variety of diseases or that complicate treatment of a disease. Many researchers have induced oral tolerance to efficiently treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in different animal models. However, clinical trials yielded limited success. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of oral tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins is critical for paving the way for clinical development of oral tolerance protocols. This review will summarize progress on understanding the major underlying tolerance mechanisms and contributors, including antigen presenting cells, regulatory T cells, cytokines, and signaling pathways. Potential applications, examples for therapeutic proteins and disease targets, and recent developments in delivery methods are discussed.
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CD3-T cell receptor co-stimulation through SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 receptors enhances ROR?t recruitment to the IL17A promoter in human T lymphocytes.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Th17 lymphocytes play a key role during immune responses against bacteria and fungi and are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple autoimmune disorders. The co-stimulatory molecules SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 have been implicated in the formation of Th17 phenotypes and IL-17A expression. Increased surface expression of SLAMF3 and SLAMF6 has been linked with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we demonstrate that in human total T lymphocytes the canonical CD28 and the non-canonical SLAMF3/SLAMF6 co-stimulatory pathways cooperate in the recruitment of the transcription factor NFAT1 to the IL17A promoter. Furthermore, the dominance of the SLAMF3/SLAMF6 pathway in inducing IL-17A production can be attributed to an increased nuclear abundance and recruitment of ROR?t to the IL17A promoter. Thus, we have identified an additional mechanism that may be central for the specific control of IL17A gene regulation in systemic lupus erythematosus T lymphocytes.
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Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule regulates development of colitis in mice.
Gastroenterology
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Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (Slamf)1 is a co-stimulatory receptor on T cells and regulates cytokine production by macrophages and dendritic cells. Slamf1 regulates microbicidal mechanisms in macrophages, therefore we investigated whether the receptor affects development of colitis in mice.
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p40phox expression regulates neutrophil recruitment and function during the resolution phase of intestinal inflammation.
J. Immunol.
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NADPH oxidase is a multisubunit complex that assembles during phagocytosis to generate reactive oxygen species. Several components of this complex have been implicated in chronic granulomatous disease and Crohns disease, highlighting the importance of reactive oxygen species in regulating host immune response. In this study, we use genetically deficient mice to elucidate how p40(phox), one subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, functions during intestinal inflammation. We show that p40(phox) deficiency enhances inflammation in both dextran sulfate sodium-induced and innate immune-mediated murine colitis models. This inflammation is characterized by severe colonic tissue injury, increased proinflammatory cytokines, and increased neutrophil recruitment. We demonstrate that neutrophils are essential during the recovery phase of intestinal inflammation and that p40(phox) expression is necessary for this restitution. Lastly, using an integrative bioinformatic approach, we show that p40(phox) deficiency leads to upregulation of chemokine receptor 1 and downregulation of enzymes involved in glycan modifications, including fucosyltransferases and sialyltransferases, during inflammation. We propose that p40(phox) deficiency enhances intestinal inflammation through the dysregulation of these two pathways in neutrophils.
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The receptor Slamf1 on the surface of myeloid lineage cells controls susceptibility to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.
PLoS Pathog.
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Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite responsible for Chagas disease, causes severe myocarditis often resulting in death. Here, we report that Slamf1-/- mice, which lack the hematopoietic cell surface receptor Slamf1, are completely protected from an acute lethal parasite challenge. Cardiac damage was reduced in Slamf1-/- mice compared to wild type mice, infected with the same doses of parasites, as a result of a decrease of the number of parasites in the heart even the parasitemia was only marginally less. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments reveal that Slamf1-defIcient myeloid cells are impaired in their ability to replicate the parasite and show altered production of cytokines. Importantly, IFN-? production in the heart of Slamf1 deficient mice was much lower than in the heart of wt mice even though the number of infiltrating dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes were comparable. Administration of an anti-Slamf1 monoclonal antibody also reduced the number of parasites and IFN-? in the heart. These observations not only explain the reduced susceptibility to in vivo infection by the parasite, but they also suggest human Slamf1 as a potential target for therapeutic target against T. cruzi infection.
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SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses.
Blood
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One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.
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Cutting edge: Slamf8 is a negative regulator of Nox2 activity in macrophages.
J. Immunol.
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Slamf8 (CD353) is a cell surface receptor that is expressed upon activation of macrophages (M?s) by IFN-? or bacteria. In this article, we report that a very high NADPH oxidase (Nox2) enzyme activity was found in Slamf8(-/-) M?s in response to Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus, as well as to PMA. The elevated Nox2 activity in Slamf8(-/-) M?s was also demonstrated in E. coli or S. aureus phagosomes by using a pH indicator system and was further confirmed by a reduction in the enzyme activity after transfection of the receptor into Slamf8-deficient primary M?s or RAW 264.7 cells. Upon exposure to bacteria or PMA, protein kinase C activity in Slamf8(-/-) M?s is increased. This results in an enhanced phosphorylation of p40phox, one key component of the Nox2 enzyme complex, which, in turn, leads to greater Nox2 activity. Taken together, the data show that, in response to inflammation-associated stimuli, the inducible receptor Slamf8 negatively regulates inflammatory responses.
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Receptor signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule family 1 (Slamf1) regulates membrane fusion and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activity by recruiting a Beclin-1/Vps34/ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG) complex.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Phagocytosis is a pivotal process by which macrophages eliminate microorganisms upon recognition by pathogen sensors. Surprisingly, the self-ligand cell surface receptor Slamf1 functions not only as a co-stimulatory molecule but also as a microbial sensor of several Gram-negative bacteria. Upon entering the phagosome of macrophages Slamf1 induces production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, which positively regulates the activity of the NOX2 enzyme and phagolysosomal maturation. Here, we report that in Escherichia coli-containing phagosomes of mouse macrophages, Slamf1 interacts with the class III PI3K Vps34 in a complex with Beclin-1 and UVRAG. Upon phagocytosis of bacteria the NOX2 activity was reduced in macrophages isolated from Beclin-1(+/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. This Slamf1/Beclin-1/Vps34/UVRAG protein complex is formed in intracellular membrane compartments as it is found without inducing phagocytosis in macrophages, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, and transfectant HEK293 cells. Elimination of its cytoplasmic tail abolished the interaction of Slamf1 with the complex, but deletion or mutation of the two ITAM motifs did not. Both the BD and CCD domains of Beclin-1 were required for efficient binding to Slamf1. Because Slamf1 did not interact with Atg14L or Rubicon, which can also form a complex with Vps34 and Beclin-1, we conclude that Slamf1 recruits a subset of Vps34-associated proteins, which is involved in membrane fusion and NOX2 regulation.
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Cutting edge: protein phosphatase 2A confers susceptibility to autoimmune disease through an IL-17-dependent mechanism.
J. Immunol.
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The contribution of individual molecular aberrations to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs, is often difficult to evaluate because of the presence of abundant confounding factors. To assess the effect of increased expression of the phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in T cells, as recorded in SLE patients, we generated a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the PP2Ac subunit in T cells. The transgenic mouse displays a heightened susceptibility to immune-mediated glomerulonephritis in the absence of other immune defects. CD4(+) T cells produce increased amounts of IL-17 while the number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood is increased. IL-17 neutralization abrogated the development of glomerulonephritis. We conclude that increased PP2Ac expression participates in SLE pathogenesis by promoting inflammation through unchecked IL-17 production and facilitating the development of end-organ damage.
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Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and N-WASP are critical for peripheral B-cell development and function.
Blood
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The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is a key cytoskeletal regulator of hematopoietic cells. Although WASP-knockout (WKO) mice have aberrant B-cell cytoskeletal responses, B-cell development is relatively normal. We hypothesized that N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed homolog of WASP, may serve some redundant functions with WASP in B cells. In the present study, we generated mice lacking WASP and N-WASP in B cells (conditional double knockout [cDKO] B cells) and show that cDKO mice had decreased numbers of follicular and marginal zone B cells in the spleen. Receptor-induced activation of cDKO B cells led to normal proliferation but a marked reduction of spreading compared with wild-type and WKO B cells. Whereas WKO B cells showed decreased migration in vitro and homing in vivo compared with wild-type cells, cDKO B cells showed an even more pronounced decrease in the migratory response in vivo. After injection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)-Ficoll, cDKO B cells had reduced antigen uptake in the splenic marginal zone. Despite high basal serum IgM, cDKO mice mounted a reduced immune response to the T cell-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll and to the T cell-dependent antigen TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Our results reveal that the combined activity of WASP and N-WASP is required for peripheral B-cell development and function.
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B cell-intrinsic deficiency of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) causes severe abnormalities of the peripheral B-cell compartment in mice.
Blood
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Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by mutations in the WAS gene that encodes for a protein (WASp) involved in cytoskeleton organization in hematopoietic cells. Several distinctive abnormalities of T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes; dendritic cells; and phagocytes have been found in WASp-deficient patients and mice; however, the in vivo consequence of WASp deficiency within individual blood cell lineages has not been definitively evaluated. By conditional gene deletion we have generated mice with selective deficiency of WASp in the B-cell lineage (B/WcKO mice). We show that this is sufficient to cause a severe reduction of marginal zone B cells and inability to respond to type II T-independent Ags, thereby recapitulating phenotypic features of complete WASp deficiency. In addition, B/WcKO mice showed prominent signs of B-cell dysregulation, as indicated by an increase in serum IgM levels, expansion of germinal center B cells and plasma cells, and elevated autoantibody production. These findings are accompanied by hyperproliferation of WASp-deficient follicular and germinal center B cells in heterozygous B/WcKO mice in vivo and excessive differentiation of WASp-deficient B cells into class-switched plasmablasts in vitro, suggesting that WASp-dependent B cell-intrinsic mechanisms critically contribute to WAS-associated autoimmunity.
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