JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pack size and paracetamol overdose: 16 years later.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 1998 the United Kingdom limited the availability of paracetamol sold over-the-counter in an effort to reduce serious paracetamol overdose. Since that time debate has continued on the effectiveness of this policy in reducing what is acknowledged as a major public health problem. This commentary reviews recent publications on this topic which suggest that the effects were small. Reasons for this are discussed using data from recent work.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs of treatment.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In September 2012 the UK's Commission on Human Medicines (CHM) recommended changes in the management of paracetamol poisoning: use of a single '100?mg?l(-1) ' nomogram treatment line, ceasing risk assessment, treating all staggered/uncertain ingestions and increasing the duration of the initial acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion from 15 to 60?min. We evaluated the effect of this on presentation, admission, treatment, adverse reactions and costs of paracetamol poisoning.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction of adverse effects from intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol poisoning: a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paracetamol poisoning is common worldwide. It is treated with intravenous acetylcysteine, but the standard regimen is complex and associated with frequent adverse effects related to concentration, which can cause treatment interruption. We aimed to ascertain whether adverse effects could be reduced with either a shorter modified acetylcysteine schedule, antiemetic pretreatment, or both.
Related JoVE Video
Maximizing Peptide Identification Events in Proteomic Workflows Using Data-Dependent Acquisition (DDA).
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current analytical strategies for collecting proteomic data using data-dependent acquisition (DDA) are limited by the low analytical reproducibility of the method. Proteomic discovery efforts that exploit the benefits of DDA, such as providing peptide sequence information, but that enable improved analytical reproducibility, represent an ideal scenario for maximizing measureable peptide identifications in "shotgun"-type proteomic studies. Therefore, we propose an analytical workflow combining DDA with retention time aligned extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) areas obtained from high mass accuracy MS1 data acquired in parallel. We applied this workflow to the analyses of sample matrixes prepared from mouse blood plasma and brain tissues and observed increases in peptide detection of up to 30.5% due to the comparison of peptide MS1 XIC areas following retention time alignment of co-identified peptides. Furthermore, we show that the approach is quantitative using peptide standards diluted into a complex matrix. These data revealed that peptide MS1 XIC areas provide linear response of over three orders of magnitude down to low femtomole (fmol) levels. These findings argue that augmenting "shotgun" proteomic workflows with retention time alignment of peptide identifications and comparative analyses of corresponding peptide MS1 XIC areas improve the analytical performance of global proteomic discovery methods using DDA.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical toxicology in Edinburgh, two centuries of progress.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Scottish Poisons Information Bureau was established in Edinburgh in September 1963 and shortly afterwards one of the wards of the citys Royal Infirmary was designated a Regional Poisoning Treatment Centre. Both units were soon to be brought under one roof. To mark this 50th anniversary, we review how they built upon a history dating from the early 19th century and highlight their influence on current clinical toxicological practice and the delivery of poisons information. While many centres worldwide seek to improve the care of poisoned patients, the contribution of Edinburgh over the past 50 years has been notable.
Related JoVE Video
Multiplexed MS/MS for improved data-independent acquisition.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mass spectrometry-based proteomics, data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategies can acquire a single data set useful for both identification and quantification of detectable peptides in a complex mixture. However, DIA data are noisy owing to a typical five- to tenfold reduction in precursor selectivity compared to data obtained with data-dependent acquisition or selected reaction monitoring. We demonstrate a multiplexing strategy, MSX, for DIA analysis that increases precursor selectivity fivefold.
Related JoVE Video
Histamine-induced vasodilatation in the human forearm vasculature.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the mechanism of action of intra-arterial histamine in the human forearm vasculature.
Related JoVE Video
Scottish and Newcastle antiemetic pre-treatment for paracetamol poisoning study (SNAP).
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the commonest cause of acute liver injury in Europe and North America. The intravenous (IV) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) regimen introduced in the 1970s has continued effectively unchanged. This involves 3 different infusion regimens (dose and time) lasting over 20?hours. The same weight-related dose of NAC is used irrespective of paracetamol dose. Complications include frequent nausea and vomiting, anaphylactoid reactions and dosing errors. We designed a randomised controlled study investigating the efficacy of antiemetic pre-treatment (ondansetron) using standard NAC and a modified, shorter, regimen.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanistic biomarkers provide early and sensitive detection of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury at first presentation to hospital.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acetaminophen overdose is a common reason for hospital admission and the most frequent cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western world. Early identification would facilitate patient-individualized treatment strategies. We investigated the potential of a panel of novel biomarkers (with enhanced liver expression or linked to the mechanisms of toxicity) to identify patients with acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury (ALI) at first presentation to the hospital when currently used markers are within the normal range. In the first hospital presentation plasma sample from patients (n = 129), we measured microRNA-122 (miR-122; high liver specificity), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1; marker of necrosis), full-length and caspase-cleaved keratin-18 (K18; markers of necrosis and apoptosis), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH; marker of mitochondrial dysfunction). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and positive/negative predictive values were used to compare sensitivity to report liver injury versus alanine transaminase (ALT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR). In all patients, biomarkers at first presentation significantly correlated with peak ALT or INR. In patients presenting with normal ALT or INR, miR-122, HMGB1, and necrosis K18 identified the development of liver injury (n = 15) or not (n = 84) with a high degree of accuracy and significantly outperformed ALT, INR, and plasma acetaminophen concentration for the prediction of subsequent ALI (n = 11) compared with no ALI (n = 52) in patients presenting within 8 hours of overdose. Conclusion: Elevations in plasma miR-122, HMGB1, and necrosis K18 identified subsequent ALI development in patients on admission to the hospital, soon after acetaminophen overdose, and in patients with ALTs in the normal range. The application of such a biomarker panel could improve the speed of clinical decision-making, both in the treatment of ALI and the design/execution of patient-individualized treatment strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Relative quantitation of proteins in expressed prostatic secretion with a stable isotope labeled secretome standard.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) is a proximal fluid directly derived from the prostate and, in the case of prostate cancer (PCa), is hypothesized to contain a repertoire of cancer-relevant proteins. Quantitative analysis of the EPS proteome may enable identification of proteins with utility for PCa diagnosis and prognosis. The present investigation demonstrates selective quantitation of proteins in EPS samples from PCa patients using a stable isotope labeled proteome standard (SILAP) generated through the selective harvest of the "secretome" from the PC3 prostate cancer cell line grown in stable isotope labeled cell culture medium. This stable isotope labeled secretome was digested with trypsin and equivalently added to each EPS digest, after which the resultant mixtures were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for peptide identification and quantification. Relative quantification of endogenous EPS peptides was accomplished by comparison of reconstructed mass chromatograms to those of the chemically identical SILAP peptides. A total of 86 proteins were quantified from 263 peptides in all of the EPS samples, 38 of which were found to be relevant to PCa. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a SILAP secretome standard to simultaneously quantify many PCa-relevant proteins in EPS samples.
Related JoVE Video
Cyclophilin A is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule that mediates acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The immune system is alerted to cell death by molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These molecules partly mediate acetaminophen-induced liver injury, an archetypal experimental model of sterile cell death and the commonest cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an intracellular protein that is proinflammatory when released by cells. We hypothesized that CypA is released from necrotic liver cells and acts as a DAMP to mediate acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Our data demonstrated that mice lacking CypA (Ppia(-/-)) were resistant to acetaminophen toxicity. Antagonism of the extracellular receptor for CypA (CD147) also reduced acetaminophen-induced liver injury. When injected into a wild-type mouse, necrotic liver from Ppia(-/-) mice induced less of an inflammatory response than did wild-type liver. Conversely, the host inflammatory response was increased when CypA was injected with necrotic liver. Antagonism of CD147 also reduced the inflammatory response to necrotic liver. In humans, urinary CypA concentration was significantly increased in patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury. In summary, CypA is a DAMP that mediates acetaminophen poisoning. This mechanistic insight presents an opportunity for a new therapeutic approach to a disease that currently has inadequate treatment options.
Related JoVE Video
An integrated care pathway improves the management of paracetamol poisoning.
Emerg Med J
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paracetamol poisoning remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Clinical care of paracetamol poisoning depends on a range of patient variables and typically involves both medical and nursing care. An integrated care pathway (ICP) is a multidisciplinary management plan that incorporates guidelines and best practice to enhance care and documentation for a specific patient group. Paracetamol overdose is thus amenable to an ICP.
Related JoVE Video
Intravenous paracetamol--an international perspective of toxicity.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Experience with toxicity relating to intravenous (IV) paracetamol is discussed in the context of international experience. Issues in management and recent international strategies to minimise hazard are highlighted.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of a focussed teaching programme on practical prescribing skills among final year medical students.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medication errors, and particularly prescribing errors, are common in UK hospitals. Junior doctors make the majority of prescribing errors. Deficiencies in prescribing education and training have been closely linked to the high frequency of medication errors.
Related JoVE Video
Differential proteomic analysis of late-stage and recurrent breast cancer from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The heterogeneity of breast cancer requires the discovery of more incisive molecular tools that better define disease progression and prognosis. Proteomic analysis of homogeneous tumor cell populations derived by laser microdissection from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues has proven to be a robust strategy for conducting retrospective cancer biomarker investigations. We describe an MS-based analysis of laser microdissected cancerous epithelial cells derived from twenty-five breast cancer patients at defined clinical disease stages with the goal of identifying protein abundance characteristics indicative of disease progression and recurrence. Comparative analysis of stage 0 and stage III patients revealed 113 proteins that significantly differentiated these groups and included known factors associated with disease pathogenesis, such as CDH1 and CTNNB1, as well as those previously implicated in breast cancer, such as TSP-1. Similar analyses of patients presenting with stage II disease that did or did not exhibit recurrence two years postdiagnosis revealed 42 proteins that significantly differentiated these subgroups and included IRS-1 and PARK7. These data provide evidence supporting the utility of FFPE tissues for functional proteomic analyses and protein biomarker discovery and yielded protein candidates indicative of disease stage and recurrence in breast cancer that warrant further investigation for diagnostic utility and biological relevance.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of a QT nomogram for risk assessment after antidepressant overdose.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A QT-heart rate nomogram has recently been proposed as a means of identifying patients at risk of torsades de pointes after antidepressant overdose, based on published cases of drug-induced torsades de pointes. The present study sought to examine the performance of the nomogram in patients who ingest an antidepressant overdose but do not develop arrhythmia.
Related JoVE Video
Advances in proximal fluid proteomics for disease biomarker discovery.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although serum/plasma has been the preferred source for identification of disease biomarkers, these efforts have been met with little success, in large part due the relatively small number of highly abundant proteins that render the reliable detection of low abundant disease-related proteins challenging due to the expansive dynamic range of concentration of proteins in this sample. Proximal fluid, the fluid derived from the extracellular milieu of tissues, contains a large repertoire of shed and secreted proteins that are likely to be present at higher concentrations relative to plasma/serum. It is hypothesized that many, if not all, proximal fluid proteins exchange with peripheral circulation, which has provided significant motivation for utilizing proximal fluids as a primary sample source for protein biomarker discovery. The present review highlights recent advances in proximal fluid proteomics, including the various protocols utilized to harvest proximal fluids along with detailing the results from mass spectrometry- and antibody-based analyses.
Related JoVE Video
Defining central themes in breast cancer biology by differential proteomics: conserved regulation of cell spreading and focal adhesion kinase.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, an observation that underscores the importance of elucidating conserved molecular characteristics, such as gene and protein expression, across breast cancer cell types toward providing a greater understanding of context-specific features central to this disease. Motivated by the goal of defining central biological themes across breast cancer cell subtypes, we conducted a global proteomic analysis of three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231, and compared these to a model of nontransformed mammary cells (MCF10A). Our results demonstrate modulation of proteins localized to the extracellular matrix, plasma membrane, and nucleus, along with coordinate decreases in proteins that regulate "cell spreading," a cellular event previously shown to be dysregulated in transformed cells. Protein interaction network analysis revealed the clustering of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a fundamental regulator of cell spreading, with several proteins identified as mutually, differentially abundant across breast cancer cell lines that impact expression and activity of FAK, such as neprilysin and keratin 19. These analyses provide insights into conservation of protein expression across breast cancer cell subtypes, a subset of which warrants further investigation for their roles in the regulation of cell spreading and FAK in breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic differences between healthcare professionals and poison information staff in the severity scoring of pesticide exposures.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severity scores are used in triage and for data comparison in cases of poisoning. Exposure severity scores have not been generally validated and their utilization by healthcare staff other than specialists in poison information (SPIs) is untested.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of buffer systems for harvesting proteins from tissue interstitial fluid for proteomic analysis.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) bathes cells in tissues, and it is hypothesized that TIF proximal to a developing tumor may contain an enriched population of tumor-specific shed and secreted proteins relative to peripheral blood. Extraction of TIF proteins is typically accomplished through passive incubation of surgically resected tissues in phosphate buffered saline (PBS); however, its influence on cellular activity and viability has not been fully explored. The present investigation sought to characterize whether different buffer systems influence the recovered TIF proteome. Five TIF buffer systems were investigated including PBS, Dulbeccos modified Eagle medium (DMEM), and three organ transplantation preservative solutions: Celsior solution S (CS), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), and University of Wisconsin (UW). Kidney tumor, adjacent normal kidney, and ovarian tumor tissues were incubated in each of the buffer systems, and the harvested TIF proteins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the present results indicate that no significant differences exist in the recovered proteins from these two neoplasms between the five solution groups, additional sample preparative steps are required prior to LC-MS/MS for TIF proteins harvested from DMEM, UW, CS, and HTK. These data support that PBS is a suitable and convenient solution for harvesting TIF proteins for MS-based proteomics.
Related JoVE Video
Medicine, poison, and mystic potion: a personal perspective on paracetamol Louis Roche lecture, Stockholm, 2009.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paracetamol poisoning has been a clinical problem for over 40 years. This article reflects the content of the Louis Roche lecture given on this topic in 2009. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: Initially key work illustrated the relationship between plasma paracetamol concentration and risk of liver injury facilitating the development of antidote strategies. Much of this work was done in the Edinburgh clinical toxicology unit.
Related JoVE Video
Limiting paracetamol pack size: has it worked in the UK?
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paracetamol poisoning is a major health problem worldwide. Limitation of pack size is an approach increasingly advocated to reduce rates of suicide and serious self-harm from this agent. The United Kingdom adopted such a policy in 1998, restricting non-pharmacy sales to 8 g and pharmacy to pack sizes of 16 g.
Related JoVE Video
Morphine is an arteriolar vasodilator in man.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms of action of morphine on the arterial system are not well understood. The aim was to report forearm vascular responses, and their mediation, to intra-arterial morphine in healthy subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Stress hormones mediate drug resistance to paclitaxel in human breast cancer cells through a CDK-1-dependent pathway.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemotherapy comprises part of successful treatment regimens for breast cancer, however, up to 50% of patients develop resistance. Stress in cancer patients can equate to poor chemotherapeutic responses. We hypothesize that drug resistance may be associated with stress hormone-induced alterations in breast cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured with paclitaxel and/or cortisol, norepinephrine and epinephrine and cytotoxicity, cell cycle analyses, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. Paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity and G2/M cell cycle arrest were reversed significantly by stress hormones. Genomic and proteomic analyses revealed that stress hormones modulated beta-tubulin isotypes and significantly altered genes and proteins involved in regulation of the G2/M transition, including cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK-1). Inhibition of CDK-1 abrogated stress hormone-mediated reversal of paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that the protective effect of stress hormones act through a CDK-1-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that stress hormones interfere with paclitaxel efficacy and contribute significantly to drug resistance.
Related JoVE Video
PKCalpha tumor suppression in the intestine is associated with transcriptional and translational inhibition of cyclin D1.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alterations in PKC isozyme expression and aberrant induction of cyclin D1 are early events in intestinal tumorigenesis. Previous studies have identified cyclin D1 as a major target in the antiproliferative effects of PKCalpha in non-transformed intestinal cells; however, a link between PKC signaling and cyclin D1 in colon cancer remained to be established. The current study further characterized PKC isozyme expression in intestinal neoplasms and explored the consequences of restoring PKCalpha or PKCdelta in a panel of colon carcinoma cell lines. Consistent with patterns of PKC expression in primary tumors, PKCalpha and delta levels were generally reduced in colon carcinoma cell lines, PKCbetaII was elevated and PKCepsilon showed variable expression, thus establishing the suitability of these models for analysis of PKC signaling. While colon cancer cells were insensitive to the effects of PKC agonists on cyclin D1 levels, restoration of PKCalpha downregulated cyclin D1 by two independent mechanisms. PKCalpha expression consistently (a) reduced steady-state levels of cyclin D1 by a novel transcriptional mechanism not previously seen in non-transformed cells, and (b) re-established the ability of PKC agonists to activate the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and inhibit cyclin D1 translation. In contrast, PKCdelta had modest and variable effects on cyclin D1 steady-state levels and failed to restore responsiveness to PKC agonists. Notably, PKCalpha expression blocked anchorage-independent growth in colon cancer cells via a mechanism partially dependent on cyclin D1 deficiency, while PKCdelta had only minor effects. Loss of PKCalpha and effects of its re-expression were independent of the status of the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway or known genetic alterations, indicating that they are a general characteristic of colon tumors. Thus, PKCalpha is a potent negative regulator of cyclin D1 expression and anchorage-independent cell growth in colon tumor cells, findings that offer important perspectives on the frequent loss of this isozyme during intestinal carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial respiration--an important therapeutic target in melanoma.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The importance of mitochondria as oxygen sensors as well as producers of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has recently become a focal point of cancer research. However, in the case of melanoma, little information is available to what extent cellular bioenergetics processes contribute to the progression of the disease and related to it, whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has a prominent role in advanced melanoma. In this study we demonstrate that compared to melanocytes, metastatic melanoma cells have elevated levels of OXPHOS. Furthermore, treating metastatic melanoma cells with the drug, Elesclomol, which induces cancer cell apoptosis through oxidative stress, we document by way of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) that proteins participating in OXPHOS are downregulated. We also provide evidence that melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis are more resistant to Elesclomol. We further show that Elesclomol upregulates hypoxia inducible factor 1-? (HIF-1?), and that prolonged exposure of melanoma cells to this drug leads to selection of melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis. Taken together, our findings suggest that molecular targeting of OXPHOS may have efficacy for advanced melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Hazard of household cleaning products: a study undertaken by the UK National Poisons Information Service.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To ascertain the reported toxicity of current United Kingdom (UK) household products following the launch of new products, such as liquid detergent capsules, and the manufacture of more concentrated formulations.
Related JoVE Video
Acetaminophen and acetylcysteine dose and duration: past, present and future.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acetylcysteine has been utilized successfully in the treatment of acetaminophen overdose since the 1970s. Although prospective trials as to efficacy and safety of acetylcysteine were conducted, there were no randomized controlled trials. This commentary addresses the reasons for this, and the background to choice of dose of acetylcysteine utilized in the oral and IV dosing regimens. Nomograms to predict possible hepatotoxicity based upon time of ingestion of acetaminophen were developed from a relatively arbitrary definition of toxicity as an aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (ALT/AST) greater than 1000 IU/L. While these have proved generally useful, patients still continue to develop hepatic damage after acetaminophen overdose, particularly if they present late after ingestion. The optimum management of these patients remains unclear, and one area of uncertainty is the dose and duration of acetylcysteine in various circumstances. This article discusses the issues that need to be elucidated to better target changes in acetylcysteine dose. The potential for measurements of other markers to improve treatment selection is the subject of further research.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanisms for an effect of acetylcysteine on renal function after exposure to radio-graphic contrast material: study protocol.
BMC Clin Pharmacol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of contrast administration in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. Its pathophysiology is not well understood; similarly the role of intravenous or oral acetylcysteine is unclear. Randomized controlled trials to date have been conducted without detailed knowledge of the effect of acetylcysteine on renal function. We are conducting a detailed mechanistic study of acetylcysteine on normal and impaired kidneys, both with and without contrast. This information would guide the choice of dose, route, and appropriate outcome measure for future clinical trials in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Related JoVE Video
Ivory wave toxicity in recreational drug users; integration of clinical and poisons information services to manage legal high poisoning.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel psychoactive substances or legal highs can be defined as psychoactive substances that have been developed to avoid existing drug control measures. Consistency of name, but with change in the content of the product, may cause harm. This could result in clusters of users being poisoned and developing unexpected physical and psychiatric symptoms. We describe such an event and the clinical phenotypes of a cluster of patients poisoned with a novel psychoactive substance in ivory wave and analyze data from the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) to estimate use across the United Kingdom. In addition, the likely active ingredient in this cluster of ivory wave poisonings was identified.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.