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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recent developments and applications of hyperspectral imaging for quality evaluation of agricultural products: a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2015
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Food quality and safety is the foremost issue for consumers, retailers as well as regulatory authorities. Most quality parameters are assessed by traditional methods, which are time consuming, laborious, and associated with inconsistency and variability. Non-destructive methods have been developed to objectively measure quality attributes for various kinds of food. In recent years, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has matured into one of the most powerful tools for quality evaluation of agricultural and food products. HSI allows characterization of a sample's chemical composition (spectroscopic component) and external features (imaging component) in each point of the image with full spectral information. In order to track the latest research developments of this technology, this paper gives a detailed overview of the theory and fundamentals behind this technology and discusses its applications in the field of quality evaluation of agricultural products. Additionally, future potentials of HSI are also reported.
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Recent advances in methods and techniques for freshness quality determination and evaluation of fish and fish fillets: a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2015
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The freshness quality of fish plays an important role in human health and the acceptance of consumers as well as in international fishery trade. Recently, with food safety becoming a critical issue of great concern in the world, determination and evaluation of fish freshness is much more significant in research and development. This review renovates and concentrates recent advances of evaluating methods for fish freshness as affected by preharvest and postharvest factors and highlights the determination methods for fish freshness including sensory evaluation, microbial inspection, chemical measurements of moisture content, volatile compounds, protein changes, lipid oxidation, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decomposition (K value), physical measurements, and foreign material contamination detection. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and techniques are compared and discussed and some viewpoints about the current work and future trends are also presented.
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Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging techniques for quality evaluation and assessment of fish and fish products.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2014
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Nowadays, people have increasingly realized the importance of acquiring high quality and nutritional values of fish and fish products in their daily diet. Quality evaluation and assessment are always expected and conducted by using rapid and nondestructive methods in order to satisfy both producers and consumers. During the past two decades, spectroscopic and imaging techniques have been developed to nondestructively estimate and measure quality attributes of fish and fish products. Among these noninvasive methods, visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy, computer/machine vision, and hyperspectral imaging have been regarded as powerful and effective analytical tools for fish quality analysis and control. VIS/NIR spectroscopy has been widely applied to determine intrinsic quality characteristics of fish samples, such as moisture, protein, fat, and salt. Computer/machine vision on the other hand mainly focuses on the estimation of external features like color, weight, size, and surface defects. Recently, by incorporating both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system, hyperspectral imaging cannot only measure the contents of different quality attributes simultaneously, but also obtain the spatial distribution of such attributes when the quality of fish samples are evaluated and measured. This paper systematically reviews the research advances of these three nondestructive optical techniques in the application of fish quality evaluation and determination and discuss future trends in the developments of nondestructive technologies for further quality characterization in fish and fish products.
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Therapeutic effect of Jinlongshe Granule () on quality of life of stage IV gastric cancer patients using EORTC QLQ-C30: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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To evaluate the impact of Jinlongshe Granule (, JLSG) on quality of life (QOL) of stage IV gastric cancer patients.
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Regulated Dielectric Loss of Polymer Composites from Coating Carbon Nanotubes with a Cross-Linked Silsesquioxane Shell through Free-Radical Polymerization.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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We report a synthetic strategy for coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with cross-linked octa-methacrylate-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MA-POSS) by direct, in situ free-radical polymerization in a controlled manner. This strategy resulted in a core-shell structure with an MWCNT center. The shell thickness could be varied from ?7 nm to 40 nm by choosing different initiators, solvents, and weight ratios of MWCNT and octa-MA-POSS. Coated MWCNT hybrids had controlled electrical performance depending on the coating layer thickness and were well-dispersed in the polymer matrix. POSS-coated MWCNTs were compounded with poly(vinylidene fluoride) to obtain a composite with high dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss.
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Targeted intraarterial anti-VEGF therapy for medically refractory radiation necrosis in the brain.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Radiation necrosis (RN) is a serious complication that can occur in up to 10% of brain radiotherapy cases, with the incidence dependent on both dose and brain location. Available medical treatment for RN includes steroids, vitamin E, pentoxifylline, and hyperbaric oxygen. In a significant number of patients, however, RN is medically refractory and the patients experience progressive neurological decline, disabling headaches, and decreased quality of life. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a known mediator of cerebral edema in RN. Recent reports have shown successful treatment of RN with intravenous bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody for VEGF. Bevacizumab, however, is associated with significant systemic complications including sinus thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, gastrointestinal tract perforation, wound dehiscence, and severe hypertension. Using lower drug doses may decrease systemic exposure and reduce complication rates. By using an intraarterial route for drug administration following blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), the authors aim to lower the bevacizumab dose while increasing target delivery. In the present report, the authors present the cases of 2 pediatric patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations, who presented with medically intractable RN following stereotactic radiosurgery. They received a single intraarterial infusion of 2.5 mg/kg bevacizumab after hyperosmotic BBBD. At mean follow-up duration of 8.5 months, the patients had significant and durable clinical and radiographic response. Both patients experienced resolution of their previously intractable headaches and reversal of cushingoid features as they were successfully weaned off steroids. One of the patients regained significant motor strength. There was an associated greater than 70% reduction in cerebral edema. Intraarterial administration of a single low dose of bevacizumab after BBBD was safe and resulted in durable clinical and radiographic improvements at concentrations well below those required for the typical systemic intravenous route. Advantages over the intravenous route may include higher concentration of drug delivery to the affected brain, decreased systemic toxicity, and a significantly lower cost.
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Association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis of 36 case-control studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is a highly suspected candidate gene for cancer susceptibility. Attention has been drawn upon associations of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with breast cancer risk. However, the previous published findings remain controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate any association between breast cancer and XRCC3 T241M (23, 812 cases and 25, 349 controls) in different inheritance models.
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Arabidopsis thaliana Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Isoform 3 (AtPLC3) and AtPLC9 have an Additive Effect on Thermotolerance.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The heat stress response is an important adaptation, enabling plants to survive challenging environmental conditions. Our previous work demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Isoform 9 (AtPLC9) plays an important role in thermotolerance. During prolonged heat treatment, mutants of AtPLC3 showed decreased heat resistance. We observed no obvious phenotypic differences between plc3 mutants and wild type (WT) seedlings under normal growth conditions, but after heat shock, the plc3 seedlings displayed a decline in thermotolerance compared with WT, and also showed a 40-50% decrease in survival rate and chlorophyll contents. Expression of AtPLC3 in plc3 mutants rescued the heat-sensitive phenotype; the AtPLC3-overexpressing lines also exhibited much higher heat resistance than WT and vector-only controls. The double mutants of plc3 and plc9 displayed increased sensitivity to heat stress, compared with either single mutant. In transgenic lines containing a AtPLC3:GUS promoter fusion, GUS staining showed that AtPLC3 expresses in all tissues, except anthers and young root tips. Using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM and aequorin reconstitution, we showed that plc3 mutants show a reduction in the heat-induced Ca(2+) increase. The expression of HSP genes (HSP18.2, HSP25.3, HSP70-1 and HSP83) was down-regulated in plc3 mutants and up-regulated in AtPLC3-overexpressing lines after heat shock. These results indicated that AtPLC3 also plays a role in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis, and that AtPLC3 and AtPLC9 function additionally to each other.
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Advances in wine aging technologies for enhancing wine quality and accelerating wine aging process.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed.
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Epitome of China's unnatural deaths: a historically retrospective study of forensic autopsy cases in Shanghai Public Security Bureau from 1990 to 1999.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The unnatural death investigation in China seems vague to the world. Shanghai is one of the largest city located in Yangtze River Delta in the East China. This study is committed to lift the veil of unnatural death investigation and describe the epitome of China's unnatural deaths. Based on the 7302 forensic report archives from 1990 to 1999 in Shanghai Public Security Bureau, statistics were carried out in 5 areas according to the manner of death. In 3502 accidental deaths, there was a rapid increase during the 1990s, and 71.6% were involved in traffic accidents whose major cause of death was head and neck injuries. The first 3 causes of death in nontraffic accidents (994) were head and neck injuries (42.8%), poisoning (11.8%), and drowning (9.0%). In 2456 homicides, sharp force injury (36.7%), blunt force injury (35.8%), and manual strangulation (12.9%) were the first 3 causes of death. In 563 suicides, drug/chemical intoxication (40.1%), hanging (23.4%), and injuries because of fall from height (11.4%) were the 3 leading causes of death, especially pesticides ingestion. The causes of natural deaths were diseases mainly in circulatory system (23.1%), central nervous system (12.8%), and respiratory system (6.4%). However, the cause of death remained undetermined in 500 victims. Childhood fatalities were different. The victims of accidents and homicides were nearly equal, and the main cause of homicide was manual strangulation. Besides, 1997 was the landmark year when drug abuse began to emerge in Shanghai.
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[Inhibitory effect of Xiaotan Sanjie Recipe on the microsatellite instability of orthotopic transplantation tumor in MKN-45 human gastric cancer nude mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To study the inhibitory effect of Xiaotan Sanjie Recipe (XSR) on the microsatellite instability of orthotopic transplantation tumor in MKN-45 human gastric cancer nude mice.
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Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver mistaken for hepatic abscess in an adult.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) predominantly occurs in children under the age of 10 years, and ~90% of cases occur in children <15 years old. Patients may complain of abdominal pain, fever or other symptoms. No significant decrease has been identified in the hepatic function or elevation of ?-fetoprotein, which differentiates UESL from primary carcinomas of the liver. In the present study, a rare and misdiagnosed case of an UESL arising in a male, which was mistaken for a hepatic abscess and retrospectively re-diagnosed, is reported. This case was misdiagnosed as a hepatic abscess initially, and it was diagnosed as UESL subsequent to performing tests, including a type-B ultrasonic scan and computed tomography (CT), and evaluating pathological findings. The rapid recurrence of the tumor in this patient was identified by CT, and this is associated with the malignancy of the disease. Currently, patients with UESL have a poor prognosis as there is not a successful treatment strategy. The present study analyzes the course of diagnosis and potential treatment for the disease.
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Suitability of hyperspectral imaging for rapid evaluation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillet.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The suitability of hyperspectral imaging technique (400-1000nm) was investigated to determine the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value for monitoring lipid oxidation in fish fillets during cold storage at 4°C for 0, 2, 5, and 8days. The PLSR calibration model was established with full spectral region between the spectral data extracted from the hyperspectral images and the reference TBA values and showed good performance for predicting TBA value with determination coefficients (R(2)P) of 0.8325 and root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1172mg MDA/kg flesh. Two simplified PLSR and MLR models were built and compared using the selected ten most important wavelengths. The optimised MLR model yielded satisfactory results with R(2)P of 0.8395 and RMSEP of 0.1147mg MDA/kg flesh, which was used to visualise the TBA values distribution in fish fillets. The whole results confirmed that using hyperspectral imaging technique as a rapid and non-destructive tool is suitable for the determination of TBA values for monitoring lipid oxidation and evaluation of fish freshness.
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The Receptor-Like Kinase SIT1 Mediates Salt Sensitivity by Activating MAPK3/6 and Regulating Ethylene Homeostasis in Rice.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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High salinity causes growth inhibition and shoot bleaching in plants that do not tolerate high salt (glycophytes), including most crops. The molecules affected directly by salt and linking the extracellular stimulus to intracellular responses remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice (Oryza sativa) Salt Intolerance 1 (SIT1), a lectin receptor-like kinase expressed mainly in root epidermal cells, mediates salt sensitivity. NaCl rapidly activates SIT1, and in the presence of salt, as SIT1 kinase activity increased, plant survival decreased. Rice MPK3 and MPK6 function as the downstream effectors of SIT1. SIT1 phosphorylates MPK3 and 6, and their activation by salt requires SIT1. SIT1 mediates ethylene production and salt-induced ethylene signaling. SIT1 promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to growth inhibition and plant death under salt stress, which occurred in an MPK3/6- and ethylene signaling-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a SIT1-MPK3/6 cascade that mediates salt sensitivity by affecting ROS and ethylene homeostasis and signaling. These results provide important information for engineering salt-tolerant crops.
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Transactivation of proto-oncogene c-Myc by hepatitis B virus transactivator MHBs(t167.)
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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C-terminally truncated hepatitis B virus (HBV) middle size surface proteins (MHBs(t)) has been shown to be a transcriptional activator and may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis by transactivating gene expression. In the present study, a pcDNA3.1(-)-MHBs(t167) vector coding for MHBs(t) truncated at amino acid 167 (MHBs(t167)) was constructed and transfected into the HepG2 hepatoma cell line. mRNA and protein expression of MHBs(t167) in the cells was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. A cDNA library of genes transactivated by the truncated protein in HepG2 cells was made in pGEM-T Easy using suppression subtractive hybridization. The cDNAs were sequenced and analyzed with BLAST searching against the sequences in GenBank. The results showed that certain sequences, such as that of human proto-oncogene c-Myc, may be involved in tumor development. An expression vector pCAT3/c-Myc containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of a c-Myc promoter was generated, and the transcriptional transactivating effect of MHBs(t167) on the c-Myc promoter was investigated by RT-PCR and western blotting. MHBs(t167) was found to upregulate the transcriptional activity of the promoter, as well as transcription and translation of c-Myc. MHBs(t167) was also shown to transactivate SV40 immediate early promoter, and transcriptionally transactivate the expression of human c-Myc. These findings provide new directions for studying the biological functions of MHBs(t167), and for a better understanding of the tumor development mechanisms of HBV infection.
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miR-449a and CDK6 in gastric carcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The present study aimed to identify the association between microRNA (miR/miRNA)-449a, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)6 protein and gastric carcinoma, and discuss the effect of miR-449a on the expression of the CDK6 protein. Quantitative (q)PCR and western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of the miR-449a and the CDK6 protein in gastric carcinoma and tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The real-time cell analyzer and the DAPI staining test were used to monitor the different miR-449a levels regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of the MGC-803 cell line. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were used to detect the expression level of the CDK6 protein in the cells of the miR-449a upregulation and downregulation groups, and a control group. A scratch test was used to study the effects of miR-449a expression on migration and invasion. It was found that the expression of miR-449a was downregulated and the expression of CDK6 protein was upregulated in gastric carcinoma tissue. The level of MGC-803 cell proliferation was decreased and the apoptosis level was increased by the upregulation of miR-449a expression, and the opposite effect was shown by the downregulation of expression. The expression of the CDK6 protein in the MGC-803 cells was downregulated by upregulating the expression of miR-449a. The distance of the scratch was shortened markedly after 12 h by downregulating the expression of miR-449a in the MGC-803 cells. The present study identified that a lower expression level of miR-449 and a higher expression level of CDK6 may contribute to the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Furthermore, it was shown that miR-449a is able to regulate the expression of the CDK6 protein.
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Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Abstract Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior, and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stages of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes can be also reduced to some extent.
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Applications of near infrared spectroscopy in food safety evaluation and control: a review of recent research advances.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Abstract Food safety is of critical public concern, and has drawn great attention in society. Consequently, developments of rapid, robust and accurate methods and techniques for food safety evaluation and control are required. As a nondestructive and convenient tool, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely shown to be a promising technique for food safety inspection and control due to its huge advantages of rapidity, noninvasive measurement, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. This review presents the fundamentals of NIRS and focuses on recent advances on its applications, during the last ten years of food safety control, in meat, fish and fishery products, edible oils, milk and dairy products, grains and grain products, fruits and vegetables, and others. Based upon these applications, it can be demonstrated that NIRS combined with chemometric methods is a powerful tool for food safety surveillance and for the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems. Some disadvantages that need to be solved or investigated regarding further development of NIRS are also discussed.
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Applications of computer vision for assessing quality of agri-food products: a review of recent research advances.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Abstract With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate real-time effective assessments for food quality and safety during food producing and processing. Computer vision, as a non-destructive detecting approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products due to its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Precisely, computer vision systems are feasible to classify food products into specific grades, detect defects and estimate properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Thereof, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems, details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from the years 2007 to 2013, and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy.
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Applications of Hyperspectral Imaging in Chicken Meat Safety and Quality Detection and Evaluation: A Review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Abstract Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, hyperspectral imaging technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using hyperspectral imaging technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about hyperspectral imaging and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.
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Advances in Feature Selection Methods for Hyperspectral Image Processing in Food Industry Applications: A Review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Abstract There is an increased interest in the applications of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for assessing food quality, safety and authenticity. HSI provides abundance of spatial and spectral information from foods by combining both spectroscopy and imaging, resulting in hundreds of contiguous wavebands for each spatial position of food samples, also known as the curse of dimensionality. It is desirable to employ feature selection algorithms for decreasing computation burden and increasing predicting accuracy, which are especially relevant in the development of on-line applications. Recently, a variety of feature selection algorithms have been proposed that can be categorized into three groups based on the searching strategy namely complete search, heuristic search and random search. This review mainly introduced the fundamental of each algorithm, illustrated its applications in hyperspectral data analysis in the food field, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of thses algorithms. It is hoped that this review should provide a guideline for feature selections and data processing in the future development of hyperspectral imaging technique in foods.
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Classification of fresh and frozen-thawed pork muscles using visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging and textural analysis.
Meat Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The potential of visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a rapid and nondestructive technique for classifying fresh and frozen-thawed meats by integrating critical spectral and image features extracted from hyperspectral images in the region of 400-1000nm. Six feature wavelengths (400, 446, 477, 516, 592 and 686nm) were identified using uninformative variable elimination and successive projections algorithm. Image textural features of the principal component images from hyperspectral images were obtained using histogram statistics (HS), gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and gray level-gradient co-occurrence matrix (GLGCM). By these spectral and textural features, probabilistic neural network (PNN) models for classification of fresh and frozen-thawed pork meats were established. Compared with the models using the optimum wavelengths only, optimum wavelengths with HS image features, and optimum wavelengths with GLCM image features, the model integrating optimum wavelengths with GLGCM gave the highest classification rate of 93.14% and 90.91% for calibration and validation sets, respectively. Results indicated that the classification accuracy can be improved by combining spectral features with textural features and the fusion of critical spectral and textural features had better potential than single spectral extraction in classifying fresh and frozen-thawed pork meat.
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Combination of spectra and texture data of hyperspectral imaging for prediction of pH in salted meat.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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This study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of combining spectral with texture features in order to improve pH prediction for salted pork. Average spectra were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of hyperspectral images over the wavelength region of 400-1000 nm and 9 characteristic spectral variables were then selected by principal components analysis (PCA). Meanwhile, gray-level gradient cooccurrence matrix (GLGCM) analysis was implemented on the first PC image (accounted for 96% of the total variance) to extract 13 textural feature variables. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was developed for predicting pH based on spectral, textural or combined data. Coefficient of determination (R(2)P) of 0.794 for the prediction samples based on data fusion was achieved, which was superior to the results based on spectra (R(2)P=0.783) or texture (R(2)P=0.593) alone. Hence, methods of combining spectral with texture analyses are effective for improving meat quality prediction.
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[Effects of Yangjing capsule on the ultrastructure of seminal vesicles in aged rats].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To observe the effects of Yangjing Capsule (YJC) on the ultrastructure of seminal vesicles in aged male rats, and explore its mechanism of improving the secretion of seminal vesicles.
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Association between -1562C>T polymorphism in the promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The present study was undertaken to determine the association between -1562C>T polymorphism in the promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk.
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Xiaotan Sanjie decoction attenuates tumor angiogenesis by manipulating Notch-1-regulated proliferation of gastric cancer stem-like cells.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To determine the underlying mechanisms of action and influence of Xiaotan Sanjie (XTSJ) decoction on gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs).
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Rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets using visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Drip loss and pH are important indices in quality assessment of salmon products. This work was carried out for rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in salmon fillets using near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging. Hyperspectral images were acquired for salmon fillet samples and their spectral signatures in the 400-1700nm range were extracted. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to correlate the spectra with reference drip loss and pH values. Important wavelengths were selected using the regression coefficients method to develop new PLSR models, leading to a correlation coefficient of cross-validation (rCV) of 0.834 with root-mean-square errors by cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.067 for drip loss and a rCV of 0.877 with RMSECV of 0.046 for pH, respectively. Distribution maps of drip loss and pH were generated based on the new PLSR models using image processing algorithms. The results showed that Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging technique combined with PLSR calibration analysis offers an effective quantitative capability for determining the spatial distribution of drip loss and pH in salmon fillets.
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Experimental and modeling studies of ultrasound-assisted release of phenolics from oak chips into model wine.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The enhancement of release of oak-related compounds from oak chips during wine aging with oak chips may interest the winemaking industry. In this study, the 25-kHz ultrasound waves were used to intensify the mass transfer of phenolics from oak chips into a model wine. The influences of acoustic energy density (6.3-25.8 W/L) and temperature (15-25 °C) on the release kinetics of total phenolics were investigated systematically. The results exhibited that the total phenolic yield released was not affected by acoustic energy density significantly whereas it increased with the increase of temperature during sonication. Furthermore, to describe the mechanism of mass transfer of phenolics in model wine under ultrasonic field, the release kinetics of total phenolics was simulated by both a second-order kinetic model and a diffusion model. The modeling results revealed that the equilibrium concentration of total phenolics in model wine, the initial release rate and effective diffusivity of total phenolics generally increased with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, temperature had a negative effect on the second-order release rate constant whereas acoustic energy density had an opposite effect.
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Kinetic modeling of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grape marc: influence of acoustic energy density and temperature.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The effects of acoustic energy density (6.8-47.4 W/L) and temperature (20-50 °C) on the extraction yields of total phenolics and tartaric esters during ultrasound-assisted extraction from grape marc were investigated in this study. The ultrasound treatment was performed in a 25-kHz ultrasound bath system and the 50% aqueous ethanol was used as the solvent. The initial extraction rate and final extraction yield increased with the increase of acoustic energy density and temperature. The two site kinetic model was used to simulate the kinetics of extraction process and the diffusion model based on the Fick's second law was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc. Both models gave satisfactory quality of data fit. The diffusion process was divided into one fast stage and one slow stage and the diffusion coefficients in both stages were calculated. Within the current experimental range, the diffusion coefficients of total phenolics and tartaric esters for both diffusion stages increased with acoustic energy density. Meanwhile, the rise of temperature also resulted in the increase of diffusion coefficients of phenolics except the diffusion coefficient of total phenolics in the fast stage, the value of which being the highest at 40 °C. Moreover, an empirical equation was suggested to correlate the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, the performance comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction and convention methods demonstrates that ultrasound is an effective and promising technology to extract bioactive substances from grape marc.
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Feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to predict moisture content of porcine meat during salting process.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique (1000-2500 nm) for predicting moisture content (MC) during the salting process of porcine meat was assessed. Different spectral profiles including reflectance spectra (RS), absorbance spectra (AS) and Kubelka-Munk spectra (KMS) were examined to investigate the influence of spectroscopic transformations on predicting moisture content of salted pork slice. The best full-wavelength partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were acquired based on reflectance spectra (Rc(2)=0.969, RMSEC=0.921%; Rc(2)=0.941, RMSEP=1.23%). On the basis of the optimal wavelengths identified using the regression coefficient, two calibration models of PLSR and multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared. The optimal RS-MLR model was considered to be the best for determining the moisture content of salted pork, with a Rc(2) of 0.917 and RMSEP of 1.48%. Visualisation of moisture distribution in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using the prediction model display moisture evolution and migration in pork slices.
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Abnormal MGMT promoter methylation may contribute to the risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This meta-analysis was conducted aiming to evaluate the relationship between abnormal O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). A range of electronic databases was searched: Web of Science (1945?~?2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1966?~?2013), EMBASE (1980?~?2013), CINAHL (1982?~?2013), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?~?2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of the STATA 12.0 software. In the present meta-analysis, 9 clinical cohort studies with a total of 861 EC patients were included. The pooled results revealed that the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation in cancer tissues was significantly higher than in adjacent and normal tissues (cancer tissues vs adjacent tissues, odds ratio (OR)?=?6.73, 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) 4.75?~?9.55, P?
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Human hepatocytes with drug metabolic function induced from fibroblasts by lineage reprogramming.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Obtaining fully functional cell types is a major challenge for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Currently, a fundamental solution to this key problem is still lacking. Here, we show that functional human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) can be generated from fibroblasts by overexpressing the hepatic fate conversion factors HNF1A, HNF4A, and HNF6 along with the maturation factors ATF5, PROX1, and CEBPA. hiHeps express a spectrum of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and phase III drug transporters. Importantly, the metabolic activities of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 are comparable between hiHeps and freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes. Transplanted hiHeps repopulate up to 30% of the livers of Tet-uPA/Rag2(-/-)/?c(-/-) mice and secrete more than 300 ?g/ml human ALBUMIN in vivo. Our data demonstrate that human hepatocytes with drug metabolic function can be generated by lineage reprogramming, thus providing a cell resource for pharmaceutical applications.
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Phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate by the catalytic decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4).
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) by the decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDU) was carried out on a self-designed fixed-bed catalytic reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4) as catalyst, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as solvent and N2 as carrier gas. Factors influencing the yield of HDI, including the Zn/Al molar ratio, HDU concentration and liquid space velocity (LHSV), were investigated. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., 4.8 wt.% concentration of HDU in DOP, 100ml/min N2 flow rate, 0.09 MPa vacuum, 623K reaction temperature, 1.2h(-1) LHSV and catalyst usage 2.0 g, a 89.4% yield of HDI had been achieved over the ZnAlPO4 (molar ratio Zn/Al=0.04) catalyst. The ZnAlPO4 catalyst was found to exhibit a considerable large on-stream stability and could be repeatedly used in the decomposition of HDU to HDI, after its regeneration.
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Synthesis and Evaluation of a Nanoglobular Dendrimer 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Conjugate with a Hydrolyzable Schiff Base Spacer for Treating Retinal Degeneration.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Biocompatible dendrimers with well-defined nanosizes are increasingly being used as carriers for drug delivery. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an FDA-approved therapeutic agent recently found effective in treating retinal degeneration of animal models. Here, a water-soluble dendrimer conjugate of 5-ASA (AGFB-ASA) was designed to treat such retinal degeneration. The drug was conjugated to a generation 2 (G2) lysine dendrimer with a silsesquioxane core (nanoglobule) by using a hydrolyzable Schiff base spacer. Incubation of nanoglobular G2 dendrimer conjugates containing a 4-formylbenzoate (FB) Schiff base spacer in pH 7.4 phosphate buffers at 37 °C gradually released 5-ASA. Drug release from the dendrimer conjugate was significantly slower than from the low molecular weight free Schiff base of 5-ASA (FB-ASA). 5-ASA release from the dendrimer conjugate was dependent on steric hindrance around the spacer. After intraperitoneal injection, the nanoglobular 5-ASA conjugate provided more effective 7-day protection against light-induced retinal degeneration at a reduced dose than free 5-ASA in Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. The dendrimer 5-ASA conjugate with a degradable spacer could be a good candidate for controlled delivery of 5-ASA to the eye for treatment of retinal degeneration.
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Blood pressure among children and adolescents with normal weight but large waist circumference in Shandong, China.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The present study examined the blood pressure (BP) characteristics of normal weight children and adolescents with a large waist circumference (WC) in a large population in Shandong, China. A total of 38,826 students (19,460 boys and 19,366 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, WC, and BP of all subjects were measured. Normal weight was defined by the international cutoffs of body mass index; central obesity was defined as WC ?90th percentile; relatively high BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ?95th percentile for age and gender. And 5.06 and 8.19 % of the normal weight boys and girls had central obesity. The Z-scores of SBP, DBP and the prevalence of relatively high BP for both boys and girls were all significantly higher in the normal weight with central obesity groups than in the normal weight with normal WC groups. Conclusion: These observations highlight that normal weight children and adolescents with central obesity might have an increased risk of elevated BP.
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Crystallographic dependence of CO activation on cobalt catalysts: HCP versus FCC.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Identifying the structure sensitivity of catalysts in reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from CO and H2 over cobalt catalysts, is an important yet challenging issue in heterogeneous catalysis. Based on a first-principles kinetic study, we find for the first time that CO activation on hexagonal close-packed (HCP) Co not only has much higher intrinsic activity than that of face centered-cubic (FCC) Co but also prefers a different reaction route, i.e., direct dissociation with HCP Co but H-assisted dissociation on the FCC Co. The origin is identified from the formation of various denser yet favorable active sites on HCP Co not available for FCC Co, due to their distinct crystallographic structure and morphology. The great dependence of the activity on the crystallographic structure and morphology of the catalysts revealed here may open a new avenue for better, stable catalysts with maximum mass-specific reactivity.
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Clinical analysis of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian masses under different conditions during the second trimester.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Laparoscopic surgery in pregnant women has become increasingly more common; however, the safety of laparoscopy in this population has been widely debated in emergent situations and big size at bigger pregnant weeks. This study was to determine the characteristics of laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses in different conditions during the second trimester of pregnancy.
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Exposure to mono-n-butyl phthalate disrupts the development of preimplantation embryos.
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used phthalate, is known to cause many serious diseases, especially in the reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects of its metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), on preimplantation embryo development. In the present study, we found that treatment of embryos with 10(-3) M MBP impaired developmental competency, whereas exposure to 10(-4) M MBP delayed the progression of preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in embryos were significantly increased following treatment with 10(-3) M MBP. In addition, 10(-3) M MBP increased apoptosis via the release of cytochrome c, whereas immunofluorescent analysis revealed that exposure of preimplantation embryos to MBP concentration-dependently (10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M) decreased DNA methylation. Together, the results indicate a possible relationship between MBP exposure and developmental failure in preimplantation embryos.
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Differences in the origin of philosophy between Chinese medicine and western medicine: Exploration of the holistic advantages of Chinese medicine.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body.
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Potential of visible and near infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition for rapid quantification of notoginseng powder with adulterants.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value. Notoginseng powder (NP) could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP) or corn flour (CF), because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy method. Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra (SNIR) and long-wave near infrared spectra (LNIR) were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the adulterant quantification throughout the whole wavelength range. The CARS-PLSR models based on LNIR were determined as the best models for the quantification of NP adulterated with SFP, CF, and their mixtures, in which the rP values were 0.940, 0.939, and 0.867 for the three models respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants.
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[Analysis of clinical features and early warning indicators of death from hand, foot and mouth disease in Shandong province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To understand the clinical features of death from hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and to explore the early warning index of HFMD death.
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Application of visible and near infrared spectroscopy for rapid analysis of chrysin and galangin in Chinese propolis.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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A novel method for the rapid determination of chrysin and galangin in Chinese propolis of poplar origin by means of visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIR) was developed. Spectral data of 114 Chinese propolis samples were acquired in the 325 to 1,075 nm wavelength range using a Vis-NIR spectroradiometer. The reference values of chrysin and galangin of the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Partial least squares (PLS) models were established using the spectra analyzed by different preprocessing methods. The effective wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA) and employed as the inputs of PLS, back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), multiple linear regression (MLR) and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. The best results were achieved by SPA-BP-ANN models established with the Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG) preprocessed spectra, where the r and RMSEP were 0.9823 and 1.5239 for galangin determination and 0.9668 and 2.4841 for chrysin determination, respectively. The results show that Vis-NIR demosntrates powerful capability for the rapid determination of chrysin and galangin contents in Chinese propolis.
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The protective effect of recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine on a Clostridium difficile-infected animal model.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Oral immunization with vaccines may be an effective strategy for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, application of previously developed vaccines for preventing CDI has been limited due to various reasons. Here, we developed a recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine and evaluated its effect on a C. difficile-infected animal model established in golden hamsters in attempt to provide an alternative strategy for CDI prevention.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Acipenser schrenckii (Acipenseriformes, Acipenseridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Abstract The complete nucleotide sequence of Acipenser schrenckii mtDNA is 16,592?bp long (Accession No. KC820796). The total mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene organization and arrangement is identical to typical vertebrates.
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[Clinical diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT in incidental finding of focal hypermetabolism focus in the colon and rectum].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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To investigate the value of incidental focal (18)F-FDG uptake in the colon and rectum and characteristics of functional anatomic form for differential diagnosis of colorectal benign or malignant diseases.
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Content changes of bitter compounds in Guoqing No.1 Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) during fruit development of consecutive 3 seasons.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The main bitter compounds (nomilin, limonin and naringin) in the fruit tissues of Guoqing No.1 Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were determined throughout the fruit development of 3 consecutive growing seasons. Although fluctuating largely at the corresponding developing stages of the 3 years, the contents of these compounds in fruit tissues mostly displayed a declining trend, which implied that the rhythm of the metabolism of these bitter compounds was not consistent among years and was largely growing season dependent. Regarding their distribution, fruit flavedo might be a weak sink that contained the lowest level of naringin, while the segment membrane accumulated large amount of limonin and nomilin, which indicated a possible tissue bias pattern for biosynthesis or accumulation of those compounds. Partial correlation coefficient analysis revealed a synergistic accumulation of naringin and the two limonoid aglycones in fruit tissues during fruit development, indicating an integrated metabolism of flavonoids and limonoids.
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Clinical analysis of thyroid carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation: report of 8 cases.
Int Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Thyroid carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a kind of rare neoplasm of the thyroid gland. Because thyroid CASTLE is rare and difficult to diagnose, its clinicopathologic features have not been well defined, and no universally accepted treatment recommendation is available. We analyzed retrospectively the clinicopathologic data of 8 patients with thyroid CASTLE who underwent surgery and radiotherapy at the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between December 2008 and June 2012. All patients accepted radical surgery. All patients accepted postoperative radiotherapy, except one 79-year-old patient. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis during the follow-up period. The pattern of immunohistochemical staining was similar to that of thymic carcinoma. Six of 8 CASTLE cases expressed CD5. All 8 CASTLE patients were negatively expressed in thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor 1, and calcitonin. Patients with thyroid CASTLE have good outcomes after radical resection and postoperative radiotherapy. Positive CD5 immunoreactivity can contribute to diagnosis of this disease.
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[Regulatory effect of Yangjing Capsule on the expressions of phosphor-Erk1 and phosphor-Akt1 in the corpus cavernosum of aged rats].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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To observe the effect of Yangjing Capsule on the expressions of P-Erk1 and P-Akt1 in the corpus cavernosum of aged rats and to explore its action mechanism.
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Expression, purification and characterization of human interferon-? in Pichia pastoris.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Human interferon-? (hIFN-?) is a multifunctional protein known to possess immunoregulatory, antiviral and anticancer functions. In the present study, in order to explore the biological roles of hIFN-? and its mechanisms of action, IFN-? was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) under the control of alcohol oxidase promoter 1 (AOX1). The protein was secreted by two different signal peptides, the native secretion signal peptide of hIFN-? and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ? signal peptide. Following 96 h of methanol induction, Tricine-SDS-PAGE Coomassie staining, western blot analysis and N-terminal protein sequencing revealed that the level of recombinant hIFN-? (rhIFN-?) secreted by the native secretion signal was barely detectable, while the ? signal peptide secreted ~300 mg/l. rhIFN-? was purified by Vivaflow 200, SP Sepharose Fast Flow and Vivaspin 2 ml, yielding >96% of a highly purified rhIFN-? preparation, with a specific activity of 1x107-1.4x107 IU/mg protein as determined by an antiviral assay. The results demonstrated that the experimental procedures developed are capable of producing a large quantity of active rhIFN-? from P. pastoris.
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Computational fluid dynamics in the design and analysis of thermal processes: a review of recent advances.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The design of thermal processes in the food industry has undergone great developments in the last two decades due to the availability of cheap computer power alongside advanced modelling techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD uses numerical algorithms to solve the non-linear partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and heat transfer so that the complex mechanisms that govern many food-processing systems can be resolved. In thermal processing applications, CFD can be used to build three-dimensional models that are both spatially and temporally representative of a physical system to produce solutions with high levels of physical realism without the heavy costs associated with experimental analyses. Therefore, CFD is playing an ever growing role in the development of optimization of conventional as well as the development of new thermal processes in the food industry. This paper discusses the fundamental aspects involved in developing CFD solutions and forms a state-of-the-art review on various CFD applications in conventional as well as novel thermal processes. The challenges facing CFD modellers of thermal processes are also discussed. From this review it is evident that present-day CFD software, with its rich tapestries of mathematical physics, numerical methods and visualization techniques, is currently recognized as a formidable and pervasive technology which can permit comprehensive analyses of thermal processing.
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The dynamics of polycomb group proteins in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human.
Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes and the antero-posterior neural patterning from early embryogenesis. Although expression of PcG genes in the nervous system has been noticed, but the expression pattern of PcG proteins in early embryonic nervous system is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of PRC1 complex members (BMI-1 and RING1B) and PRC2 complex members (EED, SUZ12 and EZH2) in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry. The results of Western blot showed that EED protein was significantly up-regulated with the increase of the day of pregnancy during the early embryogenesis in mouse. BMI-1 protein level was significantly increased from the day 10 of pregnancy, when compared with the day 9 of pregnancy. But the SUZ12, EZH2 and RING1B protein level did not change significantly. From the results of Immunohistochemistry, we found that the four PcG proteins were all expressed in the fetal brain and fetal spinal cord in mouse. In human, the expression of EED, SUZ12, and EZH2 was not significantly different in cerebral cortex and sacral spinal cord, but BMI-1 and RING1B expression was enhanced with the development of embryos in early pregnancy. Collectively, our findings showed that PRC1 and PRC2 were spatiotemporally expressed in brain and spinal cord of early embryos.
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Application of visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging for non-invasively measuring distribution of water-holding capacity in salmon flesh.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a primary quality determinant of salmon flesh. One of the limiting factors for not having a direct measurement of WHC for salmon quality grading is that current WHC measurements are destructive, time-consuming, and inefficient. In this study, two hyperspectral image systems operated in the visible and short-wave near infrared range (400-1000 nm) and the long-wave near infrared range (897-1753 nm) were applied for non-invasive determination of four WHC indices, namely percentage liquid loss (PLL), percentage water loss (PWL), percentage fat loss (PFL), and percentage water remained (PWR) of salmon flesh. Two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were applied, respectively, to establish calibration models of WHC indices based on the spectral signatures of salmon flesh, and the performances of these two methods were compared to determine the optimal spectral calibration strategy. The performances were also compared between two hyperspectral image systems, when full range spectra were considered. Out of 121 wavelength variables, only thirteen (PLL), twelve (PWL), nine (PFL), and twelve variables (PWR) were selected as important variables by using competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm to reduce redundancy and collinearity of hyperspectral images. The CARS-PLSR combination was identified as the optimal method to calibrate the prediction models for WHC determination, resulting in good correlation coefficient of prediction (rP) of 0.941, 0.937, 0.815, and 0.970 for PLL, PWL, PFL, and PWR analysis, respectively. CARS-PLSR equations were obtained according to the regression coefficients of the CARS-PLSR models and were transferred to each pixel in the image for visualizing WHC indices in all portions of the salmon fillet. The overall results show that the laborious, time-consuming, and destructive traditional techniques could be replaced by hyperspectral imaging to provide a rapid and non-invasive measurement of WHC distribution in salmon flesh.
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Physico-chemical characterization of the temperature dependent hydration kinetics of Gleditsia sinensis gum.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The physico-chemical properties and hydration kinetics of Gleditsia sinensis gum were investigated to evaluate its temperature dependence. The increase of temperature resulted in improved solubility of G. sinensis gum, and the dissolved galactomannan showed decreased degree of galactose substitution (DSGal) and increased molecular weight (p<0.05, ANOVA). The solubility of G. sinensis galactomannan at 25, 45, 60 and 80°C was 73.4, 83.8, 98.1, and 99.4%, respectively. Weibull and Logarithmic models were well fitted (R(2)>0.96), and the hydration index t0.8 at different temperatures varied in the range of 51-302min. It was found that galactomannan with low DSGal and high molecular weight exhibited slow hydration rate and poor solubility.
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Cell viability and proteins release during ultrasound-assisted yeast lysis of light lees in model wine.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Light lees that spent more than one year in barrels were used for ultrasound-assisted yeast lysis (22W/L, 18°C) in a model wine. For comparison, a classical yeast autolysis at mild temperature (25°C) was performed. The effect of ultrasound on lees was evaluated by analysing the release of proteins and polysaccharides to the model wine, and the viability of the yeasts contained in the lees. Under conditions tested, ultrasound-assisted yeast lysis increased the concentrations of proteins and polysaccharides in the model wine due to the release of these compounds from yeasts. Unlike the classical autolysis, ultrasound led to a high cell disruption, and after 20h of ultrasonic treatment, viable cells were hardly found. Furthermore, the final cell concentration for the ultrasound-assisted yeast lysis was much lower than that for the classical autolysis. The inactivation rate constant of ultrasound-assisted yeast lysis was 2.54×10(-5)s(-1). Finally, the morphological changes in cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy to verify the effect of ultrasound on yeast cells.
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A? induces acute depression of excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission through distinct phosphatase-dependent mechanisms in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Beta-amyloid peptide (A?) has a causal role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimers disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that A? can disrupt excitatory glutamatergic synaptic function at synaptic level. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we recorded evoked and spontaneous EPSCs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons via whole-cell voltage-clamping methods and found that 1 ?M A? can induce acute depression of basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic dysfunction. Moreover, we also found that A?-induced both presynaptic and postsynaptic dysfunction can be reversed by the inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B), FK506, whereas only postsynaptic disruption can be ameliorated by the inhibitor of PP1/PP2A, Okadaic acid (OA). These results indicate that PP1/PP2A and PP2B have overlapping but not identical functions in A?-induced acute depression of excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
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Elucidation of the pharmacophore of echinocystic acid, a new lead for blocking HCV entry.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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To elucidate the pharmacophore of echinocystic acid (EA), an oleanane-type triterpene displaying substantial inhibitory activity on HCV entry, two microbial strains, Rhizopus chinensis CICC 3043 and Alternaria alternata AS 3.4578, were utilized to modify the chemical structure of EA. Eight new metabolites with regio- and stereo-selective introduction of hydroxyl and lactone groups at various inert carbon positions were obtained. The anti-HCV entry activity of the metabolites 2-13, along with their parental compound EA and other analogs 14-15, were evaluated. Most of the metabolites showed no improvement but detrimental effect on potency except compound 5 and 6, which showed similar and even a litter higher anti-HCV entry activity than that of EA. The results demonstrated that ring A, B, C and the left side of ring E of EA are highly conserved, while ring D and the right side of ring E of EA are flexible. Introduction of a hydroxyl group at C-16 enhanced the triterpene potency. Further analysis indicated that the hemolytic effect of EA disappeared upon such modifications.
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolics from wine lees: Modeling, optimization and stability of extracts during storage.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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The ultrasound-assisted extraction process of phenolics including anthocyanins from wine lees was modeled and optimized in this research. An ultrasound bath system with the frequency of 40kHz was used and the acoustic energy density during extraction was identified to 48W/L. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and the solvent composition on the extraction yields of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were taken into account. The extraction process was simulated and optimized by means of artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA). The constructed ANN models were accurate to predict the extraction yields of both total phenolics and total anthocyanins according to the statistical analysis. Meanwhile, the input space of the ANN models was optimized by GA, so as to maximize the extraction yields. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental yields of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were 58.76 and 6.69mg/g, respectively, which agreed with the predicted values. Furthermore, more amounts of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were extracted by ultrasound at the optimal conditions than by conventional maceration. On the other hand, the stability of phenolics in the liquid extracts obtained from ultrasound-assisted extraction during storage was evaluated. After 30-day storage, the total phenolic contents in extracts stored at 4°C and 20°C decreased by 12.5% and 12.1%, respectively. Moreover, anthocyanins were more stable at 4°C while tartaric esters and flavonols exhibited a better stability at 20°C. Overall, the loss of phenolics during storage found in this study could be acceptable.
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Novel non-invasive distribution measurement of texture profile analysis (TPA) in salmon fillet by using visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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This study developed a pushbroom visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the wavelength range of 400-1758 nm to determine the spatial distribution of texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters of salmon fillets. Six TPA parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess) were analysed. Five spectral features (mean, standard deviation, skew, energy, and entropy) and 22 image texture features obtained from graylevel co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from hyperspectral images. Quantitative models were established with the extracted spectral and image texture signatures of samples based on partial least squares regression (PLSR). The results indicated that spectral features had better ability to predict TPA parameters of salmon samples than image texture features, and Spectral Set I (400-1000 nm) performed better than Spectral II (967-1634 nm). On the basis of the wavelengths selected by regression coefficients of PLSR models, instrumental optimal wavelengths (IOW) and predictive optimal wavelengths (POW) were further chosen to reduce the high dimensionality of the hyperspectral image data. Our results show that hyperspectral imaging holds promise as a reliable and rapid alternative to traditional universal testing machines for measuring the spatial distribution of TPA parameters.
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Potential of time series-hyperspectral imaging (TS-HSI) for non-invasive determination of microbial spoilage of salmon flesh.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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This study investigated the potential of using time series-hyperspectral imaging (TS-HSI) in visible and near infrared region (400-1700 nm) for rapid and non-invasive determination of surface total viable count (TVC) of salmon flesh during spoilage process. Hyperspectral cubes were acquired at different spoilage stages for salmon chops and their spectral data were extracted. The reference TVC values of the same samples were measured using standard plate count method and then calibrated with their corresponding spectral data based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the TVC prediction throughout the whole wavelength range. As a result, eight variables representing the wavelengths of 495 nm, 535 nm, 550 nm, 585 nm, 625 nm, 660 nm, 785 nm, and 915 nm were selected, which were used to reduce the high dimensionality of the hyperspectral data. On the basis of the selected variables, the models of PLSR and LS-SVM were established and their performances were compared. The CARS-PLSR model established using Spectral Set I (400-1000 nm) was considered to be the best for the TVC determination of salmon flesh. The model led to a coefficient of determination (rP(2)) of 0.985 and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 5.127. At last, the best model was used to predict the TVC values of each pixel within the ROI of salmon chops for visualizing the TVC distribution of salmon flesh. The research demonstrated that TS-HSI technique has a potential for rapid and non-destructive determination of bacterial spoilage in salmon flesh during the spoilage process.
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Effects of ultrasound treatments on quality of grapefruit juice.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Sonication is recognised as a potential technique for improvement in the quality of fruit juices. This study was initiated with the objective of evaluating the effect of sonication treatments on some important quality parameters of grapefruit juice such as physico-chemical (pH, acidity and °Brix), Hunter colour values (L(*), a(*) and b(*)), cloud value, electrical conductivity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. Sonication of grapefruit juice was done in a bath type sonicator at a frequency of 28 kHz by maintaining a constant temperature of 20 °C. Results showed that there was significant improvement in the cloud value, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols in all the juice samples sonicated for 30, 60 and 90 min but no changes occurred in the pH, acidity and °Brix value as compared to control. Some differences in all the colour values were also observed but overall quality of grapefruit juice was improved, suggesting that sonication technique may successfully be implemented an industrial scale for the processing of grapefruit juice.
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A novel homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen based on water-soluble quantum dots.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Quantum dots are not widely used in clinical diagnosis. However, the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay possesses many advantages over current methods for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a primary marker for many cancers and diseases. Therefore, a novel luminescent terbium chelates- (LTCs) and quantum dots-based homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay was developed to detect CEA. Glutathione-capped quantum dots (QDs) were prepared from oil-soluble QDs with a 565 nm emission peak. Conjugates (QDs-6 F11) were prepared with QDs and anti-CEA monoclonal antibody. LTCs were prepared and conjugates (LTCs-S001) were prepared with another anti-CEA monoclonal antibody. The fluorescence lifetime of QDs was optimized for sequential analysis. The Förster distance (R0) was calculated as 61.9 Å based on the overlap of the spectra of QDs-6 F11 and LTCs-S001. Using a double-antibody sandwich approach, the above antibody conjugates were used as energy acceptor and donor, respectively. The signals from QDs were collected in time-resolved mode and analyzed for the detection of CEA. The results show that the QDs were suitable for time-resolved fluoroassays. The spatial distance of the donor-acceptor pair was calculated to be 61.9 Å. The signals from QDs were proportional to CEA concentration. The standard curve was LogY?=?2.75566?+?0.94457 LogX (R?=?0.998) using the fluorescence counts (Y) of QDs and the concentrations of CEA (X). The calculated sensitivity was 0.4 ng/mL. The results indicate that water-soluble QDs are suitable for the homogenous immunoassay. This work has expanded future applications of QDs in homogeneous clinical bioassays. Furthermore, a QDs-based homogeneous multiplex immunoassay will be investigated as a biomarker for infectious diseases in future research.
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Non-destructive assessment of instrumental and sensory tenderness of lamb meat using NIR hyperspectral imaging.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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The purpose of this study was to develop and test a hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm) to predict instrumental and sensory tenderness of lamb meat. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values and sensory scores by trained panellists were collected as the indicator of instrumental and sensory tenderness, respectively. Partial least squares regression models were developed for predicting instrumental and sensory tenderness with reasonable accuracy (Rcv=0.84 for WBSF and 0.69 for sensory tenderness). Overall, the results confirmed that the spectral data could become an interesting screening tool to quickly categorise lamb steaks in good (i.e. tender) and bad (i.e. tough) based on WBSF values and sensory scores with overall accuracy of about 94.51% and 91%, respectively. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to select the most important wavelengths for WBSF prediction. Additionally, textural features from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) were extracted to determine the correlation between textural features and WBSF values.
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Effects of processing parameters on immersion vacuum cooling time and physico-chemical properties of pork hams.
Meat Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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The effects of agitation (1002 rpm), different pressure reduction rates (60 and 100 mbar/min), as well as employing cold water with different initial temperatures (IWT: 7 and 20°C) on immersion vacuum cooling (IVC) of cooked pork hams were experimentally investigated. Final pork ham core temperature, cooling time, cooling loss, texture properties, colour and chemical composition were evaluated. The application for the first time of agitation during IVC substantially reduced the cooling time (47.39%) to 4.6°C, compared to IVC without agitation. For the different pressure drop rates, there was a trend that shorter IVC cooling times were achieved with lower cooling rate, although results were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For both IWTs tested, the same trend was observed: shorter cooling time and lower cooling loss were obtained under lower linear pressure drop rate of 60 mbar/min (not statistically significant, P>0.05). Compared to the reference cooling method (air blast cooling), IVC achieved higher cooling rates and better meat quality.
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Overexpression of hnRNPC2 induces multinucleation by repression of Aurora B in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Heterogeneous ribonuclear protein C2 (hnRNPC2), an RNA binding protein, is a component of hnRNPC which is upregulated in many tumors. Multinucleation exists in many tumors and is positively correlated with tumor grade. To uncover the correlation between hnRNPC2 and multi-nucleation in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, we constructed a pEGFP-hnRNPC2 vector and transfected it into cancer cells. Our results revealed that overexpression of hnRNPC2 induced multinucleation in SMMC-7721 cells. Tracking tests indicated that the induced multinucleated cells were unable to recover to mononuclear cells and finally died as a result of defects in cell division. Furthermore, Aurora B, which was localized at the midbody and plays a role in cytokinesis, was repressed in hnRNPC2-overexpressing cells, whose knockdown by RNA interference also induced multinucleation in SMMC-7721 cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and mRNA-protein co-immunoprecipitation results revealed that Aurora B mRNA did not decrease in hnRNPC2-overexpressing cells, instead it bound more hnRNPC2 and less eIF4E, an mRNA cap binding protein and translational initiation factor. Moreover, hnRNPC2 bound more eIF4E in hnRNPC2-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that hnRNPC2 repressed Aurora B binding with eIF4F, which must bind with Aurora B mRNA in order to initiate its translation. This induced multinucleation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, hnRNPC2 accelerated hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. Collectively, these data suggest that hnRNPC2 may be a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma cell diagnosis and treatment.
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Biotransformation of ursolic acid by Syncephalastrum racemosum CGMCC 3.2500 and anti-HCV activity.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Microbial transformation of ursolic acid (UA, 3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1) by filamentous fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum CGMCC 3.2500 was conducted. Five metabolites 3?, 7?, 21?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (2); 3?, 21?-dihydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid-13-lactone (3); 1?, 3?, 21?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (4); 3?, 7?, 21?-trihydroxy-urs-1-en-28-oic acid-13-lactone (5); and 21-oxo-1?, 3?-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (6) were afforded. Elucidation of the structures of these metabolites was primarily based on 1D and 2D NMR and HR-MS data. Metabolite 2 was a new compound. In addition, the anti-HCV activity of compounds 1-6 was evaluated.
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Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging in tandem with partial least squares regression and genetic algorithm for non-destructive determination and visualization of Pseudomonas loads in chicken fillets.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Hyperspectral imaging was exploited for its potential in direct and fast determination of Pseudomonas loads in raw chicken breast fillets. A line-scan hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm) was employed to obtain sample images, which were then further corrected, modified and processed. The prepared images were correlated with the true Pseudomonas counts of these samples using partial least squares (PLS) regression. To enhance model performance, different spectral extraction approaches, spectral preprocessing methods as well as wavelength selection schemes based on genetic algorithm were investigated. The results revealed that extraction of mean spectra is more efficient for representation of sample spectra than computation of median spectra. The best full wavelength model was attained based on spectral images preprocessed with standard normal variate, and the correlation coefficients (R) and root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for the model were above 0.81 and below 0.80 log10 CFU g(-1), respectively. In development of simplified models, wavelengths were selected by using a proposed two-step method based on genetic algorithm. The best model utilized only 14 bands in five segments and produced R and RMSEs of 0.91 and 0.55 log10 CFU g(-1), 0.87 and 0.65 log10 CFU g(-1) as well as 0.88 and 0.64 log10 CFU g(-1) for calibration, cross-validation and prediction, respectively. Moreover, the prediction maps offered a novel way for visualizing the gradient of Pseudomonas loads on meat surface. Hyperspectral imaging is demonstrated to be an effective tool for nondestructive measurement of Pseudomonas in raw chicken breast fillets.
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Changes in innate and permissive immune responses after HBV transgenic mouse vaccination and llong-term-siRNA treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Currently, no licensed therapy can thoroughly eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) from the body, including interferon ? and inhibitors of HBV reverse-transcription. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) seem to be a promising tool for treating HBV, but had no effect on the pre-existing HBV covalently closed circular DNA. Because it is very difficult to thoroughly eradicate HBV with unique siRNAs, upgrading the immune response is the best method for fighting HBV infection. Here, we aim to explore the immune response of transgenic mice to HBV vaccination after long-term treatment with siRNAs and develop a therapeutic approach that combines siRNAs with immunopotentiators.
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Enzymatic production and characterization of manno-oligosaccharides from Gleditsia sinensis galactomannan gum.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Enzymatic hydrolysis of Gleditsia sinensis gum was performed to produce manno-oligosaccharides having functional applications as dietary fiber and prebiotics. The optimum hydrolysis conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature and time, from response surface methodology were 8.1 U/g, 57.4 °C and 34.1 h, respectively. The yield of DP 1-5 oligosaccharides was 75.9% (29.1 g/L). The Michaelis-Menten kinetics and molecular weight distribution were determined. The obtained oligosaccharides were further separated by HPLC and SEC, and the galactose distribution of G. sinensis gum was elucidated. Results indicated that G. sinensis gum has potential to produce value-added oligosaccharides in food industries.
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Identification of ochratoxin a producing fungi associated with fresh and dry liquorice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The presence of fungi on liquorice could contaminate the crop and result in elevated levels of mycotoxin. In this study, the mycobiota associated with fresh and dry liquorice was investigated in 3 producing regions of China. Potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, ?-tubulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene phylogeny, a total of 9 genera consisting of 22 fungal species were identified, including two new Penicillium species (Penicillium glycyrrhizacola sp. nov. and Penicillium xingjiangense sp. nov.). The similarity of fungal communities associated with fresh and dry liquorice was low. Nineteen species belonging to 8 genera were detected from fresh liquorice with populations affiliated with P. glycyrrhizacola, P. chrysogenum and Aspergillus insuetus comprising the majority (78.74%, 33.33% and 47.06% of total) of the community from Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang samples, respectively. In contrast, ten species belonging to 4 genera were detected from dry liquorice with populations affiliated with P. chrysogenum, P. crustosum and Aspergillus terreus comprising the majority (64.00%, 52.38% and 90.91% of total) of the community from Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang samples, respectively. Subsequent LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that 5 fungal species were able to synthesize OTA in vitro including P. chrysogenum, P. glycyrrhizacola, P. polonicum, Aspergillus ochraceus and A. westerdijkiae, the OTA concentration varied from 12.99 to 39.03 µg/kg. AFB1 was absent in all tested strains. These results demonstrate the presence of OTA producing fungi on fresh liquorice and suggest that these fungi could survive on dry liquorice after traditional sun drying. Penicillium chrysogenum derived from surrounding environments is likely to be a stable contributor to high OTA level in liquorice. The harvesting and processing procedure needs to be monitored in order to keep liquorice free of toxigenic fungi.
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