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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In Vivo Localization of 90Y and 177Lu Radioimmunoconjugates Using Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Cerenkov radiation generated by positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited for a molecular imaging technique known as Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI). Data have been limited, however, on the use of medium- to high-energy ?-emitting radionuclides of interest for cancer imaging and treatment. We assessed the use of CLI as an adjunct to determine localization of radioimmunoconjugates to hematolymphoid tissues. Radiolabeled (177)Lu- or (90)Y-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; DOTA-30F11) was administered by tail vein injection to athymic mice bearing disseminated murine myeloid leukemia, with CLI images acquired at times afterward. Gamma counting of individual organs showed preferential uptake in CD45(+) tissues with significant retention of radiolabeled Ab in sites of leukemia (spleen and bone marrow). This result was confirmed in CLI images with 1.35 × 10(5) ± 2.2 × 10(4) p/s/cm(2)/sr and 3.45 × 10(3) ± 7.0 × 10(2) p/s/cm(2)/sr for (90)Y-DOTA-30F11 and (177)Lu-DOTA-30F11, respectively, compared with undetectable signal for both radionuclides using the nonbinding control Ab. Results showed that CLI allows for in vivo visualization of localized ?-emissions. Pixel intensity variability resulted from differences in absorbed doses of the associated energies of the ?-emitting radionuclide. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of CLI techniques in tandem with currently available clinical diagnostic tools. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5846-54. ©2014 AACR.
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Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using (211)At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with ?-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. ? emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with ? emitters such as (211)At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using (211)At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of (211)At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, (211)At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that (211)At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML.
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Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using ?-emitter astatine-211-labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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To reduce toxicity associated with external ?-beam radiation, we investigated radioimmunotherapy with an anti-CD45 mAb labeled with the ?-emitter, astatine-211 ((211)At), as a conditioning regimen in dog leukocyte antigen-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Dose-finding studies in 6 dogs treated with 100 to 618 ?Ci/kg (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) without HCT rescue demonstrated dose-dependent myelosuppression with subsequent autologous recovery, and transient liver toxicity in dogs treated with (211)At doses less than or equal to 405 ?Ci/kg. Higher doses of (211)At induced clinical liver failure. Subsequently, 8 dogs were conditioned with 155 to 625 ?Ci/kg (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) before HCT with dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow followed by a short course of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Neutropenia (1-146 cells/?L), lymphopenia (0-270 cells/?L), and thrombocytopenia (1500-6560 platelets/?L) with prompt recovery was observed. Seven dogs had long-term donor mononuclear cell chimerism (19%-58%), whereas 1 dog treated with the lowest (211)At dose (155 ?Ci/kg) had low donor mononuclear cell chimerism (5%). At the end of follow-up (18-53 weeks), only transient liver toxicity and no renal toxicity had been observed. In conclusion, conditioning with (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb is safe and efficacious and provides a platform for future clinical trials of nonmyeloablative transplantation with radioimmunotherapy-based conditioning.
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Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using genetically engineered antibody-streptavidin fusion proteins for treatment of non-hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using streptavidin (SAv)-biotin technology can deliver higher therapeutic doses of radioactivity to tumors than conventional RIT. However, "endogenous" biotin can interfere with the effectiveness of this approach by blocking binding of radiolabeled biotin to SAv. We engineered a series of SAv FPs that downmodulate the affinity of SAv for biotin, while retaining high avidity for divalent DOTA-bis-biotin to circumvent this problem.
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Anti-CD45 pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using bismuth-213: high rates of complete remission and long-term survival in a mouse myeloid leukemia xenograft model.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with ?-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. ?-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to ?-emitting radionuclides for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Accordingly, we have used (213)Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of (213)Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5% ± 1.1% of the injected dose of (213)Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. ?-imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after (213)Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a ?-emitting radionuclide ((90)Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of (213)Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 ?Ci of (213)Bi- or (90)Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for more than 100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an ?-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 5. Evaluation of hydrazone linkers in (211)At- and (125)I-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates of Fab as a means of decreasing kidney retention.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Evaluation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragments (e.g., Fab, Fab, or engineered fragments) as cancer-targeting reagents for therapy with the ?-particle emitting radionuclide astatine-211 ((211)At) has been hampered by low in vivo stability of the label and a propensity of these proteins localize to kidneys. Fortunately, our group has shown that the low stability of the (211)At label, generally a meta- or para-[(211)At]astatobenzoyl conjugate, on mAb Fab fragments can be dramatically improved by the use of closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates. However, the higher stability of radiolabeled mAb Fab conjugates appears to result in retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. This investigation was conducted to evaluate whether the retention of radioactivity in kidney might be decreased by the use of an acid-cleavable hydrazone between the Fab and the radiolabeled closo-decaborate(2-) moiety. Five conjugation reagents containing sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups, a hydrazone functionality, and a closo-decaborate(2-) moiety were prepared. In four of the five conjugation reagents, a discrete poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker was used, and one substituent adjacent to the hydrazone was varied (phenyl, benzoate, anisole, or methyl) to provide varying acid sensitivity. In the initial studies, the five maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagents were radioiodinated ((125)I or (131)I), then conjugated with an anti-PSMA Fab (107-1A4 Fab). Biodistributions of the five radioiodinated Fab conjugates were obtained in nude mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). In contrast to closo-decaborate(2-) conjugated to 107-1A4 Fab through a noncleavable linker, two conjugates containing either a benzoate or a methyl substituent on the hydrazone functionality displayed clearance rates from kidney, liver, and spleen that were similar to those obtained with directly radioiodinated Fab (i.e., no conjugate). The maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagent containing a benzoate substituent on the hydrazone was chosen for study with (211)At. That reagent was conjugated with 107-1A4 Fab, then labeled (separately) with (125)I and (211)At. The radiolabeled Fab conjugates were coinjected into nude mice bearing LNCaP human tumor xenografts, and biodistribution data were obtained at 1, 4, and 24 h pi. Tumor targeting was achieved with both (125)I- and (211)At-labeled Fab, but the (211)At-labeled Fab reached a higher concentration (25.56 ± 11.20 vs 11.97 ± 1.31%ID/g). Surprisingly, while the (125)I-labeled Fab was cleared from kidney similar to earlier studies, the (211)At-labeled Fabwas not (i.e., kidney conc. for (125)I vs (211)At; 4 h, 13.14 ± 2.03 ID/g vs 42.28 ± 16.38%D/g; 24 h, 4.23 ± 1.57 ID/g vs 39.52 ± 15.87%ID/g). Since the Fab conjugate is identical in both cases except for the radionuclide, it seems likely that the difference in tissue clearance seen is due to an effect that (211)At has on either the hydrazone cleavage or on the retention of a metabolite. Results from other studies in our laboratory suggest that the latter case is most likely. The hydrazone linkers tested do not provide the tissue clearance sought for (211)At, so additional hydrazones linkers will be evaluated. However, the results support the use of hydrazone linkers when Fab conjugated with closo-decaborate(2-) reagents are radioiodinated.
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Chemical and radiochemical considerations in radiolabeling with ?-emitting radionuclides.
Curr Radiopharm
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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A review of chemical and radiochemical factors that must be considered when radiolabeling targeting agents with radionuclides is presented. The review discusses factors that are important in choice of radionuclide and choice of chelation or bonding reagents to use in the development of an ?-emitting radiopharmaceutical. Chemical parameters, such as physical properties and pendant groups for radiolabeling, are reviewed. A major portion of the review outlines the development of chelates and labeling conditions for radiometals, and application of these reagents/conditions to radiometals. Acyclic and macrocyclic chelates containing amine and carboxylic acid coordination groups are highlighted, with examples of bifunctional chelates for biomolecule conjugation. Information is presented on over 60 radiometal-binding chelates. 211At radiolabeling is separated from that of radiometals, and the various reagents used for radiolabeling have been reviewed. Although not all 211At-labeling reagents are reviewed (due to another recent review), nearly 50 reagents studied in the development of pendant groups for labeling with 211At are described. The review also discusses how therapeutic doses of ?-emitting radiopharmaceuticals can be affected by the radionuclide used and how radiation damage to the radiopharmaceutical can be minimized.
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Conventional and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using bismuth-213 to target and treat non-Hodgkin lymphomas expressing CD20: a preclinical model toward optimal consolidation therapy to eradicate minimal residual disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with ?-emitting radionuclides is an attractive approach for the treatment of minimal residual disease because the short path lengths and high energies of ?-particles produce optimal cytotoxicity at small target sites while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissues. Pretargeted RIT (PRIT) using antibody-streptavidin (Ab-SA) constructs and radiolabeled biotin allows rapid, specific localization of radioactivity at tumor sites, making it an optimal method to target ?-emitters with short half-lives, such as bismuth-213 (²¹³Bi). Athymic mice bearing Ramos lymphoma xenografts received anti-CD20 1F5(scFv)(4)SA fusion protein (FP), followed by a dendrimeric clearing agent and [²¹³Bi]DOTA-biotin. After 90 minutes, tumor uptake for 1F5(scFv)?SA was 16.5% ± 7.0% injected dose per gram compared with 2.3% ± .9% injected dose per gram for the control FP. Mice treated with anti-CD20 PRIT and 600 ? Ci [²¹³Bi]DOTA-biotin exhibited marked tumor growth delays compared with controls (mean tumor volume .01 ± .02 vs. 203.38 ± 83.03 mm³ after 19 days, respectively). The median survival for the 1F5(scFv)?SA group was 90 days compared with 23 days for the control FP (P < .0001). Treatment was well tolerated, with no treatment-related mortalities. This study demonstrates the favorable biodistribution profile and excellent therapeutic efficacy attainable with ²¹³Bi-labeled anti-CD20 PRIT.
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Design and synthesis of bis-biotin-containing reagents for applications utilizing monoclonal antibody-based pretargeting systems with streptavidin mutants.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Previous studies have shown that pretargeting protocols, using cancer-targeting fusion proteins, composed of 4 anti-CD20 single chain Fv (scFv) fragments and streptavidin (scFv(4)-SAv), followed by a biotinylated dendrimeric N-acetyl-galactosamine blood clearing agent (CA), 1, then a radiolabeled DOTA-biotin derivative (a monobiotin), 3a, can provide effective therapy for lymphoma xenografts in mouse models. A shortcoming in this pretargeting system is that endogenous biotin may affect its efficacy in patients. To circumvent this potential problem, we investigated a pretargeting system that employs anti-CD20 scFv(4)-SAv mutant fusion proteins with radioiodinated bis-biotin derivatives. With that combination of reagents, good localization of the radiolabel to lymphoma tumor xenografts was obtained in the presence of endogenous biotin. However, the blood clearance reagents employed in the studies were ineffective, resulting in abnormally high levels of radioactivity in other tissues. Thus, in the present investigation a bis-biotin-trigalactose blood clearance reagent, 2, was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in vivo. Additionally, another DOTA-biotin derivative (a bis-biotin), 4a, was designed and synthesized, such that radiometals (e.g., (111)In, (90)Y, (177)Lu) could be used in the pretargeting protocols employing scFv(4)-SAv mutant fusion proteins. Studies in mice demonstrated that the CA 2 was more effective than CA 1 at removing [(125)I]scFv(4)-SAv-S45A mutant fusion proteins from blood. Another in vivo study compared tumor targeting and normal tissue concentrations of the new reagents (2 and [(111)In]4b) with standard reagents (1 and [(111)In]3b) used in pretargeting protocols. The study showed that lymphoma xenografts could be targeted in the presence of endogenous biotin when anti-CD20 fusion proteins containing SAv mutants (scFv(4)-SAv-S45A or scFv(4)-SAv-Y43A) were employed in combination with CA 2 and [(111)In]4b. Importantly, normal tissue concentrations of [(111)In]4b were similar to those obtained using the standard reagents (1 and [(111)In]3b), except that the blood and liver concentrations were slightly higher with the new reagents. While the reasons for the higher blood and liver concentrations are unknown, the differences in the galactose structures of the clearance agents 1 and 2 may play a role.
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Pilot study of a (213)bismuth-labeled anti-CD45 mAb as a novel nonmyeloablative conditioning for DLA-haploidentical littermate hematopoietic transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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A pilot study was conducted to determine whether conditioning using selective targeting of hematopoietic cells with an alpha-particle emitter, bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is sufficient to overcome the major histocompatibility barrier in a canine model of dog leukocyte antigen-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).
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Preparation and in vivo evaluation of radioiodinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives to identify structural components that provide low retention in tissues.
Nucl. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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In vivo deastatination of (211)At-labeled biomolecules can severely limit their use in endoradiotherapy. Our studies have shown that the use of closo-decaborate(2-) moiety for (211)At-labeling of biomolecules provides high in vivo stability towards deastatination. However, data from those studies have also been suggestive that some astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) catabolites may be retained in tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vivo distributions of several structurally simple closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives to gain information on the effects of functional groups if catabolites are released into the blood system from the carrier biomolecule.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 4. Comparison of maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) and meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate conjugates for labeling anti-CD45 antibodies with [(211)At]astatine.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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An investigation was conducted to compare the in vivo tissue distribution of a rat antimurine CD45 monoclonal antibody (30F11) and an irrelevant mAbs (CA12.10C12) labeled with (211)At using two different labeling methods. In the investigation, the mAbs were also labeled with (125)I to assess the in vivo stability of the labeling methods toward deastatination. One labeling method employed N-hydroxysuccinimidyl meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate, [(211)At]1c, and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl meta-[(125)I]iodobenzoate, [(125)I]1b, in conjugation reactions to obtain the radiolabeled mAbs. The other labeling method involved conjugation of a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 2, with sulfhydryl groups on the mAbs, followed by labeling of the mAb-2 conjugates using Na[(211)At]At or Na[(125)I]I and chloramine-T. Concentrations of the (211)At/(125)I pair of radiolabeled mAbs in selected tissues were examined in BALB/c mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). The co-injected anti-CD45 mAb, 30F11, labeled with [(125)I]1b and [(211)At]1c targeted the CD45-bearing cells in the spleen with the percent injected dose (%ID) of (125)I in that tissue being 13.31 ± 0.78; 17.43 ± 2.56; 5.23 ± 0.50; and (211)At being 6.56 ± 0.40; 10.14 ± 1.49; 7.52 ± 0.79 at 1, 4, and 24 h pi (respectively). However, better targeting (or retention) of the (125)I and (211)At was obtained for 30F11 conjugated with the closo-decaborate(2-), 2. The %ID in the spleen of (125)I (i.e., [(125)I]30F11-2) being 21.15 ± 1.33; 22.22 ± 1.95; 12.41 ± 0.75; and (211)At (i.e., [(211)At]30F11-2) being 22.78 ± 1.29; 25.05 ± 2.35; 17.30 ± 1.20 at 1, 4, and 24 h pi (respectively). In contrast, the irrelevant mAb, CA12.10C12, labeled with (125)I or (211)At by either method had less than 0.8% ID in the spleen at any time point, except for [(211)At]CA12.10C12-1c, which had 1.62 ± 0.14%ID and 1.21 ± 0.08%ID at 1 and 4 h pi. The higher spleen concentrations in that conjugate appear to be due to in vivo deastatination. Differences in (125)I and (211)At concentrations in lung, neck, and stomach indicate that the meta-[(211)At]benzoyl conjugates underwent deastatination, whereas the (211)At-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates were very stable to in vivo deastatination. In summary, using the closo-decaborate(2-) (211)At labeling approach resulted in higher concentrations of (211)At in target tissue (spleen) and higher stability to in vivo deastatination in this model. These findings, along with the simpler and higher-yielding (211)At-labeling method, provide the basis for using the closo-decaborate(2-) labeling reagent, 2, in our continued studies of the application of (211)At-labeled mAbs for conditioning in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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Pretargeting CD45 enhances the selective delivery of radiation to hematolymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is designed to enhance the directed delivery of radionuclides to malignant cells. Through a series of studies in 19 nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis), the potential therapeutic advantage of anti-CD45 PRIT was evaluated. Anti-CD45 PRIT demonstrated a significant improvement in target-to-normal organ ratios of absorbed radiation compared with directly radiolabeled bivalent antibody (conventional radioimmunotherapy [RIT]). Radio-DOTA-biotin administered 48 hours after anti-CD45 streptavidin fusion protein (FP) [BC8 (scFv)(4)SA] produced markedly lower concentrations of radiation in nontarget tissues compared with conventional RIT. PRIT generated superior target:normal organ ratios in the blood, lung, and liver (10.3:1, 18.9:1, and 9.9:1, respectively) compared with the conventional RIT controls (2.6:1, 6.4:1, and 2.9:1, respectively). The FP demonstrated superior retention in target tissues relative to comparable directly radiolabeled bivalent anti-CD45 RIT. The time point of administration of the second step radiolabeled ligand (radio-DOTA-biotin) significantly impacted the biodistribution of radioactivity in target tissues. Rapid clearance of the FP from the circulation rendered unnecessary the addition of a synthetic clearing agent in this model. These results support proceeding to anti-CD45 PRIT clinical trials for patients with both leukemia and lymphoma.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-decaborate(2-) and closo-dodecaborate(2-) moieties as reactive groups for labeling with astatine-211.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the alpha-particle emitting radionuclide (211)At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B(10)H(9)R](2-)) moiety for (211)At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B(12)H(11)R](2-)) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as (211)At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regard to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g., 79-96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et(3)NH](2)B(12)H(10)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1 h, 19.8%ID/g; 4 h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et(3)NH](2)B(10)H(8)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1 h, 6.6%ID/g; 4 h, 0.27%ID/g). Interestingly, when another salt of the closo-decaborate(2-), [nBu(4)N](2)B(10)H(8)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]1b, was evaluated, the route of excretion appeared to be hepatobiliary rather than renal. Identical biotin derivatives containing the two closo-borate(2-) cage moieties had similar tissue distributions, except the closo-decaborate(2-) derivative had lower concentrations in kidney (1 h, 19.9%ID/g; 4 h, 24.4%ID/g vs 1 h, 38.9%ID/g; 4 h, 40.6%ID/g). In summary, the higher reactivity, faster tissue clearance, and lower kidney concentrations make the closo-decaborate(2-) more favorable for further studies using them in reactive groups for (211)At labeling of biomolecules.
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Biodistributions, myelosuppression, and toxicities in mice treated with an anti-CD45 antibody labeled with the alpha-emitting radionuclides bismuth-213 or astatine-211.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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We previously investigated the potential of targeted radiotherapy using a bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled anti-CD45 antibody to replace total body irradiation as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation in a canine model. Although this approach allowed sustained marrow engraftment, limited availability, high cost, and short half-life of (213)Bi induced us to investigate an alternative alpha-emitting radionuclide, astatine-211 ((211)At), for the same application. Biodistribution and toxicity studies were conducted with conjugates of the anti-murine CD45 antibody 30F11 with either (213)Bi or (211)At. Mice were injected with 2 to 50 muCi on 10 microg or 20 muCi on 2 or 40 microg of 30F11 conjugate. Biodistribution studies showed that the spleen contained the highest concentration of radioactivity, ranging from 167 +/- 23% to 417 +/- 109% injected dose/gram (% ID/g) after injection of the (211)At conjugate and 45 +/- 9% to 166 +/- 11% ID/g after injection of the (213)Bi conjugate. The higher concentrations observed for (211)At-labeled 30F11 were due to its longer half-life, which permitted better localization of isotope to the spleen before decay. (211)At was more effective at producing myelosuppression for the same quantity of injected radioactivity. All mice injected with 20 or 50 muCi (211)At, but none with the same quantities of (213)Bi, had lethal myeloablation. Severe reversible acute hepatic toxicity occurred with 50 muCi (213)Bi, but not with lower doses of (213)Bi or with any dose of (211)At. No renal toxicity occurred with either radionuclide. The data suggest that smaller quantities of (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 antibody are sufficient to achieve myelosuppression and myeloablation with less nonhematologic toxicity compared with (213)Bi-labeled antibody.
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A comparative analysis of conventional and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas by targeting CD20, CD22, and HLA-DR singly and in combinations.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Relapsed B-cell lymphomas are currently incurable with conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Radiolabeled antibodies directed against B-cell surface antigens have emerged as effective and safe therapies for relapsed lymphomas. We therefore investigated the potential utility of both directly radiolabeled 1F5 (anti-CD20), HD39 (anti-CD22), and Lym-1 (anti-DR) antibodies (Abs) and of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using Ab-streptavidin (SA) conjugates, followed by an N-acetylgalactosamine dendrimeric clearing agent and radiometal-labeled DOTA-biotin, for treatment of lymphomas in mouse models using Ramos, Raji, and FL-18 human lymphoma xenografts. This study demonstrates the marked superiority of pretargeted RIT for each of the antigenic targets with more complete tumor regressions and longer mouse survival compared with conventional one-step RIT. The Ab-SA conjugate yielding the best tumor regression and progression-free survival after pretargeted RIT varied depending upon the lymphoma cell line used, with 1F5 Ab-SA and Lym-1 Ab-SA conjugates yielding the most promising results overall. Contrary to expectations, the best rates of mouse survival were obtained using optimal single Ab-SA conjugates rather than combinations of conjugates targeting different antigens. We hypothesize that clinical implementation of pretargeted RIT methods will provide a meaningful prolongation of survival for patients with relapsed lymphomas compared with currently available treatment strategies.
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The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-secreted protein EspZ inhibits host cell apoptosis.
Infect. Immun.
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The diarrheagenic pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) limits the death of infected enterocytes early in infection. A number of bacterial molecules and host signaling pathways contribute to the enhanced survival of EPEC-infected host cells. EspZ, a type III secreted effector protein that is unique to EPEC and related "attaching and effacing" (A/E) pathogens, plays a role in limiting host cell death, but the precise host signaling pathways responsible for this phenotype are not known. We hypothesized that EspZ contributes to the survival of infected intestinal epithelial cells by interfering with apoptosis. Consistent with previous studies, scanning electron microscopy analysis of intestinal epithelial cells infected with an EPEC espZ mutant (?espZ) showed increased levels of apoptotic and necrotic cells compared to cells infected with the isogenic parent strain. Correspondingly, higher levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and increased activation of caspases 9, 7, and 3 were observed for ?espZ strain-infected cells compared to wild-type (WT) EPEC-infected cells. Finally, espZ-transfected epithelial cells were significantly protected from staurosporine-induced, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)/cycloheximide-induced, apoptosis. Thus, EspZ contributes to epithelial cell survival by mechanisms that include the inhibition of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The enhanced survival of infected enterocytes by molecules such as EspZ likely plays a key role in optimal colonization by A/E pathogens.
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The toxin/immunity network of Burkholderia pseudomallei contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems.
Mol. Microbiol.
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is a category B pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis--a serious infectious disease that is typically acquired directly from environmental reservoirs. Nearly all B.?pseudomallei strains sequenced to date (> 85 isolates) contain gene clusters that are related to the contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems of ?-proteobacteria. CDI systems from Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii play significant roles in bacterial competition, suggesting these systems may also contribute to the competitive fitness of B.?pseudomallei. Here, we identify 10 distinct CDI systems in B.?pseudomallei based on polymorphisms within the cdiA-CT/cdiI coding regions, which are predicted to encode CdiA-CT/CdiI toxin/immunity protein pairs. Biochemical analysis of three B.?pseudomallei CdiA-CTs revealed that each protein possesses a distinct tRNase activity capable of inhibiting cell growth. These toxin activities are blocked by cognate CdiI immunity proteins, which specifically bind the CdiA-CT and protect cells from growth inhibition. Using Burkholderia thailandensis E264 as a model, we show that a CDI system from B.?pseudomallei 1026b mediates CDI and is capable of delivering CdiA-CT toxins derived from other B.?pseudomallei strains. These results demonstrate that Burkholderia species contain functional CDI systems, which may confer a competitive advantage to these bacteria.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 6. An intact antibody conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) reagent via sulfhydryl groups had considerably higher kidney concentrations than the same antibody conjugated with an isothiocyanato-closo-de
Bioconjug. Chem.
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We are investigating the use of an (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a replacement of total body irradiation in conditioning regimens designed to decrease the toxicity of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). As part of that investigation, dose-escalation studies were conducted in dogs using (211)At-labeled anticanine CD45 mAb, CA12.10C12, conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 4. Unacceptable renal toxicity was noted in the dogs receiving doses in the 0.27-0.62 mCi/kg range. This result was not anticipated, as no toxicity had been noted in prior biodistribution and toxicity studies conducted in mice. Studies were conducted to understand the cause of the renal toxicity and to find a way to circumvent it. A dog biodistribution study was conducted with (123)I-labeled CA12.10C12 that had been conjugated with 4. The biodistribution data showed that 10-fold higher kidney concentrations were obtained with the maleimido-conjugate than had been obtained in a previous biodistribution study with (123)I-labeled CA12.10C12 conjugated with an amine-reactive phenylisothiocyanato-CHX-A? derivative. The difference in kidney concentrations observed in dogs for the two conjugation approaches led to an investigation of the reagents. SE-HPLC analyses showed that the purity of the CA12.10C12 conjugated via reduced disulfides was lower than that obtained with amine-reactive conjugation reagents, and nonreducing SDS-PAGE analyses indicated protein fragments were present in the disulfide reduced conjugate. Although we had previously prepared closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives with amine-reactive functional groups (e.g., 6 and 8), a new, easily synthesized, amine-reactive (phenylisothiocyanate) derivative, 10, was prepared for use in the current studies. A biodistribution was conducted with coadministered (125)I- and (211)At-labeled CA12.10C10 conjugated with 10. In that study, lower kidney concentrations were obtained for both radionuclides than had been obtained in the earlier study of the same antibody conjugated with 4 after reduction of disulfide bonds.
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