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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Linkage and association between interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke: a family-based study in the northern chinese han population.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Numerous genetic risk factors of ischemic stroke (IS) have been reported from both candidate gene and genome-wide strategies with inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to confirm the relationship between 10 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and IS in the Chinese population.
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Polyhalogenated carbazoles in sediments of lake michigan: a new discovery.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Previously unknown halogenated compounds were detected during the analysis of halogenated flame retardants in two sediment cores collected from Lake Michigan. Gas chromatography coupled with high- or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to determine the chemical structures for a total of 15 novel polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCs) with the general molecular formula C12H9-x-y-zNClxBryIz. On the basis of the mass spectra generated by electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) MS, eight PHCs were tentatively identified as polybrominated carbazoles, while the others were mixed halogenated carbazoles containing, in addition to bromine, either chlorine or iodine or both. Patterns of halogen substitution of PHCs included Br2 to Br5, ClBr2, ClBr3, ClBr4, ClBr3I, Br4I, and Br3I2. 3,6-Dibromocarbazole and 1,3,6,8-tetrabromocarbazole were also found among the PHCs. Profiles of the concentration versus depth of sediment at the two sites showed various patterns among polybrominated carbazoles. The abundance of mixed halogenated carbazoles peaked at depths of 12-16 cm, remained at relatively constant levels in deeper sediment, but declined markedly in more recently deposited sediments. This is the first study discovering the seven mixed halogenated carbazoles in the environment. Detailed methods for their detection and identification are provided.
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Components of Late-Life Exercise and Cognitive Function: an 8-Year Longitudinal Study.
Prev Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The preventive effect of late-life physical exercise on cognitive deterioration has been reported in many cohort studies. However, the effect of exercise, independent of other cognitively demanding and social activities, is equivocal and little is known about the relative contributions of frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise. This study aimed to examine the relationships of exercise and its underlying components with cognitive function and rate of cognitive change over an 8-year period in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese. Data from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 phases of the nationwide longitudinal survey were used. Data from a fixed cohort of 1,268 participants aged 70 years or older in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were collected. A generalized estimating equation with multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic variables, cognitive and social leisure activities, lifestyle behaviors, and health status was calculated. Participants who were physically active during leisure time had better subsequent cognitive function (incident rate ratios [IRR]?=?0.63; 95 % CI, 0.54-0.75) and a slower rate of cognitive decline (p?=?0.01). Among the components of exercise, only duration emerged as a predictor of cognitive function (p?=?0.01). Older adults engaging in exercise for at least 30 min or more per session are likely to reduce the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. This research supports the case for physical exercise programs for older adults in order to help prevent loss of cognitive function.
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[Characteristics of 72 h glucose profiles detected by continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with insulinoma].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To identify the characteristics of glucose profiles in patients with insulinoma using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS).
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[Intracerebral transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage: protective effect to injured brain].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To study the brain protection and the possible mechanism of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD).
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MicroRNA-185 suppresses growth and invasion of colon cancer cells through inhibition of the hypoxia?inducible factor-2? pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non?coding RNAs with regulatory roles, which are involved in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes, including cancer development and progression. However, the function of miR?185 in the development of human colon cancer has not yet been investigated. In this study, the association between miR?185 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with colon cancer was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Using a gain?of?function approach, the effects of miR?185 overexpression on the expression of hypoxia?inducible factor?2? (HIF?2?), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and matrix metallopeptidase?2 (MMP?2) were investigated in SW620 colon cancer cells using qPCR and western blotting. Functional analysis of cellular proliferative activities, by MTT assay, and invasive potential, by Transwell assay, was conducted on SW620 cells expressing low levels of miR?185. miR?185 was found to be significantly downregulated in cancer tissues compared with adjacent non?cancerous tissues, and was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis of colon cancer (P<0.001). miR?185 overexpression in vitro impeded cellular proliferation and invasive potential with reduced expression of HIF?2?, PCNA and MMP?2 in SW620 cells transfected with an miR?185 mimic. In addition, the tumor volumes in SW620 subcutaneous nude mouse models treated with miR?185 were significantly smaller than those of the control group. In conclusion, these findings indicate that miR?185 as a tumor suppressor may affect the development of colon cancer cells via inhibition of HIF?2? signaling, suggesting that miR?185 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treatment.
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Efficacy and Safety of Prolonged-Release Trazodone in Major Depressive Disorder: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Trial.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Objective: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and clinical benefit of prolonged-release trazodone (Trittico) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: In this study, 363 Chinese patients with MDD were randomized 1:1 to receive either prolonged-release trazodone (150-450 mg) or placebo treatment for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy measurement was the change of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) total score from baseline to the end of the study. The secondary efficacy measurements were the response and remission rates, the Clinical Global Impression - Improvement of Illness (CGI-I) score at the end of the study, and the change of the HAMD-14 total score and quality of sleep [evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale] during the study period. Results: The mean maximum daily dose was 273.11 mg for the trazodone group and 290.92 mg for the placebo group. At the end of the study, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the HAMD-17 change score (trazodone vs. placebo: -11.07 vs. -8.29, p < 0.001). Trazodone showed advantages at 1 week of treatment, and the effect lasted until the end of the study (week 6). The response and remission rates of the trazodone group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group (response rate: 59.6 vs. 37.2%, p < 0.001; remission rate: 35.5 vs. 22.2%, p = 0.005). The majority of the adverse reactions of trazodone were mild to moderate, and the most frequent adverse reactions (?5%) were dizziness, dry mouth, somnolence, and nausea. Conclusions: Prolonged-release trazodone was more effective than placebo in MDD and was well tolerated. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a typical circular DNA with length of 13,089?bp (GenBank accession number: KM111296). The genome contains all 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), an A + T-rich region, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. The A + T content of the mitochondrial genome is 84.5%. The AT-skew is positive (0.032) while the GC-skew is negative (-0.058). The gene arrangement is conserved in T. urticae, Panonychus citri and P. ulmi which are in the same family (Tetranychidae). The A + T-rich region is only 43?bp in length with high A + T content (97.7%). All the PCGs start with typical ATD codons. Eight PCGs have complete TAA stop codons, while five PCGs have an incomplete stop codon (T).
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Autoimmune disease comorbidities in patients with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide case-control study in Taiwan.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatitis of unknown etiology. It is thought that abnormal regulation of Th1 and Th2 is not only the major cause of AD, but also the vital pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. To date, no large-scale studies have been performed on the relationship between AD and autoimmune disease. By conducting a nationwide population-based study with case-controls in Taiwan, we sought to clarify the association of AD with other autoimmune diseases to obtain a better understanding of its pathogenesis.
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Angioarchitecture of extracranial arteriovenous malformations: a vascular casting study.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital vascular anomalies, not proliferative neoplasms, but tend to behave aggressively with unpredictable growth and tissue destruction. For the understanding of the angioarchitecture of extracranial AVM, which is believed to be the main cause that explains all presenting symptoms, the study aimed to elucidate the vascular structure of extracranial AVM with vascular cast of completely excised AVM lesion.
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Characteristics of evodiamine-exerted stimulatory effects on rat jejunal contractility.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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This study was designed to characterise the effects of evodiamine on intestinal contractility and reveal the correlated mechanisms. Evodiamine (2.5-80.0 ?M) increased normal jejunal contractility and jejunal hypocontractility established under a variety of experimental conditions. Evodiamine-exerted stimulatory effects were blocked by the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine or abolished in the Ca(2+)-free assay condition. The stimulatory effects of evodiamine on jejunal contractility were partially blocked in the presence of neurotoxin tetrodotoxin or endogenous acetylcholine synthesis blocker hemicholinium-3 or muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, respectively. Evodiamine-exerted stimulatory effects were blocked by c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Evodiamine increased myosin phosphorylation in jejunal smooth muscle of constipation-prominent rats. These results showed that evodiamine-exerted stimulatory effects on jejunal segments are Ca(2+)-dependent, need the presence of interstitial cell of Cajal, requirement of cholinergic neuron and correlate with increased myosin phosphorylation, implicating the potential value of evodiamine in relieving hypo-motility disorders.
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Blocking and reversing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated by traditional Chinese medicine (tablets of biejia ruangan or RGT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and ultimately liver-related death. Although oral antiviral therapy for patients with CHB reduces the risk of such complications, once cirrhosis is established, the benefits of antiviral therapy are not robustly demonstrated. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), some Chinese herbal medicines promote blood circulation and soften hard masses, and therefore they may block and reverse hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of TCM tablets of the compound biejia ruangan (RGT) administered for fibrosis, and entecavir (ETV), on the development of HCC in patients with CHB or hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated cirrhosis.
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Angiogenin: a potential serum marker of infantile hemangioma revealed by cDNA microarray analysis.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Hemangiomas are characterized by rapid growth but slow regression. Prognosis and treatment urgently require the identification of serum markers to determine the proliferative potential of hemangiomas.
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Enhancement mechanisms behind exclusive removal and selective recovery of copper from salt solutions with an aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent (CEAD) could exclusively remove and to selectively recover copper. The adsorption and separation properties of Cu(II) onto CEAD from aqueous media, with or without salts such as NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2 and Ni(NO3)2, were systematically compared by carrying out single, binary and multiple component static and dynamic experiments. In binary systems, the adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were obviously increased by 39.47%, 47.37% and 57.89% with Ni(NO3)2, NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2, respectively. Besides, simulation study was performed to selectively recover Cu(II) from multi-component aqueous media, with the separation factor of only 54.91 in aqueous media without salts. The separation factor became infinite in the presence of NaNO3 and the enhancement ratio for Cu(II) was raised by 126.31%. Dynamic adsorption could separate Cu(II) and Ni(II) completely and the amount of effluent for pure Ni(II) increased to 127 BV with the help of NaNO3. In the predominant chelating mode simulated by density functional theory calculation, a metal ion coordinated with three nitrogen atoms and formed a chelating complex with two five-membered rings, and Cu(II) showed stronger coordinating ability than Ni(II) did. Meanwhile, anions exerted significant beneficial effects by electrostatic screening, and thus strengthened the exclusive removal and selective recovery of Cu(II).
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[A matched case-control study of risk factors in abdominal aortic aneurysm].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To examine the potential influence factors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).
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Association analysis of common genetic variations in MUC5AC gene with the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in MUC5AC gene might contribute to the risk of gastric cancer. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the relationship between common genetic variations in MUC5AC gene and non-cardia gastric cancer using an LD-based tagSNP approach in Baotou, north-western China. We genotyped 12 tagSNPs by TaqMan method among 288 cases with non-cardia gastric cancer and 281 normal controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for non-cardia gastric cancer risk in association with alleles, genotypes and haplotypes. We observed that the frequencies of rs3793964 C allele and rs11040869 A allele were significantly lower in cases than in controls. Meanwhile, minor allele homozygotes of rs3793964 and rs11040869 were significantly associated with a decreased risk of non-cardia gastric cancer when compared with their major allele homozygotes. Furthermore, a statistically significantly protective effect of rs885454 genotypes on non-cardia gastric cancer was also observed (for CT vs. CC: OR=0.581, 95%CI=0.408-0.829; for CT/TT vs. CC: OR=0.623, 95%CI=0.451-0.884). Our results indicated that some common genetic variations in the MUC5AC gene might have effects on the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer in our studied population.
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Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A-associated progeria caused by homozygous LMNA mutation in a family from Southern China.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A (MADA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by growth retardation, skeletal abnormality with progressive osteolysis of the distal phalanges and clavicles, craniofacial anomalies with mandibular hypoplasia, lipodystrophy and mottled cutaneous pigmentation. Some patients may show progeroid features. MADA with partial lipodystrophy, more marked acral, can be caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding lamin A and lamin C (LMNA). MADA and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are caused by the same gene and may represent a single disorder with varying degrees of severity. MAD patients characterized by generalized lipodystrophy (type B) affecting the face as well as extremities and severe progressive glomerulopathy present heterozygous compound mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene.
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Experimental and theoretical investigation of temperature effects on an interbedded betavoltaic employing epitaxial Si and bidirectional (63)Ni.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The performance of an interbedded betavoltaic employing epitaxial Si and bidirectional (63)Ni was measured and calculated at various temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the temperature dependence of the performance of interbedded betavoltaics is similar to that of monolayer betavoltaics: Voc and Pmax decrease approximately linearly with increasing temperature at low temperatures of 213.15-253.15K and decrease exponentially with increasing temperature at high temperatures of 253.15-333.15K. However, the calculation results indicate that the temperature dependences of Voc and Pmax are always linear at both high and low temperatures. Isc increases slightly with increasing temperature in both experiment and calculation.
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Pathway from central obesity to childhood asthma. Physical fitness and sedentary time are leading factors.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Available prospective studies of obesity and asthma have used only body mass index (BMI) as an indicator for adiposity; studies using detailed obesity measures are lacking, and the role of physical fitness level and sedentary time remains unexplored in the link between obesity and asthma.
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Gender difference in association of cognition with BDNF in chronic schizophrenia.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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While numerous studies have reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, very few studies have explored its association with cognitive impairment or gender differences in schizophrenia which we explored. We compared gender differences in 248 chronic schizophrenic patients (male/female=185/63) to 188 healthy controls (male/female=98/90) on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and serum BDNF. Schizophrenic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Our results showed that schizophrenic patients performed worse than normals on most of the cognitive tasks, and male patients had significantly lower immediate memory and delayed memory scores than female patients. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients than controls, and male patients had significantly lower BDNF levels than female patients. For the patients, BDNF was positively associated with immediate memory and the RBANS total score. Furthermore, these associations were only observed in female not male patients. Among healthy controls, no gender difference was observed in cognitive domains and BDNF levels, or in the association between BDNF and cognition. Our results suggest gender differences in cognitive impairments, BDNF levels and their association in chronic patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings should be regarded as preliminary due to the cross-sectional design and our chronic patients, which need replication in a first-episode and drug naïve patients using a longitudinal study.
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Open reduction and internal fixation of posterior pilon fractures with buttress plate.
Acta Ortop Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Posterior pilon fractures are rare injuries and have not yet gained well recognition. The purpose of this study was to present the treatment outcome for patients with posterior pilon fractures treated with buttress plate.
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Factors Associated with Performance-based Physical Function of Older Veterans of the PLAAF: A Pilot Study.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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[Purpose] This study investigated the factors associated with performance-based physical function of older veterans of the People's Liberation Army Air Force of China (PLAAF). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey of 146 older veterans of the PLAAF was carried out. Their physical function was measured using the Chinese Mini-Physical Performance Testing (CM-PPT). The demographics and health status (including physical measures, blood chemical tests, chronic diseases, and number of morbidities) were collected from health examination reports and computer records of case history. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). [Results] In multiple linear regressions, age, MMSE, Parkinsonism, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were independently associated with CM-PPT, while previous stroke and albumin level reached borderline statistical significance. The association between the number of morbidities and CM-PPT was significant after adjustment for MMSE and demographics. The CM-PPT of low (0 or 1), medium (2 to 4) and high count (5 or more) morbidities were 11.3±3.9, 10.2±4.1, 6.1±3.8 respectively, and the difference among these three groups was significant. [Conclusion] Some modified conditions and the number of chronic diseases might be associated with the physical function of older veterans of the PLAAF.
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Characteristics of diprophylline-induced bidirectional modulation on rat jejunal contractility.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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In this study, we propose that diprophylline exerts bidirectional modulation (BM) on the isolated rat jejunal segment depending on its contractile state. The results supported the hypothesis. Diprophylline (20 µM) exerted stimulatory effects on the contractility of jejunal segment in six low contractile states while inhibitory effects in six high contractile states, showing the characteristics of BM. Diprophylline-induced stimulatory effect was significantly blocked by atropine, indicating the correlation with cholinergic activation. Diprophylline-induced inhibitory effect was partially blocked by phentolamine, propranolol, and L-N-Nitro-Arginine respectively, indicating their correlation with sympathetic activation and nitric oxide-mediated relaxing mechanisms. Diprophylline-induced BM was abolished by tetrodotoxin or in a Ca(2+) free condition or pretreated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, suggesting that diprophylline-induced BM is Ca(2+) dependent, and that it requires the presence of enteric nervous system as well as pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal. Diprophylline significantly increased the reduced MLCK expression and myosin extent in constipation-prominent rats and significantly decreased the increased MLCK expression and myosin extent in diarrhea-prominent rats, suggesting that the change of MLCK expression may also be involved in diprophylline-induced BM on rat jejunal contractility. In summary, diprophylline-exerted BM depends on the contractile states of the jejunal segments, requires the presence of Ca(2+), enteric nervous system, pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal, and MLCK-correlated myosin phosphorylation. The results suggest the potential implication of diprophylline in relieving alternative hypo/hyper intestinal motility.
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[Effect of integrin ?8 on TGF-?1 activation in astrocytes with oxygen glucose deprivation].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To study the effect of ?8 expression on transforming growth factor ?1(TGF-?1) activation in astrocytes with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD).
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Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R. solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R. solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil.
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Characteristics of nobiletin-induced effects on jejunal contractility.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, exhibits multiple biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-insulin resistance effects. The present study found that nobiletin exerted significant stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments in all 6 different low contractile states, and meanwhile significant inhibitory effects in all 6 different high contractile states, showing characteristics of bidirectional regulation (BR). Nobiletin-exerted BR on jejunal contractility was abolished in the presence of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib or Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. In the presence of neuroxin tetrodotoxin, nobiletin only exerted stimulatory effects on jejunal contractility in both low and high contractile states. Hemicholinium-3 and atropine partially blocked nobiletin-exerted stimulatory effects on jejunal contractility in low-Ca(2+)-induced low contractile state. Phentolamine or propranolol or l-NG-nitro-arginine significantly blocked nobiletin-exerted inhibitory effects on jejunal contractility in high-Ca(2+)-induced high contractile state respectively. The effects of nobiletin on myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA expression, MLCK protein content, and myosin light chain phosphorylation extent were also bidirectional. In summary, nobiletin-exerted BR depends on the contractile states of rat jejunal segments. Nobiletin-exerted BR requires the enteric nervous system, interstitial cell of Cajal, Ca(2+), and myosin phosphorylation-related mechanisms.
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Long noncoding RNA GHET1 promotes the development of bladder cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In spite of the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, the prognosis of bladder cancer remains relatively poor. As a result, it is vital to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic marker of bladder cancer. A growing volume of literature has implicated the vital role of long noncoding RNA in the development of cancer. GHET1, a recently identified lncRNA, was initially characterized in gastric cancer. However, its role in bladder cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that GHET1 was upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and its over-expression correlates with tumor size, advanced tumor and lymph node status, and poor survival. GHET1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells in vitro. In the meantime, inhibition of GHET1 reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in bladder cancer cell line. Taken together, our study suggests that the potential use of GHET1 as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target of bladder cancer.
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The complete mitochondrial genomes of six species of tetranychus provide insights into the phylogeny and evolution of spider mites.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many spider mites belonging to the genus Tetranychus are of agronomical importance. With limited morphological characters, Tetranychus mites are usually identified by a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular diagnostics. To clarify their molecular evolution and phylogeny, the mitochondrial genomes of the green and red forms of Tetranychus urticae as well as T. kanzawai, T. ludeni, T. malaysiensis, T. phaselus, T. pueraricola were sequenced and compared. The seven mitochondrial genomes are typical circular molecules of about 13,000 bp encoding and they are composed of the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. The order of the mitochondrial (mt) genes is the same as that in the mt genomes of Panonychus citri and P. ulmi, but very different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the mitochondrial genomes have high (?84%) A+T contents, negative GC-skews and positive AT-skews. The nucleotide sequence of the cox1 gene, which is commonly used as a taxon barcode and molecular marker, is more highly conserved than the nucleotide sequences of other mitochondrial genes in these seven species. Most tRNA genes in the seven genomes lose the D-arm and/or the T-arm. The functions of these tRNAs need to be evaluated. The mitochondrial genome of T. malaysiensis differs from the other six genomes in having a slightly smaller genome size, a slight difference in codon usage, and a variable loop in place of the T-arm of some tRNAs by a variable loop. A phylogenic analysis shows that T. malaysiensis first split from other Tetranychus species and that the clade of the family Tetranychoidea occupies a basal position in the Trombidiformes. The mt genomes of the green and red forms of T. urticae have limited divergence and short evolutionary distance.
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GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious threat to human health, and 40%-80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX) at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Importantly, the GE11-modified liposomes showed enhanced accumulation and prolonged retention in tumor tissue, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold stronger mean fluorescence intensity in tumor tissue than the unmodified liposomes at 24 hours. In summary, GE11-modified liposomes may be a promising platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in NSCLC.
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2PE-STED microscopy with a single Ti:sapphire laser for reduced illumination.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We reported a new effective approach to carry out two-photon excitation stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) microscopy using a single Ti:sapphire laser system. With an acoustic-optic Bragg cell, the modulated-CW 2PE STED microscope had the benefits of both CW and pulse approaches: lower input power, simple optical scheme and no complicated synchronization. Additionally, it also took advantages of fluorescence yield increasing. The sub-diffraction-limit resolution was demonstrated using ATTO 425-tagged clathrin-coated vesicles.
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Anatomy and biomechanical properties of the plantar aponeurosis: a cadaveric study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) and its biomechanical effects on the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and foot arch.
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[Hyaluronic acid-based carriers for tumor targeted delivery system].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) as anticancer drug carrier has become the new hot point in the field of tumor-targeted drugs delivery system in recent years. Tumor therapeutic agents could be transmitted into cells because of hyaluronic acid innate ability to recognize specific cellular receptors that overexpressed on tumor cells surface. This review introduces the basic properties and physiology foundation of hyaluronic acid. Recent research developments based on different forms of HA tumor-targeted drugs delivery systems are reviewed in particular.
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[Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation vs. endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy for common bile duct stones: a meta analysis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy between endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) and endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy ( EST) for common bile duct stones using meta-analysis method.
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[Visualization study of current research on nutrition of premature infants in China].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Inadequate postnatal nutritional support is an important factor contributing to growth failure, which leads to poor neurological outcome. In this study, co-word analysis was used to investigate the research on nutrition of premature infants over the last six years in China, describe the research trend in this field in China, and provide possible directions for future research.
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European Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) Suggest That Landfills Are an Important Source of Bioaccumulative Flame Retardants to Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystems.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Landfills are used as the primary means for the disposal of municipal solid waste in Canada. In the present study, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants (FRs) were determined in fresh European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ) eggs collected in 2009, 2010, and 2011 from nest boxes established within, adjacent to, and 10 and 40 km distant to five major urban centers across Canada, i.e., Vancouver, British Columbia (BC); Calgary, Alberta (AB); Hamilton, Ontario (ON); Montréal, Québec (QC); and Halifax, Nova Scotia (NS). Nest boxes were located in several land use types: urban industrial areas (districts of industrial activity within city limits), landfill sites (adjacent to cities), and rural (agricultural) sites located 10 and 40 km distant from the major urban centers, as well as a national reference site. Of the 14 PBDE congeners and 16 non-PBDE FR substances determined in the starling eggs, BDE-17, -28, -47, -49, -66, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, and -209, Dechlorane Plus isomers (anti and syn), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) were most frequently quantifiable. The data revealed orders of magnitude greater PBDE concentrations in eggs from starlings nesting in landfill sites (median: 28-280 ng/g wet weight) relative to those from urban industrial and rural environments. However, the percent fractional composition of the PBDE congener patterns did not vary significantly between the types of land uses or between years. Additionally, the median ?PBDE concentration in eggs from landfill sites and the human population density of the metropolitan region that the landfill serves were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.998, p < 0.001). As the first transcontinental effort in assessing FR contamination in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, the present study strongly suggest that landfills are an important FR source to starlings nesting nearby and that other terrestrial organisms could also be similarly exposed.
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Porous TiO2 nanowire microsphere constructed by spray drying and its electrochemical lithium storage properties.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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Porous TiO2 nanowire microspheres with greatly decreasing agglomeration were successfully prepared by spray drying of hydrothermal reaction suspension, followed by calcination at 350°C. The as-obtained nanowire microspheres with TiO2 -B structure reach an initial discharge capacity 210 mAh g(-1) with an irreversible capacity 25 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 20 mA g(-1) . For the 450°C-calcined one with anatase TiO2 crystal structure, the initial discharge capacity is 245 mAh g(-1) but with a much higher irreversible capacity of 80 mAh g(-1) . The hierarchical porous structure in the 350°C-calcined TiO2 nanowire microspheres collapsed at 450°C, annihilating the main benefit of nanostructuring. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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[Efficacy and safety of vitamin D for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D (VD) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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The CCL5/CCR5 axis contributes to the perineural invasion of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) has a unique tendency for perineural invasion (PNI), which results in tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that the chemokine CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the role of the CCL5/CCR5 axis in the PNI of SACC has not been studied to date. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of CCL5 and CCR5 in SACC cases and nerve tissues, and performed a series of in vitro assays with the SACC cell line, SACC-83, to indicate the role of the CCL5/CCR5 axis in the PNI of SACC. We found that CCL5 (35.9%; 23/64) and CCR5 (70.3%; 45/64) were positively expressed in SACC cases, and the expression of CCR5 was significantly associated with the PNI of SACC (P<0.05). We also found that SACC-83 cells expressed the functional receptor, CCR5, for the chemokine CCL5, as demonstrated by calcium mobilization and actin polymerization assays. Furthermore, we found that exogenous CCL5 significantly facilitated the migration, invasion and PNI activity of SACC-83 cells in vitro (P<0.05). Further study showed that the CCR5 inhibitor (maraviroc) effectively blocked the migration, invasion and PNI activity of SACC-83 cells with or without CCL5 stimulation (P<0.05). These results indicate that the CCL5/CCR5 axis plays a critical role in the PNI of SACC, and that antagonists against CCR5 may be an effective anti-PNI agent for SACC therapy.
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Suicide risk in major affective disorder: Results from a national survey in China.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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This study investigated suicide risk and its correlates among major affective disorder patients in China and examined possible risk factors for future suicide among individuals with major affective disorder to inform appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.
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[Progress in the study of targeted drug delivery systems for cancer stem cells].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The discovery, sorting and identification methods as well as targeted drug delivery systems for cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reviewed by consulting the recent research papers. CSCs have been believed to be responsible for the occurrence and development of chemo-resistance, leading to the failure of chemotherapy. Much progress has been made in the approaches for CSCs targeting drug delivery systems. The understanding and targeted drug delivery systems for CSCs are promising to provide an alternative for cancer therapy.
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The complete mitochondrial genomes of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus: conserved genome rearrangement in Delphacidae and discovery of new characteristics of atp8 and tRNA genes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Nilaparvata lugens (the brown planthopper, BPH) and Laodelphax striatellus (the small brown planthopper, SBPH) are two of the most important pests of rice. Up to now, there was only one mitochondrial genome of rice planthopper has been sequenced and very few dependable information of mitochondria could be used for research on population genetics, phylogeographics and phylogenetic evolution of these pests. To get more valuable information from the mitochondria, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of BPH and SBPH. These two planthoppers were infected with two different functional Wolbachia (intracellular endosymbiont) strains (wLug and wStri). Since both mitochondria and Wolbachia are transmitted by cytoplasmic inheritance and it was difficult to separate them when purified the Wolbachia particles, concomitantly sequencing the genome of Wolbachia using next generation sequencing method, we also got nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of these two rice planthoppers. After gap closing, we present high quality and reliable complete mitochondrial genomes of these two planthoppers.
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[Association study between PDE4D gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To investigate the linkage and association between rs966221 (SNP 83) in PDE4D gene with stroke and related traits in ischemic stroke families.
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[Investigation on pharmacokinetics of aminophylline in very low birth weight infants].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To investigate the pharmacokinetics of aminophylline in very low birth weight infant.
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UV-enhanced cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in PANC-1 cells depend on their size distribution and surface modification.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The cytotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) under normal conditions has received more and more attention, but their cytotoxicity under light illumination has not been fully investigated. In this study, different sized CdTe QDs coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were employed to investigate the influences of size distribution and surface modification on their UV-enhanced cytotoxicity and mechanism. The results indicated that different sized MPA-CdTe QDs exhibited distinct cytotoxicity under UV illumination and the smaller-sized QDs presented more obviously damages to cells than the larger-sized QDs. Comparing with MPA-CdTe QDs, NAC-CdTe QDs had better cellular metabolizability and lower cytotoxicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated. The results revealed that ROS in cells containing MPA-CdTe QD538 were about 1.7 times of NAC-CdTe QD538 under UV illumination. ROS might play an important role in the UV-enhanced cytotoxicity of QDs. By selecting appropriate surface modifications and particle sizes, the cytotoxicity of QDs under UV illumination could be controlled.
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Surgical management for avulsion fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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To discuss the operative methods and curative effect of calcaneal tuberosity fracture.
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Neuroprotection in glaucoma: present and future.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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To review the updated research on neuroprotection in glaucoma, and summarize the potential agents investigated so far.
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Adjunctive with versus without intravitreal bevacizumab injection before Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a refractory disease which is difficult to manage. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection in conjunction with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in the management of NVG.
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Gender differences in demographic and clinical features and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications in patients with major depressive disorder in China.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Little is known about gender differences associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in China. This study examined gender differences associated with other demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug treatment in Chinese patients with MDD.
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Disorder of blood-aqueous barrier following Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation (AGVI) is used to treat refractory glaucoma. Breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) has been noted after some surgical techniques. The current study was designed to assess BAB disruption after AGVI.
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Lack of association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury in a community-based Chinese population.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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The precise pathogenic mechanism of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced liver injury (ATLI) is poorly understood. It may be associated with drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in the risk of ATLI in a population-based anti-TB treatment cohort. A nested case-control study was designed. Each ATLI case was matched 1 : 4 with controls on the basis of age, gender, treatment history, disease severity and drug dosage. The tSNPs were selected using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of Han Chinese in Beijing and genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. Eighty-nine patients with ATLI and 356 controls were included in the study. One tSNP in CYP3A4 (rs12333983), two in CYP2C9 (rs4918758, rs9332098) and two in CYP2C19 (rs11568732, rs4986894) were selected and genotyped. The minor allele frequencies of rs12333983, rs4918758, rs9332098, rs11568732 and rs4986894 were 36.0%, 41.4%, 1.1%, 5.7% and 35.7%, respectively, in the patients, compared with 31.7%, 42.9%, 3.4%, 8.9% and 35.1%, respectively, in the controls. No significant differences were observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the five tSNPs between the two groups and none of the CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 haplotypes was significantly associated with the development of ATLI. Based on the Chinese anti-TB treatment cohort, we did not find a significant association between the risk of ATLI and genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. None of the haplotypes exhibited a significant association with the development of ATLI in a Chinese tuberculosis population.
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NO adsorption behaviors of the MnOx catalysts in lean-burn atmospheres.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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NO(x) emission control of lean-burn engines is one of the great challenges in the world. Herein, the MnOx model catalysts with the different calcination temperatures were synthesized to investigate their NO adsorbability for lean-burn exhausts. The transformation from (?-)MnO? to (?-)Mn?O? following the increased calcination temperatures was evidenced from the viewpoint of the local atomic level. Among these samples, the one calcined at 550 °C containing the single ?-Mn?O? phase displayed the best NO adsorbability: NO was mainly adsorbed in the forms of NO/nitrites and NO?/nitrates at the low and high temperatures, respectively; the NO oxidation ability displayed the volcano-shape following the increased operating temperatures, and reached the maximum, i.e. 92.4% of the NO-to-NO? conversion, at 250 °C. Moreover, this sample presented the efficiently reversible NO adsorption/desorption performance in alternative lean-burn/fuel-rich atmospheres, due to the weakly bonded NO(x) on it. The superficial oxygen species plays a critical role for the NO oxidation over ?-Mn?O?. The consumed superficial oxygen could be further compensated by the gaseous and lattice oxygen therein. Our findings show that the ?-Mn?O? material is a promising NO(x) adsorber for lean-burn exhausts even at low operating temperatures.
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Effects of berberine on rat jejunal motility.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The aim of the study was to evaluate berberine-induced bidirectional regulation on the contractility of jejunum.
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Multiple infections with Cardinium and two strains of Wolbachia in the spider mite Tetranychus phaselus Ehara: revealing new forces driving the spread of Wolbachia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) has been proposed as a major mechanism by which certain strains of Wolbachia to invade and persist in host populations. However, mechanisms that underlie the invasion and persistence of non-CI strains are less well understood. Here, we established a spider mite Tetranychus phaselus population multiply infected by Cardinium as well as two distinct lineages of Wolbachia, designated wCon and wOri, to study the forces driving the spread of the non-CI strain of Wolbachia wOri. Interestingly, we found that wOri provided a longevity advantage to its female hosts under ideal conditions, making wOri stay longer in this population, and then being transmitted to more offspring. Furthermore, the lifespan of uninfected females was reduced when mated with multiple-infected males. As a result, the uninfected population is attenuated by the multiple-infected males. Thus, we infer that the host age effects of multiple infection may represent sufficient forces driving the spread of wOri through the host population.
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MTA2 expression is a novel prognostic marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to detect MTA2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and to analyze its association with prognosis of PDA patients. MTA2 mRNA and protein expression were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in specimens of primary cancer and their adjacent noncancerous tissues in PDA patients. We found that MTA2 mRNA and protein expression levels were both significantly upregulated in PDA lesions compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that high MTA2 expression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high expression levels of MTA2 showed lower overall survival rate than those with low expression levels. Multivariate analysis showed that high MTA2 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor for PDA patients. Our study suggests that overexpression of MTA2 may play an important role in the progression of PDA and MTA2 expression may serve as a biomarker for poor prognosis for PDA.
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Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial raptors from northern China.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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While a number of studies have addressed the environmental presence and behavior of the Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant, there is still a dearth of information in terrestrial ecosystems. The present study revealed that median ?DP (including anti- and syn-DP isomers) concentrations ranged from 10 to 810 ng/g lipid weight in muscle and liver tissues of six terrestrial raptor species collected in 2004-2006 from Beijing, China. Some concentrations rival the greatest DP burdens ever reported in global wildlife. Significant, positive correlations were observed between fanti (concentration ratio of anti-isomer to ?DP) and ?DP concentrations in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) tissues. These results suggested that the DP burdens could be substantially driven by the accumulation of the anti-isomer in terrestrial birds. The tissue-specific accumulation of DP further suggested that factors (e.g., hepatic binding enzymes) other than lipid solubility could be important in determining tissue deposition of DP.
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Tetradecabromodiphenoxybenzene flame retardant undergoes photolytic debromination.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Highly brominated flame retardant compounds have relatively low bioavailability, but some of these compounds have been shown to be of environmental concern. Tetradecabromodiphenoxybenzene (TDBDPB) contains 14 bromine atoms and is the major component of commercial flame retardant mixtures such as the recently phased out SAYTEX 120. The chemical stability of TDBDPB has not been reported. We demonstrated that TDBDPB can photolytically undergo stepwise reductive debromination that follows first-order kinetic degradation models when exposed to UV or natural sunlight radiation and when dissolved in the solvents tetrahydrofuran, methanol, or n-hexane. Photolytic degradation half-lives of TDBDPB ranged from 98 to 169 min, 0.78 to 0.83 min, 1.0 to 1.8 min, and 4.9 to 7.4 min when exposed to UV-A, -B, and -C, and natural sunlight, respectively. However, the TDBDPB half-lives when exposed to UV-B and especially UV-C are likely underestimated since solutions were in borosilicate glass vials during irradiation resulting from increasingly lower % transmittance of ? < 300 nm. Neat technical TDBDPB powder exposed to UV-B and -C radiation also produced less brominated products, although the rate was much slower as compared to when in solution. Exposure of TDBDPB solutions to natural sunlight generated a number of polybrominated diphenoxybenzene (PBDPB) photolysis products, among which the Br(4)- to Br(7)-PBDPBs were the most frequently observed and estimated to be most concentrated. As evidenced by the TDBDPB half-lives and the degree of debrominated byproduct formation, the findings showed that the fraction of the absorbed irradiation that was of sufficient energy to break C-Br bonds of TDBDPB and lesser brominated PBDPBs increased from UV-B or -C to UV-A. Coincidentally, we recently reported on the presence of several Br(4) to Br(6) methoxylated PBDPBs in the Great Lakes herring gull eggs, which may be linked to a TDBDPB source via photolytic degradation to more bioavailable and persistent debromination products.
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Occurrence and biomagnification of organohalogen pollutants in two terrestrial predatory food chains.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP), were determined in three raptor species, namely, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), and little owl (Athene noctua), as well as in their primary prey items: Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). DDTs were the predominant pollutants in avian species followed by PBDEs and PCBs, then minimally contribution of HBCDs and DP. Inter-species differences in the PBDE congener profiles were observed between the owls and the common kestrels, with relatively high contributions of lower brominated congeners in the owls but highly brominated congeners in the kestrels. This result may partly be attributed to a possible greater in vivo biotransformation of highly brominated BDE congeners in owls than in kestrels. ?-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomer with a preferential enrichment of (-)-enantiomer in all the samples. No stereoselective bioaccumulation was found for DP isomers in the investigated species. Biomagnification factor (BMF) values were generally higher in the rat-owl food chain than in the sparrow-kestrel food chain. Despite this food chain-specific biomagnification, the relationships between the log BMF and log KOW of PCBs and PBDEs followed a similar function in the two food chains, except for BDE-47, -99, and -100 in the sparrow-kestrel feeding relationship.
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The characteristics of genistin-induced inhibitory effects on intestinal motility.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Genistin belongs to isoflavones. Based on the facts that genistin exerts inhibitory effects on the contractility of vascular smooth muscle,the present study was designed to characterize the effects of genistin on intestinal contractility and evaluate its potential clinical implication. Ex vivo [isolated jejunal segment (IJS) of rat], in vitro, and in vivo assays were used in the study. The results indicated that genistin (5-80 ?mol/L) inhibited the contraction of IJS in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the increased-contractility of IJS induced by acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, high Ca(2+), and erythromycin, respectively. The inhibitory effects of genistin were correlated with the stimulation of alpha adrenergic and beta adrenergic receptors since these inhibitory effects were significantly blocked in the presence of phentolamine and propranolol respectively. No further inhibitory effects of genistin were observed in the presence of verapamil or in Ca(2+)-free condition, indicating genistin-induced inhibitory effects are Ca(2+)-dependent. Genistin decreased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) protein contents and MLCK mRNA expression in IJS, and inhibited both phosphorylation and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of purified myosin, implicating that the decrease of MLCK contents and inhibition of MLCK activity are involved in the genistin-induced inhibitory effects. The study suggests the potential clinical implications of genistin in relieving intestinal hypercontractility.
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Meta-analysis comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation and endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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To assess endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) and endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stone removal using a meta-analysis.
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Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate that Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), increases host fecundity, but has no effects on the longevity of females and the mating competitiveness of males in T. urticae. Most importantly, host mating pattern was found to affect Wolbachia density dynamics during host aging. Mating of an uninfected mite of either sex with an infected mite attenuates the Wolbachia density in the infected mite. According to the results of Wolbachia localization, this finding may be associated with the tropism of Wolbachia for the reproductive tissue in adult spider mites. Our findings describe a new interaction between Wolbachia and their hosts.
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Association between thrombelastography system and thromboembolic and bleeding events in Chinese aged people.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study was designed to obtain the knowledge about TEG indexes distribution in Chinese aged people, as well as to test the hypothesis that previous TEG indexes are associated with the subsequent thromboembolic and bleeding events in the aged population.
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[Analysis of imported falciparum malaria cases of Nantong City from 2001 to 2010].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To analyze the characteristics of imported falciparum malaria cases of Nantong City in the recent ten years so as to provide the evidence for improving prevention and control of malaria in the future.
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Adaptive multiscale regression for reliable Raman quantitative analysis.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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This paper presents a novel methodology, adaptive multiscale regression (AMR), to adaptively process Raman spectra for quantitative analysis. The proposed methodology aims to construct an optimal calibration model for a Raman spectrum at hand, regardless of its structural characteristics, thus facilitating the application of Raman spectroscopy as a general tool for analytical chemistry. AMR firstly splits the spectra in a calibration set into frequency components at different scales using adaptive wavelet transform (AWT). Parallel member models constructed at different scales are then fused into a final prediction. The contributions of member models to a fusion model are straightforwardly estimated by a partial least square (PLS) model that emerges from a cross-validation results matrix (X) and reference values (Y). This procedure avoids information leakage by fully utilizing the multiscale nature of the input Raman spectra instead of arbitrarily removing some part of the spectral information by calibrating to selected features. Theoretically, we establish that AMR represents an automatic data-driven strategy that captures the Raman spectral structures adaptively and accurately. Our work tests and refines the AMR method by drawing upon the systematic analysis of spectra formulated to yield challenges representative of those encountered in common Raman analyses. AMR compares favorably with other popular preprocessing methods. Satisfactory calibration results suggest that AMR has the capacity to improve robustness and reliability of Raman spectral analysis, and may well extend to other spectroscopic techniques.
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[The characterisitics of temperature/pH sensitive block copolymer micelles in vitro].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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The dialysis method was employed to prepare blank and doxorubicin (DOX) loaded micelles formed by temperature- and pH- sensitive polyhistidine-co-polyDL-lactide-co-glycolide-co-polyethyleneglycol-co-polyDL-lactide-co-glycolide-co-polyhistidine (PHis-b-PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA-b-PHis). The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the copolymers were measured with Pyrene Fluorescent Probe Technique. The temperature- and pH- sensitive properties of the blank micelles solution were investigated by optical transmittance measurement. The morphology and diameter of DOX micelles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The entrapment rate and drug-loading rate were determined with dialysis method. The in vitro release study was further performed to examine the temperature- and pH-responsive drug release behavior from DOX-loaded micelles. The results indicated that the CMC, entrapment efficiency and drug-loaded amount of the micelles were 7.5 x 10(-3) g x L(-1), 85.2 +/- 3.1% and 10.4 +/- 4.5%, respectively. The DOX micelle was globular-shaped with a mean diameter of 91.1 +/- 15.8 nm. The transmittance of micelle solution consistently increased with the increasing temperature or decreasing pH. In comparison to the drug release profile at physiological conditions (37 degrees C, pH 7.4), the DOX-loaded micelles showed faster drug release rate at higher temperature (41 degrees C), lower pH (pH 7.0, pH 6.5, pH 5.0) or higher temperature and lower pH (41 degrees C, pH 5.0). This indicated that the micelles showed a temperature and pH-triggered drug release pattern. Base on the above results, it can be concluded that PHis-b-PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA-b-PHis block copolymer micelles which respond to temperature and pH stimuli are promising smart carriers for anti-tumor drugs with the advantages of temperature- and pH- triggered drug release.
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Novel methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzene congeners and possible sources in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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An increasing number of brominated flame retardants and other brominated substances are being reported in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Yet, in extracts from gulls eggs, numerous bromide anion response peaks in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mass chromatograms remain unidentified. Using archived herring gull egg homogenates, we characterize the structures of three major and three minor, new and unique brominated substances. After extensive cleanup and separation to isolate these substances from the extracts, high-quality ECNI and electron impact (EI) mass spectra revealed fragmentation patterns consistent with congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzene (MeO-PBDPB), where four congeners contained five bromines and the other two contain four and six bromines, respectively. Optimized, semiquantitative analysis revealed sum concentrations of the MeO-PBDBP congeners ranged from <0.2 to 36.8 ng/g ww in pooled egg homogenates (collected in 2009) from fourteen herring gull colony sites across the Great Lakes, with the highest concentration being for Channel-Shelter Island in Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron). To our knowledge, there are no published reports on the environmental presence and sources of MeO-PBDPBs. We hypothesize that these MeO-PBDPBs are degradation products of the polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes, for example, tetradecabromodiphenoxybenzene (currently marketed as SAYTEX 120) or polybromo 3P2E. MeO-PBDPBs in Great Lakes herring gull eggs indicates their bioaccumulation potential, and raises concerns about their origin, environmental behavior and influences on wildlife and environmental health.
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Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Detecting and characterizing single nanoparticles and airborne viruses are of paramount importance for disease control and diagnosis, for environmental monitoring, and for understanding size dependent properties of nanoparticles for developing innovative products. Although single particle and virus detection have been demonstrated in various platforms, single-shot size measurement of each detected particle has remained a significant challenge. Here, we present a nanoparticle size spectrometry scheme for label-free, real-time and continuous detection and sizing of single Influenza A virions, polystyrene and gold nanoparticles using split whispering-gallery-modes (WGMs) in an ultra-high-Q resonator. We show that the size of each particle and virion can be measured as they continuously bind to the resonator one-by-one, eliminating the need for ensemble measurements, stochastic analysis or imaging techniques employed in previous works. Moreover, we show that our scheme has the ability to identify the components of particle mixtures.
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Doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PCL copolymer micelles enhance cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in adriamycin-resistant tumor cells.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Multidrug resistance remains a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy. Some chemical multidrug resistance inhibitors, such as ciclosporin and verapamil, have been reported to reverse resistance in tumor cells. However, the accompanying side effects have limited their clinical application. In this study, we have developed a novel drug delivery system, ie, a polyethyleneglycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymer micelle encapsulating doxorubicin, in order to circumvent drug resistance in adriamycin-resistant K562 tumor cells.
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Do temporal and geographical patterns of HBCD and PBDE flame retardants in U.S. fish reflect evolving industrial usage?
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are common flame retardants in polymers and textiles. Recognition of the persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties of PBDEs has prompted reductions in their use. In contrast, HBCD has received less scrutiny. The U.S has historically been a dominant BFR consumer. However, the few publications on HBCD in wildlife here suggest modest levels compared to Asian and European studies. In contrast, the HBCD concentrations we detected in U.S. fish are among the highest reported in the world. The temporal trends observed suggest that HBCD use may have risen, and that of Penta-BDE declined, following the 2004 termination of its U.S. manufacture. For example, Hyco River carp collected in 1999-2002 exhibited a mean ?HBCD (sum of ?-, ?- and ?-HBCD) concentration of only 13 ng/g (lipid weight basis), but was 4640 ng/g in fish collected in 2006-2007. In contrast, the mean ?PBDE level in these same fish decreased from 40,700 ng/g in 1999-2002 to 9140 ng/g in 2006-2007. Concentrations of HBCD and PBDEs in several Hyco River fish species exceeded those from rivers less influenced by manufacturing outfalls. Results support the contention that textile-related production, relative to its BFR market share, may release disproportionately large amounts of HBCD to the environment.
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[Clinical analysis of radiation optic neuropathy].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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To investigate the clinical features, risk factors, diagnostic methods, treatment regimens and outcomes of Chinese adult patients with radiation optic neuropathy (RON).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.