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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Human norovirus infection of caco-2 cells grown as a three-dimensional tissue structure.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Human norovirus (hNoV) infectivity was studied using a three-dimensional model of large intestinal epithelium. Large intestine Caco-2 cells were grown in rotating wall vessel bioreactors for 18-21 days at 37 degrees C and then transferred to 24-well tissue culture plates where they were infected with GI.1 and GII.4 human noroviruses collected from human challenge trials and various outbreak settings, respectively. Compared with uninfected cells, transmission micrographs of norovirus-infected cells displayed evidence of shortening or total loss of apical microvilli, and vacuolization. Quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated an approximate 2-3 log10 increase in viral RNA copies for the infected cells. A passage experiment examined both the ability for continued viral RNA and viral antigen detection. In the passaged samples 1.01x10(6) copies ml(-1) were detected by qRT-PCR. Immune electron microscopy using primary antibody to hNoV GI.1 capsids in conjunction with 6 nm gold-labelled secondary antibodies was performed on crude cellular lysates. Localization of antibody was observed in infected but not for uninfected cells. Our present findings, coupled with earlier work with the three-dimensional small intestinal INT407 model, demonstrate the utility of 3-D cell culture methods to develop infectivity assays for enteric viruses that do not readily infect mammalian cell cultures.
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Rapid multiplexed flow cytometric assay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using an automated fluidic microbead-trapping flow cell for enhanced sensitivity.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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A bead-based sandwich immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) has been developed and demonstrated using a recombinant 50 kDa fragment (BoNT/A-HC-fragment) of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-HC) as a structurally valid simulant. Three different anti-BoNT/A antibodies were attached to three different fluorescent dye encoded flow cytometry beads for multiplexing. The assay was conducted in two formats: a manual microcentrifuge tube format and an automated fluidic system format. Flow cytometry detection was used for both formats. The fluidic system used a novel microbead-trapping flow cell to capture antibody-coupled beads with subsequent sequential perfusion of sample, wash, dye-labeled reporter antibody, and final wash solutions. After the reaction period, the beads were collected for analysis by flow cytometry. Sandwich assays performed on the fluidic system gave median fluorescence intensity signals on the flow cytometer that were 2-4 times higher than assays performed manually in the same amount of time. Limits of detection were estimated at 1 pM (approximately 50 pg/mL for BoNT/A-HC-fragment) for the 15 min fluidic assay in buffer.
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Quantum dot immunoassays in renewable surface column and 96-well plate formats for the fluorescence detection of botulinum neurotoxin using high-affinity antibodies.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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A fluorescence sandwich immunoassay using high-affinity antibodies and quantum dot (QD) reporters has been developed for detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) using a nontoxic recombinant fragment of the holotoxin (BoNT/A-H(C)-fragment) as a structurally valid simulant for the full toxin molecule. The antibodies used, AR4 and RAZ1, bind to nonoverlapping epitopes present on both the full toxin and on the recombinant fragment. In one format, the immunoassay is carried out in a 96-well plate with detection in a standard plate reader using AR4 as the capture antibody and QD-coupled RAZ1 as the reporter. Detection to 31 pM with a total incubation time of 3 h was demonstrated. In a second format, the AR4 capture antibody was coupled to Sepharose beads, and the reactions were carried out in microcentrifuge tubes with an incubation time of 1 h. The beads were subsequently captured and concentrated in a rotating rod "renewable surface" flow cell equipped with a fiber optic system for fluorescence measurements. In PBS buffer, the BoNT/A-H(C)-fragment was detected to concentrations as low as 5 pM using the fluidic measurement approach.
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Renewable surface fluorescence sandwich immunoassay biosensor for rapid sensitive botulinum toxin detection in an automated fluidic format.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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A renewable surface biosensor for rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is described based on fluidic automation of a fluorescence sandwich immunoassay, using a recombinant protein fragment of the toxin heavy chain ( approximately 50 kDa) as a structurally valid simulant. Monoclonal antibodies AR4 and RAZ1 bind to separate non-overlapping epitopes of the full botulinum holotoxin ( approximately 150 kDa). Both of the targeted epitopes are located on the recombinant fragment. The AR4 antibody was covalently bound to Sepharose beads and used as the capture antibody. A rotating rod flow cell was used to capture these beads delivered as a suspension by a sequential injection flow system, creating a 3.6 microL column. After perfusing the bead column with sample and washing away the matrix, the column was perfused with Alexa 647 dye-labeled RAZ1 antibody as the reporter. Optical fibers coupled to the rotating rod flow cell at a 90 degrees angle to one another delivered excitation light from a HeNe laser (633 nm) using one fiber and collected fluorescent emission light for detection with the other. After each measurement, the used Sepharose beads are released and replaced with fresh beads. In a rapid screening approach to sample analysis, the toxin simulant was detected to concentrations of 10 pM in less than 20 minutes using this system.
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Estimated copy number of Bacillus anthracis plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 using digital PCR.
J. Microbiol. Methods
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We evaluated digital PCR (dPCR) to directly enumerate plasmid and chromosome copies in three strains of Bacillus anthracis. Copy number estimates based on conventional quantitative PCR (qPCR) highlighted the variability of using qPCR to measure copy number whereas estimates based on direct sequencing are comparable to dPCR.
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Assessing the continuum of event-based biosurveillance through an operational lens.
Biosecur Bioterror
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This research follows the Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems, Recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nearly a decade ago. Since then, models have been developed and complex systems have evolved with a breadth of disparate data to detect or forecast chemical, biological, and radiological events that have a significant impact on the One Health landscape. How the attributes identified in 2001 relate to the new range of event-based biosurveillance technologies is unclear. This article frames the continuum of event-based biosurveillance systems (that fuse media reports from the internet), models (ie, computational that forecast disease occurrence), and constructs (ie, descriptive analytical reports) through an operational lens (ie, aspects and attributes associated with operational considerations in the development, testing, and validation of the event-based biosurveillance methods and models and their use in an operational environment). A workshop was held in 2010 to scientifically identify, develop, and vet a set of attributes for event-based biosurveillance. Subject matter experts were invited from 7 federal government agencies and 6 different academic institutions pursuing research in biosurveillance event detection. We describe 8 attribute families for the characterization of event-based biosurveillance: event, readiness, operational aspects, geographic coverage, population coverage, input data, output, and cost. Ultimately, the analyses provide a framework from which the broad scope, complexity, and relevant issues germane to event-based biosurveillance useful in an operational environment can be characterized.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.