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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Incidence and trends of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations in the United States.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We used the State Inpatient Databases from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to provide state-specific age-adjusted blastomycosis-associated hospitalization incidence throughout the entire United States. Among the 46 states studied, states within the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys had the highest age-adjusted hospitalization incidence. Specifically, Wisconsin had the highest age-adjusted hospitalization incidence (2.9 hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years). Trends were studied in the five highest hospitalization incidence states. From 2000 to 2011, blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations increased significantly in Illinois and Kentucky with an average annual increase of 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. Trends varied significantly by state. Overall, 64% of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations were among men and the median age at hospitalization was 53 years. This analysis provides a complete epidemiologic description of blastomycosis-associated hospitalizations throughout the endemic area in the United States.
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Environmental risks for nontuberculous mycobacteria. Individual exposures and climatic factors in the cystic fibrosis population.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Persons with cystic fibrosis are at high risk of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, with a national prevalence estimated at 13%. The risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria associated with specific environmental exposures, and the correlation with climatic conditions in this population has not been described.
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Nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in the United States: screening practices and environmental risk.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at greater risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections than the general population. However, among patients with CF, geographic variation in prevalence is poorly understood.
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Parasite burden and severity of malaria in Tanzanian children.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of death in children. The contribution of the parasite burden to the pathogenesis of severe malaria has been controversial.
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Inhaled amikacin for treatment of refractory pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium abscessus, requires prolonged, multidrug regimens with high toxicity and suboptimal efficacy. Options for refractory disease are limited.
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Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections and associated chronic macrolide use among persons with cystic fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at high risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, with treatment requiring prolonged multidrug regimens that include macrolides. Although macrolides, specifically azithromycin, are used in the management of patients with CF with chronic Pseudomonas, macrolide-resistant NTM infections are of growing concern.
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Clinical and therapeutic features of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, Brazil, 1993-2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To identify clinical and therapeutic features of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease, we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients referred to the Brazilian reference center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who received a diagnosis of PNTM during 1993–2011 with at least 1 respiratory culture positive for NTM. Associated conditions included bronchiectasis (21.8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.7%), cardiovascular disease (15.5%), AIDS (9.8%), diabetes (9.8%), and hepatitis C (4.6%).Two patients had Hansen disease; 1 had Marfan syndrome. Four mycobacterial species comprised 85.6% of NTM infections: Mycobacterium kansasii, 59 cases (33.9%); M. avium complex, 53 (30.4%); M. abscessus, 23 (13.2%); and M. fortuitum, 14 (8.0%). A total of 42 (24.1%) cases were associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria. In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, PNTM is likely misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, thus showing the need for improved capacity to diagnose mycobacterial disease as well as greater awareness of PNTM disease prevalence.
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Template protocol for clinical trials investigating vaccines--focus on safety elements.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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This document is intended as a guide to the protocol development for trials of prophylactic vaccines. The template may serve phases I-IV clinical trials protocol development to include safety relevant information as required by the regulatory authorities and as deemed useful by the investigators. This document may also be helpful for future site strengthening efforts.
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Epidemiology of cryptococcal meningitis in the US: 1997-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes significant morbidity and mortality globally; however, recent national trends have not been described. Incidence and trends for CM-associated hospitalizations in 18 states were estimated using the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality (AHRQ) State Inpatient Databases (SID) datasets for 1997 through 2009. We identified 30,840 hospitalizations coded for CM, of which 21.6% were among HIV-uninfected patients. CM in-hospital mortality was significant (12.4% for women and 10.8% for men) with a total of 3,440 deaths over the study period. Co-morbidities of CM coded at increased frequency in HIV-uninfected CM hospitalized populations included hydrocephalus and acute/chronic renal failure as well as possible predispositions including transplantation, combined T and B cell defects, Cushings syndrome, liver disease and hypogammaglobulinemia. Median hospitalization costs were significant for CM and higher for HIV-uninfected patients (16,803.01 vs. 15,708.07; p<0.0001). Cryptococcal meningitis remains a disease with significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and the relative burden among persons without HIV infection is increasing.
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Cytokine profiles at birth predict malaria severity during infancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Severe malaria risk varies between individuals, and most of this variation remains unexplained. Here, we examined the hypothesis that cytokine profiles at birth reflect inter-individual differences that persist and influence malaria parasite density and disease severity throughout early childhood.
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Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease prevalence at four integrated health care delivery systems.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Single-site clinic-based studies suggest an increasing prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease, but systematic data are lacking.
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Trends and burden of bronchiectasis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1993-2006.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Current data on bronchiectasis prevalence, trends, and risk factors are lacking; such data are needed to estimate the burden of disease and for improved medical care and public health resource allocation. The objective of the present study was to estimate the trends and burden of bronchiectasis-associated hospitalizations in the United States.
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Nontuberculous mycobacteria-associated lung disease in hospitalized persons, United States, 1998-2005.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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The prevalence and trends of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-associated hospitalizations in the United States were estimated using national hospital discharge data. Records were extracted for all persons with a pulmonary NTM International Classification of Diseases code (031.0) hospitalized in the 11 states with continuous data available from 1998 through 2005. Prevalence was calculated using US census data. Pulmonary NTM hospitalizations (031.0) increased significantly with age among both sexes: relative prevalence for persons 70-79 years of age compared with those 40-49 years of age was 15/100,000 for women (9.4 vs. 0.6) and 9/100,000 for men (7.6 vs. 0.83). Annual prevalence increased significantly among men and women in Florida (3.2%/year and 6.5%/year, respectively) and among women in New York (4.6%/year) with no significant changes in California. The prevalence of pulmonary NTM-associated hospitalizations is increasing in selected geographic areas of the United States.
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Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections: antibiotic treatment and associated costs.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Recent studies suggest an increasing prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease. In the absence of prevalence and cost data, the public health burden of pulmonary NTM disease is difficult to assess. The goal of this study was to assess costs associated with NTM disease treatment and to identify risk factors associated with increased costs. Records from subjects with pulmonary NTM disease enrolled in a natural history protocol were abstracted for presenting symptoms, comorbidities, microbiology, and treatment histories. Antibiotic frequency, duration, adverse reaction, and costs were noted, the total antibiotic burden and cost were calculated, and risk factors associated with high costs were analyzed. From Jan 2004 to Dec 2005, 33 subjects were enrolled; 27 met disease criteria and had sufficient data to assess antibiotic use. Mycobacterium avium complex was present in 89% and Mycobacterium abscessus was present in 21% of subjects. Subjects received a median of 5 (1-10) antibiotics. Adverse effects were common seen in up to 50% with common antibiotics and up to 100% with uncommonly used antibiotics. Median burden of treatment was 2638 (84-7689) drug-days and the median total cost per patient was $19,876 ($398-70,917). Subjects with high treatment costs had an adjusted 9.5 fold (95% CI 1.5-97.2) likelihood of having M. abscessus and a 4.2 fold (95% CI 0.6-59.3) increased likelihood of having more extensive disease. Pulmonary NTM represent an underappreciated disease burden in the US population, with an associated treatment cost comparable to that for other chronic diseases of infectious origin such as HIV/AIDS.
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Hospitalizations associated with disseminated coccidioidomycosis, Arizona and California, USA.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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We analyzed hospitalization databases from Arizona and California for disseminated coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations among immunocompetent persons. Racial/ethnic disease ratios were characterized by a higher incidence of hospitalization among blacks compared with other groups. This finding suggests that HIV infection, AIDS, and primary immune conditions are not a major factor in this disparity.
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Spatial clusters of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in the United States.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease varies by geographic region, yet the factors driving these differences remain largely unknown.
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Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B in Brazil.
PLoS ONE
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Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B has been predominant in Brazil, but no broadly effective vaccine is available to prevent endemic meningococcal disease. To understand genetic diversity among serogroup B strains in Brazil, we selected a nationally representative sample of clinical disease isolates from 2004, and a temporally representative sample for the state of São Paulo (1988-2006) for study (n?=?372).
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Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in U.S. Medicare beneficiaries.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (PNTM) are an important cause of morbidity among older adults in the United States, but national prevalence estimates are lacking.
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Trends in bronchiectasis among medicare beneficiaries in the United States, 2000 to 2007.
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Bronchiectasis is a potentially serious condition characterized by permanent and abnormal widening of the airways, the prevalence of which is not well described. We sought to describe the trends, associated conditions, and risk factors for bronchiectasis among adults aged ? 65 years.
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Lack of Adherence to Evidence-based Treatment Guidelines for Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
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Rationale: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommend that patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or M. abscessus be treated with a macrolide-based multi-drug antibiotic regimen until culture-negative for one year. However, the degree of adherence to recommended evidence-based guidelines among physicians remains unknown. Objective: To describe antibiotic treatment practices among physicians treating PNTM patients. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 1,286 U.S. physicians was contacted in December 2011-January 2012; 582 of responding physicians were treating PNTM patients and were eligible to participate. Physicians extracted medical record data on their last four patients treated in the past year with PNTM disease from either MAC or M. abscessus. Treatment patterns were assessed for all patients by NTM species and physician specialty and compared to the 2007 recommended ATS/IDSA guidelines. Main Results: Questionnaires were completed by 349 physicians on 915 PNTM patients, including 744 (81%) with MAC and 174 (19%) with M. abscessus; 3 patients were positive for both. Physicians treated 76 (44%) M. abscessus patients and 411 (55%) MAC patients. Only 13% of antibiotic regimens prescribed to MAC patients met ATS/IDSA guidelines, 56% did not include a macrolide, and 16% were for macrolide monotherapy. Among M. abscessus patients, 64% of regimens prescribed did not include a macrolide. Conclusions: Adherence to the 2007 ATS/IDSA guidelines for treating PNTM disease is poor. Across all physician specialties evaluated, sub-optimal or potentially harmful antibiotic regimens were commonly prescribed.
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Opinions Differ by Expertise in Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
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Rationale: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex treatment guidelines rely largely upon expert opinion. The extent to which non-experts agree with recommendations of experts in this clinical area is unknown. Objectives: We sought to compare practices and perceptions of prognosis between experts and non-experts. Methods: We surveyed respirologists (Ontario, Canada, "non-experts"), and experts from nontuberculous mycobacterial disease centers of excellence (Canada and United States of America). Measurements and Main Results: Forty-six Ontario respirologists (29% of 160) and 19 experts (73% of 26) participated. There was agreement between non-experts and experts regarding disease duration before diagnosis (2 years), likelihood of spontaneous remission (7-15%), typical duration of treatment (18 months), first choice of therapy (guideline regimens), a subgroup of patients for whom less-intensive regimens are favored (10% after recurrence), likelihood of recurrence (30%), and median survival (10 years in most patients). Noted differences were that non-experts estimated fewer patients with a positive culture had disease (30% versus 50%, p=0.02), used intensive-guidelines therapy less often in new cases (50% versus 79%, p=0.02), and perceived a slightly lower success rate with guidelines therapy (65% versus 75%, p=0.047). Response ranges were wider for non-experts, significantly so for selection of intensive-guidelines therapy in new (p=0.01) and recurrent (p=0.04) cases. Conclusion: Experts and non-experts agreed on many issues. However, non-experts perceived lower rates of disease among patients with isolates, tended to use less aggressive treatment approaches, and perceived lower success rates. Significant variability was observed in responses - often wider among non-experts. Although these results are likely biased by referral, they may identify important areas for targeted education.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.