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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
All-optical self-referencing measurement of vectorial optical arbitrary waveform.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose the Vectorial E-field Characterization Through all-Optical and self-Referenced (VECTOR) method to characterize vectorial optical arbitrary waveform with up to 100% duty cycle, which is free of ambiguity, iteration, radio-frequency or external optical reference, restriction on repetition rate, and requirement of external interferometric stabilization. The feasibility of VECTOR is experimentally verified by different waveforms created by a phase-modulated CW comb source and a built-in polarization line-by-line pulse shaper.
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Toxic Effects of Levofloxacin on Rat Annulus Fibrosus Cells: An In-vitro Study.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Background Fluoroquinolones are in wide clinical use as safe and effective antibiotics. Articular cartilage, tendons, and epiphyseal growth plates have been recognized as targets of fluoroquinolone-induced connective tissue toxicity. However, the effects of fluoroquinolones on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells are still unknown. Material and Methods The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of levofloxacin, a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, on rat AF cells in vitro. Rat annulus fibrosus (RAF) cells were treated with levofloxacin at different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 90 ?g/ml) and were assessed to determine the possible cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin. Inverted phase-contrast microscopy was used to accomplish the morphological observation of apoptosis of treated cells. Western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) was used to explore the expression of active caspase-3 and MMP-3. Flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptotic incidences. Results Our study showed that levofloxacin, with concentrations at 30, 60, and 90 ?g/ml, induced dose-dependent RAF cell apoptosis and higher expression of caspase-3 and MMP-3. More apoptotic cells were observed by inverted phase-contrast microscopy. Moreover, levofloxacin increased the activity of caspase-3, and it also reduced cell viability with different concentrations ranging from 10 to 80 ?g/ml. Conclusions Our study results suggest that levofloxacin has cytotoxic effects on RAF cells, characterized by enhancing apoptosis and reducing cell viability, and indicate a potential toxic effect of fluoroquinolones on RAF cells.
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Diketopyrrolopyrrole-bitellurophene containing a conjugated polymer and its high performance thin-film transistor sensor for bromine detection.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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A new bitellurophene-based ?-conjugated polymer () was synthesized and its semiconducting property was utilized for detecting Br2. The polymer exhibited a highly sensitive response to Br2, which was indicated by a significant variation of the drain current in thin-film transistors.
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Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Abstract Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is a widely-used and effective antibiotic. However, various adverse side effects are associated with levofloxacin. The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of levofloxacin on rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). Inverted phase-contrast microscopy, flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays were used and revealed that serum deprivation induced apoptosis, which was markedly increased by levofloxacin in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneously, levofloxacin decreased cell binding to type II collagen (COL2). Thus, levofloxacin-induced apoptosis exhibits characteristics of anoikis, the process by which cell death is triggered by separation from the extracellular matrix, which contains COL2. Furthermore, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to further confirm that levofloxacin downregulates COL2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. At last, western blot was used to find that levofloxacin increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and active caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Levofloxacin therefore increases the effects of serum deprivation on anoikis by downregulating COL2 in rat NPCs in vitro via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway. This research provides a novel insight into the mechanisms of levofloxacin-induced toxicity and may potentially lead to a better understanding of the clinical effects of levofloxacin, especially in terms of intervertebral disc degeneration.
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A cis-regulatory mutation of PDSS2 causes silky-feather in chickens.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Silky-feather has been selected and fixed in some breeds due to its unique appearance. This phenotype is caused by a single recessive gene (hookless, h). Here we map the silky-feather locus to chromosome 3 by linkage analysis and subsequently fine-map it to an 18.9 kb interval using the identical by descent (IBD) method. Further analysis reveals that a C to G transversion located upstream of the prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 2 (PDSS2) gene is causing silky-feather. All silky-feather birds are homozygous for the G allele. The silky-feather mutation significantly decreases the expression of PDSS2 during feather development in vivo. Consistent with the regulatory effect, the C to G transversion is shown to remarkably reduce PDSS2 promoter activity in vitro. We report a new example of feather structure variation associated with a spontaneous mutation and provide new insight into the PDSS2 function.
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Earthworm is a versatile and sustainable biocatalyst for organic synthesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature.
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Increased micro-RNA 17, 21, and 192 gene expressions improve early diagnosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer worldwide. About 90 % lung cancer patients died within 5 years after diagnosis. It is reasonable to assume that early detection of lung cancer could reduce mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression by affecting the stability or the translation efficiency of target messenger RNAs. Altered expressions of miRNAs were associated with the development, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Here, we describe a blood test based on detection of serum miRNAs that distinguish early NSCLC patients from healthy volunteers. Three miRNAs, miR-17, 21 and 192 expression levels were significantly higher in the stage I NSCLC patients than the healthy volunteer groups. This suggests that miR-17, 21 and 192 could be considered as biomarkers for diagnosis of early-stage NSCLC.
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[2-Bromoethylamine protects vascular endothelium by inhibiting SSAO activity in diabetic rats].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of aortic semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in diabetic rats and examine the effect of 2-bromoethylamine (2-BEA) on SSAO activity and vascular endothelium in diabetic rats. SSAO was prepared from rat aorta. For assessment of the inhibitory effect, the enzymes were preincubated in the presence of different concentrations of 2-BEA before the addition of benzylamine in vitro. Type 1 diabetic rat model was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), diabetic model group (DM), 2-BEA 5 mg/kg group, 2-BEA 20 mg/kg group (n = 10 in each group). 2-BEA was administered daily via intraperitoneal injection for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, blood sample was collected from the abdominal aorta. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) was determined by nitrate reductase method. Plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Aorta SSAO was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The aorta was prepared to observe morphological changes and ultramicroscopic structures. The results were as follows: Compared with NC group, aortic SSAO activity and the plasma ET-1 were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and plasma NO was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in DM group. 2-BEA decreased plasma ET-1 and elevated plasma NO by inhibiting aortic SSAO activity in diabetic rats (P < 0.01), and 2-BEA 20 mg/kg group was more significant than 2-BEA 5 mg/kg group (P < 0.05). Endothelial injury of 2-BEA group rats was less serious than DM group. These results suggest that 2-BEA protect aortic endothelium by inhibiting aortic SSAO activity.
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GVCBLUP: a computer package for genomic prediction and variance component estimation of additive and dominance effects.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Dominance effect may play an important role in genetic variation of complex traits. Full featured and easy-to-use computing tools for genomic prediction and variance component estimation of additive and dominance effects using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are necessary to understand dominance contribution to a complex trait and to utilize dominance for selecting individuals with favorable genetic potential.
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Lifestyle risks exposure and response predictor of gefitinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown to improve the prognosis of EGFR-mutated (exon 19/21) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Positive EGFR mutation status is associated with NSCLC in non-smokers. Genetic and environmental factors have been linked to the etiology of EGFR mutations and sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs in non-smoking NSCLC patients. Cooking fume exposure (CFE) has also been proposed as an etiologic factor for NSCLC in non-smokers; however, the association of CFE with EGFR mutation status and EGFR-TKI response is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the association between CFE and clinical response to EGFR-TKI therapy in NSCLC. The association of CFE, smoking history, occupational hazard exposure, tumor pathological type, EGFR mutation status, environmental exposure, living environment, and performance status with EGFR-TKI efficacy was determined in metastatic NSCLC patients who were treated with EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib). Objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used to evaluate EGFR-TKI response. A total of 273 patients with a median age of 60.97 years (range 27-86 years) were included in this study. The proportion of patients receiving gefitinib and erlotinib was 72.53% (198/273) and 27.47% (75/273), respectively. ORRs (complete+partial responses) to gefitinib and erlotinib treatment were 20.70% (41/198) and 14.67% (11/75), respectively. Of the 273 patients, 98 (36.03%) had CFE and 112 (44.69%) had exposed to tobacco smoke. EGFR mutations were present in 55 patients, including exon 19 deletion (n=43) and exon 21 point mutations (n=12). Of the 55 EGFR mutation-positive patients, 52 (94.5%) had CFE. In the multivariate conditional logistic analysis, clinical response to EGFR-TKI was associated with non-smoking status, EGFR mutation, and CFE. Among these factors, CFE was the strongest predictor of EGFR-TKI response (odds ratio 13.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.66-32.98; P<0.001). PFS was associated with a performance status of 0/1, adenocarcinoma pathological type, non-smoking status, EGFR mutation, and CFE. Among these, CFE was the most important factor for longer PFS (hazard ratio 0.37; 95% CI 0.26-0.52; P<0.001). The median PFS was 15.15 months in patients with CFE and 4.37 months in those without (P<0.0001). Knowledge of CFE history might be useful as a response predictor to EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC. Furthermore, CFE history might help to assess EGFR mutation status when genetic testing is not available.
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The genetic basis for inactivation of Wnt pathway in human osteosarcoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Osteosarcoma is a highly genetically unstable tumor with poor prognosis. We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), and pathway analysis to gain a systemic view of the pathway alterations of osteosarcoma.
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Chemical constituents from Euphorbia stracheyi and their biological activities.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Three new diterpenoids, stracheyioids A-C (1-3), as well as 36 known compounds (4-39) were isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia stracheyi. Compound 1 was a rare 13-deoxy tigliane diterpenoid and compound 2 was an ingenol diterpenoid characterized by an unique 2Z,4Z-decadienoyl acidic moieties. All the known compounds were isolated from E. stracheyi for the first time. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic interpretation. Compounds 1-39 were tested for their cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines (A-549, MCF-7, Hep G2, Hela and P388) and showed IC50 values in the range 6.64-42.86 ?M. The antiangiogenic activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated using a zebrafish model.
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[Semen expulsion under the ureterocystoscope].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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To determine the exact location of the opening of the ejaculatory duct in men and provide some basic anatomical evidence for seminal vesiculoscopy and the treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction.
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Low-dose paclitaxel improves the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant adenovirus encoding CCL21 chemokine against murine cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC/CCL21), one of the CC chemokines, exerts potent antitumor immunity by co-localizing T cells and dendritic cells at the tumor site and is currently tested against human solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether the combination of recombinant adenovirus encoding murine CCL21 (Ad-mCCL21) with low-dose paclitaxel would improve therapeutic efficacy against murine cancer. Immunocompetent mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma or 4T1 breast carcinoma were treated with either Ad-mCCL21, paclitaxel, or both agents together. Our results showed that Ad-mCCL21 + low-dose paclitaxel more effectively reduced the growth of tumors as compared with either treatment alone and significantly prolonged survival time of the tumor-bearing animals. These antitumor effects of the combined therapy were linked to altered cytokine network at the tumor site, enhanced apoptosis of tumor cells, and decreased formation of new vessels in tumors. Importantly, the combined therapy elicited a strong therapeutic antitumor immunity, which could be partly abrogated by the depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Collectively, these preclinical evaluations may provide a combined strategy for antitumor immunity and should be considered for testing in clinical trials.
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Leaf-templated synthesis of 3D hierarchical porous cobalt oxide nanostructure as direct electrochemical biosensing interface with enhanced electrocatalysis.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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A novel three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) architecture was first synthesized through a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly leaf-templated strategy. The Co3O4 nanoparticles (30-100 nm) with irregular shapes were interconnected with each other to form a 3D multilayer porous network structure, which provided high specific surface area and numerous electrocatalytic active sites. Subsequently, Co3O4 was successfully utilized as direct electrochemical sensing interface for non-enzymatic detection of H2O2 and glucose. By using chronoamperometry, the current response of the sensor at +0.31 V was linear with H2O2 concentration within 0.4-200 ?M with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.24 ?M (S/N=3) and a high sensitivity of 389.7 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2). Two linear ranges of 1-300 ?M (with LOD of 0.1 ?M and sensitivity of 471.5 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2)) and 4-12.5 mM were found at +0.59 V for glucose. In addition, the as-prepared sensor showed excellent stability and anti-interference performance for possible interferents such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, acetaminophen and especially 0.15 M chloride ions. Similarly, other various metal oxide nanostructures may be also prepared using this similar strategy for possible applications in catalysis, electrochemical sensors, and fuel cells.
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Magnetic resonance neurography in analysis of operative safety of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in Chinese subjects.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To measure relevant anatomical variables of lumbosacral nerve root and adjacent structures by magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and analyze operative safety of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in Chinese subjects.
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Self-referenced frequency comb measurement by using a polarization line-by-line pulse shaper.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A polarization line-by-line pulse shaper is used for generation and noniterative spectral phase retrieval of optical arbitrary waveforms (OAWs) spanning over the entire repetition period. The method is completely reference-free, making it particularly attractive in measuring high repetition-rate OAW.
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Is gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma a special subtype of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma? New insight based on clinicopathological features and EBV genome polymorphisms.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare entity that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms in gastric LELC have not been systematically explored.
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Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum by Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in single-crystal diamond.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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An octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum is generated by non-collinear Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in single-crystal diamond using 7.7 fs laser pulses that have been chirped to about 420 fs in duration. The use of ultrabroad bandwidth pulses as input results in substantial overlap of the generated spectrum of the anti-Stokes sidebands, creating a phase-locked supercontinuum when all the sidebands are combined to overlap in time and space. The overall bandwidth of the generated supercontinuum is sufficient to support its compression to isolated few-to-single cycle attosecond transients. The significant spectral overlap of adjacent anti-Stokes sidebands allows the utilization of straight-forward spectral interferometry to test the relative phase coherence of the anti-Stokes outputs and is demonstrated here for two adjacent pairs of sidebands. The method can subsequently be employed to set the relative phase of the sidebands for pulse compression and for the synthesis of arbitrary field transients.
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MiR-101 suppresses the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2 in ovarian carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy; the majority of patients succumb to the disease within 5 years of diagnosis. The poor survival rate is attributed to diagnosis at advanced stage, when the tumor has metastasized. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a necessary step toward metastatic tumor progression. Through integrated computational analysis, we recently identified a master microRNA (miRNA) network that includes miR-101 and regulates EMT in ovarian carcinoma. In the present study, we characterized the functions of miR-101. Using reporter gene assays, we demonstrated that miR-101 suppressed the expression of the E-cadherin repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2 by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of both ZEB1 and ZEB2. Introduction of miR-101 significantly inhibited EMT and cell migration and invasion. Introducing cDNAs of ZEB1 and ZEB2 without 3'UTR abrogated miR-101-induced EMT alteration, respectively. Our findings showed that miR-101 represents a redundant mechanism for the miR-200 family that regulates EMT through two major E-cadherin transcriptional repressors.
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Hepatitis B surface antigen levels during natural history of chronic hepatitis B: a Chinese perspective study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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To determine the baseline hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels during the different phases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China.
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Enzyme-labeled Pt@BSA nanocomposite as a facile electrochemical biosensing interface for sensitive glucose determination.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Electrocatalytic reactions of glucose oxidation based on enzyme-labeled electrochemical biosensors demand a high enzymatic activity and fast electron transfer property to produce the amplified signal response. Through a "green" synthesis method, Pt@BSA nanocomposite was prepared as a biosensing interface for the first time. Herein we presented a convenient and effective glucose sensing matrix based on Pt@BSA nanocomposite along with the covalent adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD). The electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction was significantly enhanced due to the excellent bioactivity of anchored GOD and superior catalytic performance of interior platinum nanoparticles, which was gradually restrained with the addition of glucose. A sensitive glucose biosensor was then successfully developed upon the restrained oxygen reduction peak current. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed to investigate the determination performance of the enzyme biosensor, resulting in a linear response range from 0.05 to 12.05 mM with an optimal detection limit of 0.015 mM. The as-proposed sensing technique revealed high selectivity against endogenous interfering species, satisfactory storage stability, acceptable durability, and favorable fabrication reproducibility with the RSD of 3.8%. During the practical application in human blood serum samples, this glucose biosensor obtained a good detection accuracy of analytical recoveries within 97.5 to 104.0%, providing an alternative scheme for glucose level assay in clinical application.
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Interferon regulatory factor 3 protects against adverse neo-intima formation.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is central to the pathophysiology of neo-intima formation. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) inhibits the growth of cancer cells and fibroblasts. However, the role of IRF3 in vascular neo-intima formation is unknown. We evaluated the protective role of IRF3 against neo-intima formation in mice and the underlying mechanisms.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of dihydroartemisinin-fluoroquinolone conjugates as a novel type of potential antitubercular agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Tuberculosis remains a global public health problem in recent years. To develop novel type of potential antitubercular agents, twelve novel dihydroartemisinin-fluoroquinolone (DHA-FQ) conjugates (three types of molecules) were gradually designed and conveniently synthesized. All the newly synthesized conjugates were well characterized and evaluated against different Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in vitro. The screening results showed that five DHA-FQ conjugates were active toward M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and compound 3a exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity (MIC=0.0625 ?g/mL), which was comparable to the positive control Moxifloxacin and even stronger than Ofloxacin. Conjugates 2a and 3a also displayed comparable activities against various clinically isolated sensitive and resistant M. tuberculosis strains (MIC=0.125-16 ?g/mL) to Moxifloxacin. All target compounds possessed selective anti-M. tuberculosis ability. Preliminary structure-activity relationship demonstrated that short linker between DHA and FQ was favorable for strong antitubercular activity. This study provides a new clue for the development of novel antitubercular lead molecules.
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HBsAg levels in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with different immune conditions.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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To investigate hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and different immune conditions.
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Efficacy and safety of capecitabine as maintenance treatment after first-line chemotherapy using oxaliplatin and capecitabine in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patients: a prospective observation.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The value of maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy has been verified in lung cancer and colorectal cancer, however, in gastric cancer, the role of maintenance therapy is still waiting for an answer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of capecitabine as maintenance treatment after first-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patients in China. Specimens of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were given 6 cycles of oxaliplatin and capecitabine (Xelox for short) as first-line chemotherapy, without disease progression and with grade 2 or higher neuropathy, were collected for analysis. Among them, 64 patients received capecitabine as maintenance (group A) and 222 patients without maintenance as group B. Survival analysis was performed with a Cox regression model. Grades 3-4 adverse events were uncommon; hematologic toxicity was infrequent (5%) and consistently mild in the phase of maintenance treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.2-12.6 months] for group A patients, while it was 7.1 months (95% CI, 6.1-8.0 months) for patients in group B, P?
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MiR-506 suppresses proliferation and induces senescence by directly targeting the CDK4/6-FOXM1 axis in ovarian cancer.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy. Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and effective targeted therapies are needed to improve patient outcomes. MicroRNAs play important roles in cancer progression and have the potential for use as either therapeutic agents or targets. Studies in other cancers have suggested that miR-506 has anti-tumour activity, but its function has yet to be elucidated. We found that deregulation of miR-506 in ovarian carcinoma promotes an aggressive phenotype. Ectopic over-expression of miR-506 in ovarian cancer cells was sufficient to inhibit proliferation and to promote senescence. We also demonstrated that CDK4 and CDK6 are direct targets of miR-506, and that miR-506 can inhibit CDK4/6-FOXM1 signalling, which is activated in the majority of serous ovarian carcinomas. This newly recognized miR-506-CDK4/6-FOXM1 axis provides further insight into the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma and identifies a potential novel therapeutic agent.
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17?-Estradiol protects against apoptosis induced by levofloxacin in rat nucleus pulposus cells by upregulating integrin ?2?1.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Levofloxacin has been reported to have cytotoxicity to chondrocytes in vitro. And 17?-estradiol has been widely studied for its protective effects against cell apoptosis. Based on apoptotic cell model induced by levofloxacin, the purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism by which 17?-estradiol protects rat nucleus pulposus cells from apoptosis. Inverted phase-contrast microscopy, flow cytometry, and caspase-3 activity assay were used to find that levofloxacin induced marked apoptosis, which was abolished by 17?-estradiol. Interestingly, estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182780, and functional blocking antibody to ?2?1 integrin, both prohibited the effect of 17?-estradiol. Simultaneously, levofloxacin decreased cellular binding ability to type II collagen, which was also reversed by 17?-estradiol. Furthermore, western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were used to find that integrin ?2?1 was responsible for estrogen-dependent anti-apoptosis, which was time-response and dose-response effect. 17?-estradiol was proved for the first time to protect rat nucleus pulposus cells against levofloxacin-induced apoptosis by upregulating integrin ?2?1 signal pathway.
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Post-transcriptional regulatory network of epithelial-to-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), play important roles in embryogenesis, stem cell biology, and cancer progression. EMT can be regulated by many signaling pathways and regulatory transcriptional networks. Furthermore, post-transcriptional regulatory networks regulate EMT; these networks include the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) families. Specifically, the miR-200 family, miR-101, miR-506, and several lncRNAs have been found to regulate EMT. Recent studies have illustrated that several lncRNAs are overexpressed in various cancers and that they can promote tumor metastasis by inducing EMT. MiRNA controls EMT by regulating EMT transcription factors or other EMT regulators, suggesting that lncRNAs and miRNA are novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. Further efforts have shown that non-coding-mediated EMT regulation is closely associated with epigenetic regulation through promoter methylation (e.g., miR-200 or miR-506) and protein regulation (e.g., SET8 via miR-502). The formation of gene fusions has also been found to promote EMT in prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the post-transcriptional regulatory network that is involved in EMT and MET and how targeting EMT and MET may provide effective therapeutics for human disease.
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Intraocular pressure and associations in children. The gobi desert children eye study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert.
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In vitro enhancement of dendritic cell-mediated anti-glioma immune response by graphene oxide.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Malignant glioma has extremely poor prognosis despite combination treatments with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may potentially serve as an adjuvant treatment of glioma, but its efficacy generally needs further improvement. Here we explored whether graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could modulate the DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response in vitro, using the T98G human glioma cell line as the study model. Pulsing DCs with a glioma peptide antigen (Ag) generated a limited anti-glioma response compared to un-pulsed DCs. Pulsing DCs with GO alone failed to produce obvious immune modulation effects. However, stimulating DCs with a mixture of GO and Ag (GO-Ag) significantly enhanced the anti-glioma immune reaction (p?
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Selection of a novel DNA aptamer for assay of intracellular interferon-gamma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) is a glycoprotein generated by lymphocytes that possesses anti-tumor, antiviral and immunomodulatory functions. IFN-? assays are broadly employed in immunological research and clinical diagnostic tests. Intracellular IFN-? staining, in particular, is an important immune assay that allows simultaneous determination of cellular phenotype and antigen-specific T cell response. Aptamers have great potential for molecule detection and can bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. In this study, a novel 59-mer DNA aptamer (B1-4) was developed for assay of intracellular IFN-?. The selected aptamer bound to IFN-? with a Kd of 74.5 nM, with minimal cross-reactivity to albumin. The aptamer was also found capable of binding with paraformaldehyde-fixed IFN-?. Moreover, B1-4 could enter permeated and paraformaldehyde-fixed lymphocytes, and bound to intracellular IFN-? produced by these cells. When FITC-labeled B1-4 was used to stain a group of lymphocytes, the average fluorescence of the cells was positively correlated with the number of PMA-stimulated lymphocytes within the group. A standard curve could thus be established for assessing the fraction of IFN-?-producing cells in a cluster of lymphocytes. The selected aptamer hence provides a novel approach for assaying intracellular IFN-? generated by a group of lymphocytes, and may have application potential in both scientific research and clinical laboratory test.
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Genomic heritability estimation for the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate in wild rainbow and steelhead trout populations.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A previous genomewide association study (GWAS) identified SNP markers associated with propensity to migrate of rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a connected population with free access to the ocean in Upper Yakima River (UYR) and a population in Upper Mann Creek (UMC) that has been sequestered from its access to the ocean for more than 50 years. Applying genomic heritability estimation using the same dataset, we found that smoltification in the UYR population were almost completely determined by additive effects, with 95.5% additive heritability and 4.5% dominance heritability, whereas smoltification in the UMC population had substantial dominance effects, with 0% additive heritability and 39.3% dominance heritability. Dominance test detected one SNP marker (R30393) with significant dominance effect on smoltification (P = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Genomic-predicted additive effects completely separated migratory and nonmigratory fish in the UYR population, whereas genomic-predicted dominance effects achieved such complete separation in the UMC population. The UMC population had higher genomic additive and dominance correlations than the UYR population, and fish between these two populations had the least genomic correlations. These results suggested that blocking the free access to the ocean may have reduced genetic diversity and increased genomic similarity associated with the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate.
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Mixed model methods for genomic prediction and variance component estimation of additive and dominance effects using SNP markers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We established a genomic model of quantitative trait with genomic additive and dominance relationships that parallels the traditional quantitative genetics model, which partitions a genotypic value as breeding value plus dominance deviation and calculates additive and dominance relationships using pedigree information. Based on this genomic model, two sets of computationally complementary but mathematically identical mixed model methods were developed for genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation (GREML) of additive and dominance effects using SNP markers. These two sets are referred to as the CE and QM sets, where the CE set was designed for large numbers of markers and the QM set was designed for large numbers of individuals. GBLUP and associated accuracy formulations for individuals in training and validation data sets were derived for breeding values, dominance deviations and genotypic values. Simulation study showed that GREML and GBLUP generally were able to capture small additive and dominance effects that each accounted for 0.00005-0.0003 of the phenotypic variance and GREML was able to differentiate true additive and dominance heritability levels. GBLUP of the total genetic value as the summation of additive and dominance effects had higher prediction accuracy than either additive or dominance GBLUP, causal variants had the highest accuracy of GREML and GBLUP, and predicted accuracies were in agreement with observed accuracies. Genomic additive and dominance relationship matrices using SNP markers were consistent with theoretical expectations. The GREML and GBLUP methods can be an effective tool for assessing the type and magnitude of genetic effects affecting a phenotype and for predicting the total genetic value at the whole genome level.
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Premature attraction of pollinators to inaccessible figs of Ficus altissima: a search for ecological and evolutionary consequences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adult life spans of only one or two days characterise life cycles of the fig wasps (Agaonidae) that pollinate fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). Selection is expected to favour traits that maximise the value of the timing of encounters between such mutualistic partners, and fig wasps are usually only attracted to their hosts by species- and developmental-stage specific volatiles released from figs at the time when they are ready to be entered, oviposited in and pollinated. We found that Ficus altissima is exceptional, because it has persistent tight-fitting bud covers that prevent its Eupristina altissima pollinator (and a second species of 'cheater' agaonid) from entering its figs for several days after they start to be attracted. We examined the consequences of delayed entry for the figs and fig wasps and tested whether delayed entry has been selected to increase adult longevity. We found that older pollinators produced fewer and smaller offspring, but seed production was more efficient. Pollinator offspring ratios also varied depending on the age of figs they entered. The two agaonids from F. altissima lived slightly longer than six congeners associated with typical figs, but this was explainable by their larger body sizes. Delayed entry generates reproductive costs, especially for the pollinator. This opens an interesting perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators and on the nature of mutualistic interactions in general.
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Has pollination mode shaped the evolution of ficus pollen?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The extent to which co-evolutionary processes shape morphological traits is one of the most fascinating topics in evolutionary biology. Both passive and active pollination modes coexist in the fig tree (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig wasp (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera) mutualism. This classic obligate relationship that is about 75 million years old provides an ideal system to consider the role of pollination mode shifts on pollen evolution.
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[Regulating effects of rosa roxburghii tratt preparation on immune function in arseniasis patients caused by coal burning].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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To explore the influence of rosa roxburghii tratt preparation on immune function of arseniasis patients caused by burning coal.
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Integrated microRNA network analyses identify a poor-prognosis subtype of gastric cancer characterized by the miR-200 family.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Our aim was to investigate whether microRNAs can predict the clinical outcome of patients with gastric cancer (GC). We used integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles to identify GC microRNA subtypes and their underlying regulatory scenarios.
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[The study on the relationship between modic change and disc height together with lumbar hyperosteogeny].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To evaluate the relationship between Modic change and disc height together with lumbar hyperosteogeny and study the role of Modic change in lumbar degeneration.
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Interferon Regulatory Factor 8 Modulates Phenotypic Switching of Smooth Muscle Cells through Regulating the Activity of Myocardin.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), a member of IRF transcription factor family, was recently implicated in vascular diseases. In the present study, using the mouse left carotid artery wire injury model, we unexpectedly observed that the expression of IRF8 was greatly enhanced in SMCs by injury. Compared with wild-type controls, IRF8 global knockout mice exhibited reduced neointimal lesions and maintained SMC-marker gene expression. We further generated SMC-specific IRF8 transgenic mice using an SM22?-driven IRF8 plasmid construct. In contrast to the knockout mice, the SMCs-overexpressing IRF8 exhibited a synthetic phenotype and enhanced neointima formation in the mice. Mechanistically, IRF8 inhibited SMC-marker gene expression through regulating serum response factor (SRF) transactivation in a myocardin-dependent manner. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated a direct interaction of IRF8 with myocardin, in which a specific region of myocardin was essential for recruiting acetyltransferase p300. Altogether, IRF8 is crucial in modulating SMC phenotype switching and neointima formation in response to vascular injury via direct interaction with SRF/myocardin complex.
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Removal versus preservation of the posterior longitudinal ligament in Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty can be used to restore and maintain the mobility and function of the involved cervical spinal segments. The efficiency of posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) resection in anterior cervical decompression and fusion has been demonstrated. However, no clinical reports have compared PLL removal with preservation in Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty. This study aimed to assess the role of removal of PLL in Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty at an 18-month follow-up.
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Translational genomics in cancer research: converting profiles into personalized cancer medicine.
Cancer Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Cancer genomics is a rapidly growing discipline in which the genetic molecular basis of malignancy is studied at the scale of whole genomes. While the discipline has been successful with respect to identifying specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors involved in oncogenesis, it is also challenging our approach to managing patients suffering from this deadly disease. Specifically cancer genomics is driving clinical oncology to take a more molecular approach to diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment selection. We review here recent work undertaken in cancer genomics with an emphasis on translation of genomic findings. Finally, we discuss scientific challenges and research opportunities emerging from findings derived through analysis of tumors with high-depth sequencing.
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The role of Ursodeoxycholic acid in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a condition that occurs during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Effective therapy for NASH is still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the treatment of NASH.
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Cancer stem-like cell characteristics induced by EB virus-encoded LMP1 contribute to radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by suppressing the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Emerging evidence confirms that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the chemoradioresistance of malignancies. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is associated with tumor relapse and poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, whether LMP1 induces the development of CSCs and the mechanism by which this rare cell subpopulation leads to radioresistance in NPC remain unclear. In the present study, LMP1-transformed NPC cells showed significant radioresistance compared to the empty vector control. We found that LMP1 up-regulated the expression of several stemness-related genes, increased the cell number of side population (SP) by flow cytometry analysis, enhanced the self-renewal properties of the cells in a spherical culture and enhanced the in vivo tumor initiation ability. We also found that LMP1 positively regulated the expression of the CSC marker CD44. The CD44(+/High) subpopulation of the LMP1-transformed NPC cells displayed more significant CSC characteristics than the CD44(-/Low) subpopulation of the LMP1-transformed NPC cells; these characteristics included the upregulation of stemness-related genes, in vitro self-renewal and in vivo tumor initiation ability. Importantly, the CD44(+/High) subpopulation displayed more radioresistance than the CD44(-/Low) subpopulation. Our results also demonstrated that phosphorylation of the DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, ATM, Chk1, Chk2 and p53, was inactivated in the LMP1-induced CD44(+/High) cells in response to DNA damage, and this was accompanied by a downregulation of the p53-targeted proapoptotic genes, which suggested that the inactivation of the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway was responsible for the radioresistance in the CD44(+/High) cells. Taken together, we found that LMP1 induced an increase in CSC-like CD44(+/High) cells, and we determined the molecular mechanism underlying the radioresistance of the LMP1-activated CSCs, highlighting the need of CSC-targeted radiotherapy in EBV-positive NPC.
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[Association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and contrast-induced nephropathy after primary percutaneous coronary intervention].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To explore the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) .
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3D nanoporous Ag@BSA composite microspheres as hydrogen peroxide sensors.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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3D nanoporous Ag@BSA composite microspheres were successfully prepared through a protein-directed approach. Electrochemical measurements show that the nanoporous Ag@BSA composite microspheres exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. A linear range of 5 ?M-1.5 mM and a lower detection limit of 0.16 ?M were recorded. The sensing performance might be attributed to the 3D micro/nano architecture and nanoporous characters.
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Noniterative data inversion of phase retrieval by omega oscillating filtering for optical arbitrary waveform measurement.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We propose a noniterative data inversion process for the phase retrieval by omega oscillating filtering method that could measure both isolated attosecond pulses and periodic optical arbitrary waveform (OAW). The built-in phase modulation depth recovery not only prevents the need of independent calibration (a critical advantage in the extreme ultraviolet regime) but provides a self-consistency check for the data integrity. Our experiments successfully retrieved OAW with ~100% duty cycle in the near infrared regime.
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Aberrant hypermethylation and reduced expression of disabled-2 promote the development of lung cancers.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Disabled-2 (Dab2) is considered a tumor suppressor and is downregulated in cancers. We examined the promoter methylation status and expression levels of Dab2, and investigated their roles in the development of lung cancers. Methylation-specific PCR was employed to analyze the methylation status of Dab2 in 100 lung cancer tissues. The cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of the Dab2 protein was determined using western blot analysis. Demethylation treatment using 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) was performed in three lung cancer cell lines. Dab2 expression was upregulated by Dab2 transfection or interrupted by Dab2 siRNA in lung cancer cells. Proliferative and invasive ability tests were performed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTS) and a Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The methylation rate of Dab2 was significantly higher in lung cancer tissues compared to normal lung tissues. Dab2 methylation correlated with the reduced nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Dab2, as well as the TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis of lung cancers. Treatment with 5-Aza-dC was able to eliminate the hypermethylation of Dab2, enhance Dab2 expression, and inhibit ?-catenin expression, and the proliferative and invasive ability of lung cancer cells. Upregulation of Dab2 expression reduced ?-catenin expression and proliferation and invasiveness of lung cancer cells. However, interruption of Dab2 expression induced the opposite results. Dab2 methylation is common in lung cancers, and is one of the most important factors responsible for the reduced expression of Dab2. Aberrant hypermethylation and reduced expression of Dab2 promote the development of lung cancers.
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De novo combined lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil therapy vs entecavir monotherapy for hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To compare efficacy of combined lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) therapy with that of entecavir (ETV) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated liver cirrhosis.
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Phase-matching spectral phase measurement and domain period reconstruction of aperiodic quasi-phase matched gratings by nonlinear spectral interferometry.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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We experimentally measured the phase-matching spectral phases of aperiodic quasi-phase matched gratings for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) by nonlinear spectral interferometry. The retrieved information is useful in determining the temporal shape of the nonlinearly converted ultrafast signal and reconstructing the slowly-varying domain period distribution. The method is nondestructive, fast, sensitive, accurate, and applicable to different nonlinear materials. Compared to taking microscopic images of the etched crystal surface, our method can directly measure the domain period distribution in the crystal interior and is free of the artificial random duty period error due to image concatenation.
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Comprehensive profiling of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded miRNA species associated with specific latency types in tumor cells.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an etiological cause of many human lymphocytic and epithelial malignancies. EBV expresses different genes that are associated with three latency types. To date, as many as 44 EBV-encoded miRNA species have been found, but their comprehensive profiles in the three types of latent infection that are associated with various types of tumors are not well documented.
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Helicobacter pylori and Crohns disease: a retrospective single-center study from China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the prevalence of Crohns disease (CD).
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A systematic review of p53 as a biomarker of survival in patients with osteosarcoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor, and the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma is still unsatisfactory with low survival rates. There are many studies assessing the prognostic role of upregulated p53 in patients presenting osteosarcoma, and there is no consistent finding. To summarize the existing evidence about whether the presence of upregulated p53 was a biomarker of survival in patients with osteosarcoma, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant publications. We assessed the effect of upregulated p53 on the 3-year overall survival and the 3-year disease-free survival by calculating the pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI). Fifteen studies with a total of 609 patients with osteosarcoma were finally included into the systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with osteosarcoma patients with low or undetectable p53, patients with upregulated p53 were obviously associated with decreased 3-year overall survival (OR = 0.29, 95 %CI 0.19-0.43, P?
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CA-125 level as a prognostic indicator in type I and type II epithelial ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer achieve a complete clinical remission (CCR) with normal CA-125 but will still relapse and die from their disease. The present study was designed to determine whether CA-125 levels before, during, and after primary treatment provide prognostic information for both type I and type II ovarian cancer.
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Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects.
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Improved EIS performance of an electrochemical cytosensor using three-dimensional architecture Au@BSA as sensing layer.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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An ultrasensitive electrochemical cytosensor for quantitative determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-positive tumor cells was developed using three-dimensional (3D) architecture Au@BSA microspheres as sensing layer with the conjugation of targeting molecule monoclonal anti-CEA antibody (anti-CEA). The prepared Au@BSA microspheres exhibited satisfactory biocompatibility for cell proliferation via evaluation from thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, providing a suitable platform for cell adhesion study. Attributed to the excellent electroconductivity of Au@BSA, amplified electrochemical signals could be obtained and resulted in the greatly enhanced detection sensitivity. Electrochemical testing techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were applied to assess the optimal conditions, specificity, and detection performance of as-fabricated cytosensor. The attachment of CEA-positive BXPC-3 cells onto the anti-CEA immobilized sensing layer led to the increased EIS responses, which changed linearly in the cell concentration range from 5.2 × 10(1) to 5.2 × 10(7) cells mL(-1) with a detection limit of 18 cells mL(-1). This proposed cytosensing strategy revealed high specificity to CEA-positive cells, acceptable intra-assay precision, excellent fabrication reproducibility with the RSD of 3.5%, and good stability owing to the outside BSA biocompatible layer, developing a promising technique for early monitoring of tumor cells at a lower level.
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Chloroquine stimulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthase in muscle cells through activation of Akt.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Chloroquine is a pharmaceutical agent that has been widely used to treat patients with malaria. Chloroquine has also been reported to have hypoglycemic effects on humans and animal models of diabetes. Despite many previous studies, the mechanism responsible for its hypoglycemic effect is still unclear. Chloroquine was recently reported to be an activator of ATM, the protein deficient in the Ataxia-telagiectasia (A-T) disease. Since ATM is also known as an insulin responsive protein that mediates Akt activation, we tested the effect of chloroquine on the activity of Akt and its downstream targets. In L6 muscle cells treated with insulin and chloroquine, the phosphorylation of Akt and glucose uptake were dramatically increased compared to cells treated with insulin alone, suggesting that chloroquine is a potent activator of Akt and glucose uptake in these cells. We also found that the reduction of insulin-mediated Akt activity in muscle tissues of insulin resistant rats was partially reversed by chloroquine treatment. Moreover, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? in L6 cells was greatly enhanced by chloroquine. A substantial decrease in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase was also observed in chloroquine-treated L6 cells, indicating enhanced activity of glycogen synthase. Taken together, our results not only show that chloroquine is a novel activator of Akt that stimulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthase, but also validate chloroquine as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived endothelial progenitor cells promotes re-endothelialization of the injured carotid artery after balloon injury in New Zealand white rabbits.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Cell transplantation has great potential for promoting endothelial repair and reducing the complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transplantation of human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on injured arteries.
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Interactions between soybean ABA receptors and type 2C protein phosphatases.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in regulating plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. Proteins in the PYR/PYL/RCAR family (hereafter referred to as PYLs) are known as ABA receptors. Since most studies thus far have focused on Arabidopsis PYLs, little is known about PYL homologs in crop plants. We report here the characterization of 21 PYL homologs (GmPYLs) in soybean. Twenty-three putative GmPYLs can be found from soybean genome sequence and categorized into three subgroups. GmPYLs interact with AtABI1 and two GmPP2Cs in diverse manners. A lot of the subgroup I GmPYLs interact with PP2Cs in an ABA-dependent manner, whereas most of the subgroup II and III GmPYLs bind to PP2Cs in an ABA-independent manner. The subgroup III GmPYL23, which cannot interact with any of the tested PP2Cs, differs from other GmPYLs. The CL2/gate domain is crucial for GmPYLs-PP2Cs interaction, and a mutation in the conserved proline (P109S) abolishes the interaction between GmPYL1 and AtABI1. Furthermore, the ABA dependence of GmPYLs-PP2Cs interactions are partially correlated with two amino acid residues preceding the CL2/gate domain of GmPYLs. We also show that GmPYL1 interacts with AtABI1 in an ABA-dependent manner in plant cells. Three GmPYLs differentially inhibit AtABI1 and GmPP2C1 in an ABA-dependent or -enhanced manner in vitro. In addition, ectopically expressing GmPYL1 partially restores ABA sensitivity of the Arabidopsis triple mutant pyr1/pyl1/pyl4. Taken together, our results suggest that soybean GmPYLs are ABA receptors that function by interacting and inhibiting PP2Cs.
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Novel polymer nanowire crystals of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymer with excellent charge transport properties.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The first demonstration of polymer nanowire (PNW) crystals based on a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymer (i.e., PDTTDPP), and their application to field-effect transistors (FETs) is reported. Remarkably, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analyses of the PNW reveal its single-crystalline (SC) nature. FETs fabricated of a SC PNW exhibit a maximal charge carrier mobility of ?7.00 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , which is almost one order of magnitude higher than that of the thin-film transistors made of the same polymer (PDTTDPP).
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Healing-block-assisted quasi-phase matching.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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A quasi-phase matching (QPM) structure based on phase correction by inserting a "healing block" (HB) of length d(HB) into M regular domains of constant length d is proposed to enhance the nonlinear conversion efficiency when the first-order QPM domain length d1 is too short to be reliably fabricated. Second-harmonic conversion efficiency 4.69 times higher than that of a third-order QPM grating has been experimentally demonstrated by using HB-QPM where all the domains are longer than 1.08d1.
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A novel tellurophene-containing conjugated polymer with a dithiophenyl diketopyrrolopyrrole unit for use in organic thin film transistors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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A new tellurophene-based ?-conjugated polymer, PDTDPPTe, was synthesized. PDTDPPTe exhibits a smaller optical band gap (E(g)(opt) = 1.25 eV) than thiophene-based PDTDPPT (E(g)(opt) = 1.30 eV). Thin-film transistors comprising PDTDPPTe displayed outstanding performance (?(max) = 1.78 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), I(on)/I(off) = 10(5-6)).
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Efficacy of combined therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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To investigate the efficacy and safety of combined de novo lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) therapy in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated liver cirrhosis patients.
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Mixed protein-templated luminescent metal clusters (Au and Pt) for H2O2 sensing.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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A simple and cost-effective method to synthesize the luminescent noble metal clusters (Au and Pt) in chicken egg white aqueous solution at room temperature is reported. The red-emitting Au cluster is used as fluorescent probe for sensitive detection of H2O2.
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Tumour angiogenesis regulation by the miR-200 family.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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The miR-200 family is well known to inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, suggesting it may therapeutically inhibit metastatic biology. However, conflicting reports regarding the role of miR-200 in suppressing or promoting metastasis in different cancer types have left unanswered questions. Here we demonstrate a difference in clinical outcome based on miR-200s role in blocking tumour angiogenesis. We demonstrate that miR-200 inhibits angiogenesis through direct and indirect mechanisms by targeting interleukin-8 and CXCL1 secreted by the tumour endothelial and cancer cells. Using several experimental models, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of miR-200 delivery in ovarian, lung, renal and basal-like breast cancers by inhibiting angiogenesis. Delivery of miR-200 members into the tumour endothelium resulted in marked reductions in metastasis and angiogenesis, and induced vascular normalization. The role of miR-200 in blocking cancer angiogenesis in a cancer-dependent context defines its utility as a potential therapeutic agent.
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In vitro osteoclast-suppressing effect of sodium ibandronate.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been reported to reduce local recurrence in giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone because of their osteoclast-suppressing effect; however, the optimal mode of delivery and the dose and duration of treatment of BPs remain to be established. To address these issues, it is first necessary to clarify the manner of action of BPs on osteoclasts. We herein evaluated the osteoclast-suppressing effect of sodium ibandronate in vitro.
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Integrated analyses identify a master microRNA regulatory network for the mesenchymal subtype in serous ovarian cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Integrated genomic analyses revealed a miRNA-regulatory network that further defined a robust integrated mesenchymal subtype associated with poor overall survival in 459 cases of serous ovarian cancer (OvCa) from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 560 cases from independent cohorts. Eight key miRNAs, including miR-506, miR-141, and miR-200a, were predicted to regulate 89% of the targets in this network. Follow-up functional experiments illustrate that miR-506 augmented E-cadherin expression, inhibited cell migration and invasion, and prevented TGF?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting SNAI2, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. In human OvCa, miR-506 expression was correlated with decreased SNAI2 and VIM, elevated E-cadherin, and beneficial prognosis. Nanoparticle delivery of miR-506 in orthotopic OvCa mouse models led to E-cadherin induction and reduced tumor growth.
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Pitfalls in experimental designs for characterizing the transcriptional, methylational and copy number changes of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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It is a common practice that researchers collect a set of samples without discriminating the mutants and their wild-type counterparts to characterize the transcriptional, methylational and/or copy number changes of pre-defined candidate oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), although some examples are known that carcinogenic mutants may express and function completely differently from their wild-type counterparts.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.