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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). Methods: We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (?9 years). Results: As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
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Graft survival after video-assisted minilaparotomy living-donor nephrectomy or conventional open nephrectomy: do left and right allografts differ?
Urology
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To examine the effect of the side of the allograft (left vs right) on early graft failure and long-term graft survival rates after conventional open living-donor nephrectomy (OLDN) or video-assisted minilaparotomy living-donor nephrectomy (VLDN).
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Child-Pugh score is an independent risk factor for immediate bleeding after colonoscopic polypectomy in liver cirrhosis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Post-polypectomy bleeding is the most common colonoscopic polypectomy complication. However, the risk of post-polypectomy bleeding in liver cirrhosis is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the risk of post-polypectomy bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.
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The assessment of the oncological safety margin of insufficient lymph node dissection in pT2 (pm) gastric cancer.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To identify the effect of insufficient lymph node dissection (LND) on the survival of patients with pT2 gastric cancer.
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The combination of vitamin D deficiency and mild to moderate chronic kidney disease is associated with low bone mineral density and deteriorated femoral microarchitecture: results from the KNHANES 2008-2011.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Although mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and vitamin D deficiency are prevalent in the elderly population worldwide and are associated with sarcopenia, their influence on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been determined.
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Impact of spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma rupture on recurrence pattern and long-term surgical outcomes after partial hepatectomy.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The clinical significance of spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture association with recurrence pattern and long-term surgical outcomes remains under debate. We investigated the impact of spontaneous HCC rupture on recurrence pattern and long-term surgical outcomes after partial hepatectomy.
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White matter hyperintensities are associated with amyloid burden in APOE4 non-carriers.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Previous preclinical studies have suggested a close relationship between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. However, a direct correlation between CVD and amyloid burden has not yet been shown in humans. If there is a relationship between CVD and amyloid burden, it is possible that the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype may have an effect on this relationship because APOE4 is a risk factor for the development of AD. We therefore evaluated the effects of APOE4 on the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of CVD, and amyloid burden, measured by 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. We recruited 53 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairments, who had both WMH on MRI and amyloid deposition assessed by PiB PET. Twenty-two of these patients were APOE4 carriers (41.5%). In the APOE4 non-carriers, a significant positive correlation was shown between the volume of WMH and PiB retention (? = 7.0 × 10-3, p = 0.034) while no significant correlation was found in APOE4 carriers (? = -9.0 × 10-3, p = 0.085). Statistical parametric mapping analyses in APOE4 non-carriers showed that WMH were associated with PiB retention in the bilateral medial occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus, and superior cerebellum. Our results suggested that WMH are correlated with amyloid burden especially in the posterior brain regions in APOE4 non-carriers. However, this correlation was not observed in APOE4 carriers, perhaps because in these subjects the influence of APOE4 overrides the effect of CVD.
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A 24-year follow-up study of blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood in Korea: the Kangwha Study.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A number of longitudinal studies have tracked blood pressure over time in children and adults. Although there are a few blood pressure tracking studies for Asian populations, they are all relatively short-term studies with around only 10 years of follow-up. Accordingly, we assessed the stability of blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood over a 24-year follow-up period among participants in the Kangwha Study.
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Impact of cigarette smoking on response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung adenocarcinoma with activating EGFR mutations.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive impact of cigarette smoking on treatment outcomes of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in lung adenocarcinoma patients with activating EGFR mutations.
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Size discrepancy between endoscopic size and pathologic size is not negligible in endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Accurate tumor size measurement is critical for selecting proper candidates for endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, size discrepancy between endoscopic size and pathologic size often occurs during ER for EGC.
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New-onset atrial fibrillation predicts long-term newly developed atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes after isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study evaluated whether new-onset POAF is independently associated with long-term (>1 year) atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality.
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Clinical and prognostic implications of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements in never-smokers with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangement in never-smokers with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
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Prognostic value of mucinous histology depends on microsatellite instability status in patients with stage III colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy: a retrospective cohort study.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The close association between mucinous histology and microsatellite instability (MSI) may have hindered the evaluation of prognostic significance of mucinous histology. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether mucinous histology was associated with a worse prognosis, independent of MSI status, compared to nonmucinous histology in patients with stage III colon cancer.
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Clinical Predictors Associated With Proton Pump Inhibitor-Induced Hypomagnesemia.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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There is increasing evidence and case reports regarding proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesemia. Our study aimed to clarify the relationship between PPI use and serum magnesium levels and to specify high-risk patients. We retrospectively studied 112 consecutive patients aged 20 years or older who were treated with PPI for ?30 days and whose serum magnesium levels were available for the PPI treatment period. We compared the mean level of serum magnesium of the enrolled patients with PPI treatment with matched controls. There were no significant differences between the matched PPI users (n = 105) and nonusers (n = 210) in the magnesium levels (0.85 ± 0.09 vs. 0.86 ± 0.16 mM, P = 0.297). In a subgroup analysis of a PPI user group, hypomagnesemia could be observed in 32 patients but not in 80 patients. In multivariate analyses, PPI use for >1 year, age less than 45 years, and concurrent cisplatin or carboplatin use were significantly associated with PPI-induced hypomagnesemia {P = 0.042, odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval (CI)]: 5.388 [1.056-27.493]; P = 0.007, OR [95% CI]: 4.710 [1.523-14.571]; P = 0.007, OR [95% CI]: 13.404 [2.066-86.952], respectively} after adjusting for confounders. This study shows that long-term PPI use is associated with hypomagnesemia in hospitalized adult patients. Therefore, serum magnesium levels should be checked before the initiation of PPI treatment and during the treatment period in patients, particularly those concurrently using platinum-based chemotherapy or who are expected to use PPI for long periods.
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Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha cohort study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.
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Tumor volume adds prognostic value in patients with organ-confined prostate cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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This study was designed to assess the independent prognostic value of tumor volume (TV) and whether adding TV provides additional prognostic information for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy.
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Effects of APOE ?4 on brain amyloid, lacunar infarcts, and white matter lesions: a study among patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The relationship between the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (APOE4) and factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unclear. We aimed to examine the effects of APOE4 on brain amyloid beta using Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and subcortical cerebrovascular disease, as assessed by lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in subcortical VCI (SVCI) patients. We recruited 230 subjects with normal cognition, 111 subjects with cognitive impairment due to clinically defined Alzheimers disease (ADCI), and 134 subjects with clinically defined SVCI. A PiB retention ratio greater than 1.5 was considered to be PiB positive. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 increased the risk for each cognitive impairment group. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 was associated with brain amyloid beta, lacunes, and WMH. APOE4 did not increase the risk of PiB(-) SVCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-2.84), whereas APOE4 increased the risk of PiB(+) SVCI (OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 1.70-11.97) and PiB(+) ADCI (odds ratio, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.54-7.91). In SVCI patients, APOE4 was positively associated with PiB retention ratio, whereas APOE4 was not associated with the number of lacunes or with WMH volume. Our results suggest that amyloid beta burden can occur in patients with and without subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and that it is associated with APOE4. However APOE4 might be independent of subcortical cerebrovascular disease.
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Self-expanding metal stents or nonstent endoscopic therapy: which is better for anastomotic leaks after total gastrectomy?
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Anastomotic leaks are a life-threatening complication of gastrectomies with high mortality after surgical reintervention. Endoscopic therapy using fibrin glue injection, endoclip, and other devices is an alternative to surgical intervention for anastomotic leaks. Recently, self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) were introduced to treat anastomotic leaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of SEMS and nonstent endoscopic therapy (NSET) for treatment of anastomotic leaks after total gastrectomy with the aim of assisting endoscopists in choosing a treatment method.
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Efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine in locally advanced biliary tract cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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There is no established standard treatment for patients with locally advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC).
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Early predictor of mortality due to irreversible posthepatectomy liver failure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Although mortality after liver resection has declined, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) remains a major cause of operative mortality. To date there is not consensus on a definition for PHLF. However, there have been many efforts to define PHLF causing operative mortality. In the present study we sought to identify early predictors of death from irreversible PHLF.
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Prevalence and associated risk factors of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean workforce.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The purposes of this study were to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to investigate the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean workers. This is a secondary data analysis study using the data set from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. A total of 1,545 workers over 20 yr of age were included in this analysis. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Waist circumference was based on the study of obesity guidelines. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean workers was 21.0% (28.5% men, 11.8% women). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male workers with high job control and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. For women, low job control and current smoking increased the risk of metabolic syndrome. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with level of job control in both male and female workers. These findings suggest that behavioral lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, moderating alcohol consumption, and controlling work-related factors and job control in the workplace should be considered for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome in Korean workers.
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Development and validation of osteoporosis risk-assessment model for Korean postmenopausal women.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for detecting osteoporosis, but is not recommended for general population screening. Therefore, this study aims to develop an osteoporosis risk-assessment model to identify high-risk individuals among Korean postmenopausal women. Data from 1,209 and 1,046 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2009 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, were used for development and validation of an osteoporosis risk-assessment model. Osteoporosis was defined as T score less than or equal to -2.5 at either the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Performance of the candidate models and the Osteoporosis Self assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). To compare the developed Korean Osteoporosis Risk-Assessment Model (KORAM) with OSTA, a net reclassification improvement was further calculated. In the development dataset, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 33.9 %. KORAM, consisting of age, weight, and hormone therapy, had a sensitivity of 91.2 %, a specificity of 50.6 %, and an AUC of 0.709 with a specific cut-off score of -9. Comparable results were shown in the validation dataset: sensitivity 84.8 %, specificity 51.6 %, and AUC 0.682. Additionally, risk categorization with KORAM showed improved reclassification over that of OSTA from 7.4 to 41.7 %. KORAM can be easily used as a pre-screening tool to identify candidates for DXA tests. Further studies investigating cost-effectiveness and replicability in other datasets are required to establish the clinical utility of KORAM.
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Socioeconomic Burden of Influenza in the Republic of Korea, 2007-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although the socioeconomic burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) was considerable, no reliable estimates have been reported. Our aim was to compared medical costs and socioeconomic burden resulting from pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 with that of previous seasonal influenza.
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Proposal of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm in Korean patients.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug for the prevention of thromboembolic disorders. We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of four genes and clinical factors to warfarin dose requirement and provided a warfarin-dosing algorithm based on genetic and clinical variables in Korean patients. We recruited 564 Korean patients on stable anticoagulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and GGCX were analyzed. Using multiple regression analysis, we developed a model to predict the warfarin requirement. The SNPs of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and GGCX showed significant correlation with warfarin dose. Patients with the 3730AA genotype received significantly higher doses of warfarin than those with the 3730GG (P=0.0001). For CYP2C9, the highest maintenance dose was observed in the patients with wild-type genotype compared with the variant allele carriers (P<0.0001). The multiple regression model including age, gender, body surface area (BSA), international normalized ratio (INR) and four genetic polymorphisms accounted for 35% of total variations in warfarin dose (R(2)=0.3499; P<0.0001). This study shows that age, gender, BSA, INR and VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 polymorphism affect warfarin dose requirements in Koreans. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription may contribute to improve the efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment for Korean patients.
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Role of F-FDG PET Scans in Patients with Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Low-Grade MALT Lymphoma.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; however, interobserver variation, inadequate accuracy in judging the depth of tumor invasion, and histological heterogeneity of the tumor can limit its role. Thus, we have assessed the role of (18)F-FDG PET scans in the management of Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric MALT lymphoma.
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Clinical significance of progesterone receptor and HER2 status in estrogen receptor-positive, operable breast cancer with adjuvant tamoxifen.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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To evaluate prognostic factors in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, operable breast cancer focusing on the progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).
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Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period.
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Incidence and mortality of hip fracture among the elderly population in South Korea: a population-based study using the national health insurance claims data.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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The lack of epidemiologic information on osteoporotic hip fractures hampers the development of preventive or curative measures against osteoporosis in South Korea. We conducted a population-based study to estimate the annual incidence of hip fractures. Also, we examined factors associated with post-fracture mortality among Korean elderly to evaluate the impact of osteoporosis on our society and to identify high-risk populations.
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Positional reproducibility and effects of a rectal balloon in prostate cancer radiotherapy.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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Despite the increasing use of the rectal balloon in prostate cancer radiotherapy, many issues still remain to be verified objectively including its positional reproducibility and relevance to treatment morbidity. We have developed a custom rectal balloon that has a scale indicating the depth of insertion and dilates symmetrically ensuring positional reproducibility. Fifty patients with prostate cancer treated by definitive 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with rectal balloon were analyzed. Each of first five patients undergone computed tomography (CT) three times with a rectal balloon. The positional reproducibility was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) from the CT-to-CT fusion images. Planning variables and clinical acute toxicities were compared between when or not applying balloon. An ICC of greater than 0.9 in all directions revealed an excellent reproducibility of the balloon. Rectal balloon improved considerably the mean dose and V(45Gy)-V(65Gy) in plan comparison, and especially in 3D-CRT the rectal volume exposed to more than 60 Gy dropped from 41.3% to 19.5%. Clinically, the balloon lowered acute toxicity, which was lowest when both the balloon and IMRT were applied simultaneously. The rectal balloon carries excellent reproducibility and reduces acute toxicity in 3D-CRT and IMRT for prostate cancer.
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Clinicopathological features of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum: a case-matched study.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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Primary colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRC) is a rare type of mucin-containing adenocarcinoma and little information exists about its clinicopathological features.
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Relationship Between Earlobe Crease and Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Non-hypertensive, Non-diabetic Adults in Korea.
Epidemiol Health
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Several studies have found a significant association between the presence of earlobe crease (ELC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (baPWV) is a non-invasive and useful measure of arterial stiffness predicting cardiovascular events and mortality. However, few studies have reported the relationship between ELC and baPWV as a new measure of arterial stiffness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ELC is related to baPWV in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, and apparently healthy Korean adults.
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Validity of Stature-predicted Equations using Knee Height for Elderly and Mobility Impaired Persons in Koreans.
Epidemiol Health
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2009
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This study aimed to establish a stature-predicted equation using knee height, and perform a clinical validation on a Korean population.
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Estimating medical expenditure associated with osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly Korean women based on the National Health Insurance Claims Database 2002-2004.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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To estimate the medical expenditure associated with osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly Korean women from insurers perspective.
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Cost-effective mammography screening in Korea: high incidence of breast cancer in young women.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in Korean women are different from the characteristics reported in Western women. The highest incidence rate occurs in Korean women in their 40s. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective screening interval and target age range for Korean women from the perspective of the national healthcare system. A stochastic model was used to simulate breast cancer screenings by varying both the screening intervals and the age ranges. The effectiveness of mammography screening was defined as the probability of detecting breast cancer in the preclinical state and the cost was based on the direct cost of mammography screening and the confirmative tests. The age-specific mean sojourn times and the sensitivity of the mammography were applied in the stochastic model. An optimal cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and lifetime schedule sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess parameter uncertainty. The selected cost-effective strategies were: (1) the current biennial mammography screenings for women who are at least 40 years old; (2) biennial screening for women between the ages of 35 and 75 years; and (3) a combination strategy consisting of biennial screening for women aged between 45 and 54 years, and 3-year interval screening for women aged between 40 and 44 years and 55 and 65 years. Further studies should follow to investigate the effectiveness of mammography screening in women younger than 40 years in Asia as well as in Korea.
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Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene amplification is associated with poor survival and cigarette smoking dosage in patients with resected squamous cell lung cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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To investigate the frequency and the prognostic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification in patients with surgically resected squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) and the association between smoking and FGFR1 amplification.
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Clinical prognostic index for recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma including intraoperative findings.
Endocr. J.
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This study created a new staging system using a risk model that employed clinical factors that were associated with recurrence, verified by preoperative clinical information and intraoperative finding and was compared with other staging systems. A review was conducted of patients who have undergone thyroidectomy and followed-up between January 1, 1983 and September 31, 2007 at Yonsei University Wonju Christian Hospital. The final prognostic staging system was defined as University of Yonsei clinical staging system (Prognostic score = 0.03 × Age + 0.8 × (if male gender) + 0.5 × (if extrathyroidal tumor extension present) + 0.7 × (if clinically apparent lymph node metastasis present), Stage I, less than 1.50; Stage II, 1.50 to 2.29; Stage III, 2.30 to 3.29; Stage IV 4, 3.3 or more). Compared with the other staging systems, the proportion of variation explained (PVE %) was calculated for each. The University of Yonsei clinical staging system appeared to be first as an accurate prognosis predictor with 11.9%. New staging system can predict recurrence and has advantage can use preoperative clinical information and intraoperative finding. Those who are diagnosed as high risk patients using the new staging system should be treated with aggressive surgical treatment and close follow-up.
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Age and gender differences in medical care utilization prior to suicide.
J Affect Disord
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Analysis of temporal patterns of medical care utilization prior to suicide may aid in developing suicide prevention programs. The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender differences in temporal patterns of medical care utilization during 1 year prior to suicide.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.