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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low Temperature Activation of CO Removal by O3 assisted Catalysis.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Catalytic CO oxidation was activated at low temperature by injecting O3 as an additive. It was empirically confirmed that CO removal rate was dramatically enhanced by supplying a small amount of O3, and the reaction temperature was almost half that required for CO oxidation when using a catalyst only. By optimizing the concentration of O3, catalytic CO oxidation could be achieved within 1 min at low operational temperature. The removal rate of CO was sensitive to the concentration of O3, and a deduced reaction mechanism is discussed to explain how catalytic CO oxidation is activated but subsequently deactivated at higher O3 concentration. Moreover, the presence of C3H8 and C3H6 were considered to evaluate the effects of each gas on the enhancement of CO removal rate by O3. Finally, the rate of CO removal was evaluated with increasing O3 concentration for practical applications such as the cold-start problem in automobile engines.
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Graft Extrusion in Both the Coronal and Sagittal Planes Is Greater After Medial Compared With Lateral Meniscus Allograft Transplantation but Is Unrelated to Early Clinical Outcomes.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Graft extrusion after meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) may be affected by horn fixation, which differs between medial and lateral MAT. Few studies have compared graft extrusion, especially sagittal extrusion, after medial and lateral MAT.
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Delay in the recovery of normal sleep-wake cycle after disruption of the light-dark cycle in mice: a bipolar disorder-prone animal model?
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Disruption of the circadian rhythm is known as a provoking factor for manic episodes. Individual differences exist in the recovery rate from disruption in the general population. To develop a screening method to detect individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder, the authors observed the relationship between the recovery of the normal sleep-wake cycle after switching the light-dark (LD) cycle and quinpirole-induced hyperactivity in mice.
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Role of Bcl-xL/Beclin-1 in synergistic apoptotic effects of secretory TRAIL-armed adenovirus in combination with mitomycin C and hyperthermia on colon cancer cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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In this study, we attempted to develop a multimodality approach using chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C, biologic agent tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo-2L), and mild hyperthermia to treat colon cancer. For this study, human colon cancer LS174T, LS180, HCT116 and CX-1 cells were infected with secretory TRAIL-armed adenovirus (Ad.TRAIL) and treated with chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C and hyperthermia. The combinatorial treatment caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The combinational treatment promoted the JNK-Bcl-xL-Bak pathway which transmitted the synergistic effect through the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. JNK signaling led to Bcl-xL phosphorylation at serine 62, dissociation of Bak from Bcl-xL, oligomerization of Bak, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, and subsequent cytochrome c release. Overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of Bcl-xL (S62A), but not dominant-positive mutant of Bcl-xL (S62D), suppressed the synergistic death effect. Interestingly, Beclin-1 was dissociated from Bcl-xL and overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of Bcl-xL (S62A), but not dominant-positive mutant of Bcl-xL (S62D), suppressed dissociation of Beclin-1 from Bcl-xL. A combinatorial treatment of mitomycin C, Ad.TRAIL and hyperthermia induced Beclin-1 cleavage, but the Beclin-1 cleavage was abolished in Beclin-1 double mutant (D133A/D146A) knock-in HCT116 cells, suppressing the apoptosis induced by the combination therapy. We believe that this study supports the application of the multimodality approach to colon cancer therapy.
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Octaphlorethol A: a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Ishige foliacea shows an anti-hyperglycemic effect in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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?-Glucosidase inhibitors are important agents for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia. The current study examined the inhibitory effects of octaphlorethol A (OPA) isolated from Ishige foliacea, a brown alga, on ?-glucosidase, and analyzed the inhibitor's binding modes using the crystal structure of ?-glucosidase. The effects of OPA on postprandial blood glucose levels after meals were also investigated. The IC50 value of OPA against ?-glucosidase was 0.11 mM, which is higher than that of the commercial inhibitor acarbose. For further insights, we predicted the 3D structure of ?-glucosidase and used a docking algorithm to simulate binding between ?-glucosidase and OPA. These molecular modeling studies were successful, and indicated that OPA interacts with Phe575, His600, Arg526, Met444, Asp542, Tyr605, Ser448, Asp203, Lys480, and Phe450. Furthermore, increases in postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly suppressed in the OPA-treated group compared with those in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic or normal mice. Additionally, the area under the curve was significantly reduced following OPA administration (907 versus 1034 mg h dL(-1)) in the diabetic mice, along with a delay in the absorption of dietary carbohydrates. Collectively, these results indicated that OPA is a potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, and shows potential to be used as an anti-diabetic agent.
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Optimizing promoters and secretory signal sequences for producing ethanol from inulin by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying Kluyveromyces marxianus inulinase.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Inulin is a polyfructan that is abundant in plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and dahlia. Inulinase can easily hydrolyze inulin to fructose, which is consumed by microorganisms. Generally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an industrial workhorse strain for bioethanol production, is known for not having inulinase activity. The inulinase gene from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU), with the ability of converting inulin to fructose, was introduced into S. cerevisiae D452-2. The inulinase gene was fused to three different types of promoter (GPD, PGK1, truncated HXT7) and secretory signal sequence (KmINU, MF?1, SUC2) to generate nine expression cassettes. The inulin fermentation performance of the nine transformants containing different promoter and signal sequence combinations for inulinase production were compared to select an optimized expression system for efficient inulin fermentation. Among the nine inulinase-producing transformants, the S. cerevisiae carrying the PGK1 promoter and MF?1 signal sequence (S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM) showed not only the highest specific KmINU activity, but also the best inulin fermentation capability. Finally, a batch fermentation of the selected S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM in a bioreactor with 188.2 g/L inulin was performed to produce 80.2 g/L ethanol with 0.43 g ethanol/g inulin of ethanol yield and 1.22 g/L h of ethanol productivity.
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Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is associated with human cervical cancer progression.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The functions of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human cancers remain to be clarified. The lncRNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been reported to reprogram chromatin organization and promote breast and colorectal cancer metastasis, the involvement of lncRNAs in cervical cancer is just beginning to be studied. In the present study, we examined the expression and the functional role of HOTAIR in cervical cancer. HOTAIR expression was determined in cervical cancer tissues (n=111) and corresponding normal tissues (n=40) by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its correlation with clinical parameters and prognosis were analyzed. To determine the effect of HOTAIR knockdown and overexpression in cervical cancer cell lines, we used the CCK-8 assay, wound healing migration and matrigel invasion assay. The expression level of HOTAIR in cervical cancer tissues was higher than that in corresponding non-cancerous tissues. High HOTAIR expression correlated with lymph node metastasis, and reduced overall survival. A multivariate analysis showed that HOTAIR was a prognostic factor for predicting cervical cancer recurrence. Knockdown of HOTAIR reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cell lines. Moreover, HOTAIR regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, which are important for cell motility and metastasis. Therefore, HOTAIR may promote tumor aggressiveness through the upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9 and EMT-related genes. These findings indicate that HOTAIR may represent a novel biomarker for predicting recurrence and prognosis and serve as a promising therapeutic target in cervical cancer.
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The nonglycemic actions of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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A cell surface serine protease, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), cleaves dipeptide from peptides containing proline or alanine in the N-terminal penultimate position. Two important incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), enhance meal-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells, but are inactivated by DPP-4. Diabetes and hyperglycemia increase the DPP-4 protein level and enzymatic activity in blood and tissues. In addition, multiple other functions of DPP-4 suggest that DPP-4 inhibitor, a new class of antidiabetic agents, may have pleiotropic effects. Studies have shown that DPP-4 itself is involved in the inflammatory signaling pathway, the stimulation of vascular smooth cell proliferation, and the stimulation of oxidative stress in various cells. DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorates these pathophysiologic processes and has been shown to have cardiovascular protective effects in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, in recent randomized clinical trials, DPP-4 inhibitor therapy in high risk patients with type 2 diabetes did not show cardiovascular protective effects. Some concerns on the actions of DPP-4 inhibitor include sympathetic activation and neuropeptide Y-mediated vascular responses. Further studies are required to fully characterize the cardiovascular effects of DPP-4 inhibitor.
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Digitoxin sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by upregulation of death receptor 5 and downregulation of survivin.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma among primary brain tumors in adults. However, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. Here, we have shown that digitoxin (DT), a clinically approved cardiac glycoside for heart failure, can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma cells. DT in noncytotoxic doses (20 nmol/l) can increase TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant U87MG glioblastoma cells. Treatment with DT led to apoptosis and a robust reduction in the levels of the antiapoptotic protein survivin by inducing its proteasomal degradation; however, it did not affect the levels of many other apoptosis regulators. Moreover, silencing survivin with small interfering RNAs sensitized glioma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, underscoring the functional role of survivin depletion in the TRAIL-sensitizing actions of DT. We demonstrate that inactivation of survivin and death receptor 5 expression by DT is sufficient to restore TRAIL sensitivity in resistant glioma cells. Our results suggest that combining DT with TRAIL treatments may be useful in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant glioma cells.
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Anticancer effects of different seaweeds on human colon and breast cancers.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents.
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Hypoglycemia at admission in patients with acute myocardial infarction predicts a higher 30-day mortality in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes than in well-controlled patients.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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We aimed to evaluate the association between hypoglycemia at admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to determine whether these associations differed according to diabetes-control status in AMI patients with diabetes.
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Phase II study of Afatinib as third-line treatment for patients in Korea with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer harboring wild-type EGFR.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This phase II single-arm trial evaluated afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of the ErbB receptor family as third-line treatment of Korean patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and tumors with wild-type EGFR. Currently, no standard therapy exists for these patients.
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Laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage: Case report of a woman without exocervix at 11 weeks gestation.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Cervical incompetence is characterized by painless dilatation of the incompetent cervix and results in miscarriages and preterm delivery during second trimester. We report a 25-year-old patient, gravid 2, para 1, at 11 weeks' gestation with the diagnosis of cervical incompetence, in whom transvaginal cerclage was not technically possible and laparoscopic cervical cerclage was performed successfully. There were no operative or immediate postoperative complications. A healthy infant was delivered at 35 weeks by cesarean section. Laparoscopic cervical cerclage during pregnancy can be safe and effective treatment for well-selected patients with cervical incompetence and eliminates the need for open laparotomy.
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Biological control of Colletotrichum panacicola on Panax ginseng by Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Biological control of plant pathogens using benign or beneficial microorganisms as antagonistic agents is currently considered to be an important component of integrated pest management in agricultural crops. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent against Colletotrichum panacicola.
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Cortical atrophy, reduced integrity of white matter and cognitive impairment in subcortical vascular dementia of Binswanger type.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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An association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive dysfunction has long been recognized. However, subjects with identically appearing WMH on magnetic resonance imaging present with a wide variance in cognitive function ranging from normal cognition to dementia. The aim of this study was to compare cortical atrophy and integrity of white matter of patients with subcortical vascular dementia of Binswanger type (SVaD-BT) with those of the normal cognition group with WMH (ncWMH).
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A Pilot Study for Discovering Candidate Genes of Chromosome 18q21 in Methamphetamine Abusers: Case-control Association Study.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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It was previously suggested that the malic enzyme 2 (ME2) as the candidate gene for psychosis in fine mapping of chromosome 18q21. Chromosome 18q21 is also one of the possible regions that can contribute to addiction.
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Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy.
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Effects of resveratrol on the insulin signaling pathway of obese mice.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the insulin signaling pathway in the liver of obese mice. To accomplish this, we administered resveratrol to high fat diet-induced obese mice and examined the levels of protein phosphorylation in the liver using an antibody array. The phosphorylation levels of 10 proteins were decreased in the high fat diet and resveratrol (HFR) fed group relative to the levels in the high fat diet (HF) fed group. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of more than 20 proteins were increased in the HFR group when compared with the levels of proteins in the HF group. Specifically, the phosphorylation levels of Akt (The308, Tyr326, Ser473) were restored to normal by resveratrol when compared with the levels in the HF group. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of IRS-1 (Ser636/Ser639), PI-3K p85-subunit ?/? (Tyr467/Tyr199), PDK1 (Ser241), GSK-3? (S21) and GSK-3 (Ser9), which are involved in the insulin signaling pathway, were decreased in the HF group, whereas the levels were restored to normal in the HFR group. Overall, the results show that resveratrol restores the phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the insulin signaling pathway, which were decreased by a high fat diet.
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Clinical validation of AdvanSure GenoBlot assay as primary screening and test of cure for human papillomavirus infection.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Clinical specificity and sensitivity are essential factors in the adoption of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test as a primary screening tool and test of cure after treatment of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions (High-Risk-Lesion). Using histologically-confirmed High-Risk-Lesion-patient specimens with postoperative follow-ups, we performed clinical validation of the AdvanSure GenoBlot Assay (GenoBlot; LG Life Sciences, Korea).
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Regulation of hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis by BAD.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The homeostatic balance of hepatic glucose utilization, storage, and production is exquisitely controlled by hormonal signals and hepatic carbon metabolism during fed and fasted states. How the liver senses extracellular glucose to cue glucose utilization versus production is not fully understood. We show that the physiologic balance of hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is regulated by Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD), a protein with roles in apoptosis and metabolism. BAD deficiency reprograms hepatic substrate and energy metabolism toward diminished glycolysis, excess fatty acid oxidation, and exaggerated glucose production that escapes suppression by insulin. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that BAD's suppression of gluconeogenesis is actuated by phosphorylation of its BCL-2 homology (BH)-3 domain and subsequent activation of glucokinase. The physiologic relevance of these findings is evident from the ability of a BAD phosphomimic variant to counteract unrestrained gluconeogenesis and improve glycemia in leptin-resistant and high-fat diet models of diabetes and insulin resistance.
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Reversine increases the plasticity of lineage-committed preadipocytes to osteogenesis by inhibiting adipogenesis through induction of TGF-? pathway in vitro.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Reversine has been reported to reverse differentiation of lineage-committed cells to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which then enables them to be differentiated into other various lineages. Both adipocytes and osteoblasts are known to originate from common MSCs, and the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis in MSCs is reported to modulate the progression of various human diseases, such as obesity and osteoporosis. However, the role of reversine in modulating the adipogenic potential of lineage-committed preadipocytes and their plasticity to osteogenesis is unclear. Here we report that reversine has an anti-adipogenic function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in vitro and alters cell morphology and viability. The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway appears to be required for the anti-adipogenic effect of reversine, due to reversine-induced expression of genes involved in TGF-? pathway and reversal of reversine-inhibited adipogenesis by inhibition of TGF-? pathway. We show that treatment with reversine transformed 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into MSC-like cells, as evidenced by the expression of MSCs marker genes. This, in turn, allowed differentiation of lineage-committed 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to osteoblasts under the osteogenic condition in vitro. Collectively, these findings reveal a new function of reversine in reversing lineage-committed preadipocytes to osteogenesis in vitro, and provide new insights into adipose tissue-based regeneration of osteoblasts.
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Characteristics of stress-coping behaviors in patients with bipolar disorders.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Appropriate stress-coping strategies are needed to improve the outcome in the treatment of bipolar disorders, as stressful life events may aggravate the course of the illness. The aim of this study was to compare stress-coping behaviors between bipolar patients and healthy controls. A total of 206 participants comprising 103 bipolar patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I disorder fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for bipolar I and II disorders and controls matched by age and sex were included in this study. Stress-coping behaviors were assessed using a 53-item survey on a newly-designed behavioral checklist. The characteristics of stress-coping behaviors between the two groups were compared by using t-test and factor analysis. Social stress-coping behaviors such as 'journey', 'socializing with friends', and 'talking something over' were significantly less frequent in bipolar patients than controls. On the other hand, pleasurable-seeking behaviors such as 'smoking', 'masturbation', and 'stealing' were significantly more frequent in bipolar patients than controls. These results suggest that bipolar patients may have more maladaptive stress-coping strategies than normal controls. It is recommended to develop and apply psychosocial programs to reduce maladaptive stress-coping behaviors of bipolar patients.
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Metabolite profiling of enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented forms of Opuntia ficus-indica and their effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Fermentation of natural products is emerging as an important processing method and is attracting a lot of attention because it may have the advantage of having a new biological function. In this study, fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica were enzymatically hydrolyzed and then fermented with two species of yeast. We identified novel prominent markers in enzymatically hydrolyzed O. ficus-indica (EO) and fermented O. ficus-indica (FO) samples by using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also evaluated the effect of EO and FO on photoaging of skin cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation. We identified the major fermented metabolite in the FO as ferulic acid. Our in vitro study indicated that FO significantly enhanced the concentration of pro-collagen type 1 than the EO, by increasing the TGF-?1 production.
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Phenethyl isothiocyanate sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) is a promising antitumor therapy. However, many cancer cells, including malignant glioma cells, tend to be resistant to TRAIL, highlighting the need for strategies to overcome TRAIL resistance. Here we show that in combination with phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), exposure to TRAIL induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant glioma cells. Subtoxic concentrations of PEITC significantly potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in glioma cells. PEITC dramatically upregulated DR5 receptor expression but had no effects on DR4 receptor. PEITC enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of cell survival proteins and the upregulation of DR5 receptors through actions on the ROS-induced-p53.
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Impact of chronicity of injury on the proportion of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from anterior cruciate ligaments.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The graft-healing potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from the remnants of ruptured anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) after ACL reconstruction may depend on the chronicity of the injury. The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative and phenotypic differences between MSCs isolated from ACL remnants in patients with (sub)acute and chronic tearing.
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Outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with lung cancer and pneumonia-induced respiratory failure in a medical intensive care unit: a single-center study.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of 28-day mortality following medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission of patients with lung cancer and pneumonia-induced respiratory failure.
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Clinical significance of NQO1 polymorphism and expression of p53, SOD2, PARP1 in limited-stage small cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of highly aggressive cancers with poor prognosis. Unfortunately, there are as yet no molecular targets that can be exploited to prolong survival in patients with SCLC. This study aimed to investigate possible molecular markers associated with prognosis in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC).
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ROCK1 isoform-specific deletion reveals a role for diet-induced insulin resistance.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Rho-kinase (ROCK) isoforms regulate insulin signaling and glucose metabolism negatively or positively in cultured cell lines and skeletal muscle. However, the in vivo function of the ROCK1 isoform in adipose tissue has not been addressed. To determine the specific role of the adipose ROCK1 isoform in the development of insulin resistance and obesity, mice lacking ROCK1 in adipose tissue globally or selectively were studied. Here we show that insulins ability to activate IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling was greatly enhanced in adipose tissue of ROCK1-/- mice compared with wild type mice. These effects result from the inhibitory effect of ROCK1 on IR action, as evidenced by the fact that IR tyrosine phosphorylation was abolished in ROCK1-/- MEF cells when ROCK1 was reexpressed. Consistently, adipose-specific disruption of ROCK1 increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in adipose tissue and modestly improved sensitivity to insulin in obese mice induced by high-fat feeding. This effect is independent of any changes in adiposity, number or size of adipocytes, and metabolic parameters, including glucose, insulin, leptin, and TG levels, demonstrating a minimal effect of adipose ROCK1 on whole-body metabolism. Enzymatic activity of ROCK1 in adipose tissue remained ~50%, which likely originated from the fraction of stromal vascular cells, suggesting involvement of these cells for adipose metabolic regulation. Moreover, ROCK isoform activities were increased in adipose tissue of diet-induced or genetically obese mice. These data suggest that adipose ROCK1 isoform plays an inhibtory role for the regulation of insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity in vivo.
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Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications.
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Combination of plasma with a honeycomb-structured catalyst for automobile exhaust treatment.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To activate a catalyst efficiently at low temperature by plasma for environmental control, we developed a hybrid reactor that combines plasma with a honeycomb-structured catalyst in a practical manner. The reactor developed generated stable cold plasma at atmospheric pressure because of the dielectric and conductive nature of the honeycomb catalyst by consuming low amounts of power. In this reactor, the applied voltage and temperature determined the balance between the oxidation and adsorption by the plasma and catalyst. The synergistic reaction of the plasma and catalyst was more effective at low temperatures, resulting in a reduction in a lowered light-off temperature.
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Location of the femoral tunnel aperture in single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of the transtibial, anteromedial portal, and outside-in techniques.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Previous 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) studies of knees after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have compared femoral tunnel positions obtained using the transtibial and anteromedial drilling techniques. This study used postoperative in vivo 3D CT analysis to compare the locations of the femoral tunnel aperture among 3 drilling techniques used in ACL reconstruction: transtibial, anteromedial portal, and outside-in.
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The Understanding of Terminal Cancer and Its Relationship with Attitudes toward End-of-Life Care Issues.
Med Decis Making
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Although terminal cancer is a widely used term, its meaning varies, which may lead to different attitudes toward end-of-life issues. The study was conducted to investigate differences in the understanding of terminal cancer and determine the relationship between this understanding and attitudes toward end-of-life issues.
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Mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in Korean patients with lung cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Despite an initial good response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), resistance to treatment eventually develops. Although several resistance mechanisms have been discovered, little data exist regarding Asian patient populations.
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The Effect of Metformin Treatment on CRBP-I Level and Cancer Development in the Liver of HBx Transgenic Mice.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Retinoids regulate not only various cell functions including proliferation and differentiation but also glucose and lipid metabolism. After we observed a marked up-regulation of cellular retinol-binding protein-I (CRBP-I) in the liver of hepatitis B virus x antigen (HBx)-transgenic (HBx Tg) mice which are prone to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and fatty liver, we aimed to evaluate retinoid pathway, including genes for the retinoid physiology, CRBP-I protein expression, and retinoid levels, in the liver of HBx Tg mice. We also assessed the effect of chronic metformin treatment on HCC development in the mice. Many genes involved in hepatic retinoid physiology, including CRBP-I, were altered and the tissue levels of retinol and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) were elevated in the liver of HBx Tg mice compared to those of wild type (WT) control mice. CRBP-I protein expression in liver, but not in white adipose tissue, of HBx Tg mice was significantly elevated compared to WT control mice while CRBP-I protein expressions in the liver and WAT of high-fat fed obese and db/db mice were comparable to WT control mice. Chronic treatment of HBx Tg mice with metformin did not affect the incidence of HCC, but slightly increased hepatic CRBP-I level. In conclusion, hepatic CRBP-I level was markedly up-regulated in HCC-prone HBx Tg mice and neither hepatic CRBP-I nor the development of HCC was suppressed by metformin treatment.
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Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery more effective than radiation therapy for stage IIB cervical cancer?
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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The primary objective of the study was to compare the survival rate of patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with that of patients who had received radiation therapy for stage IIB cervical cancer. The secondary objective was to analyze the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on pathological prognostic factors.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel fructose-specific transporters from the osmotolerant and fructophilic yeast Candida magnoliae JH110.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Sugar transport is very critical in developing an efficient and rapid conversion process of a mixture of sugars by engineered microorganisms. By using expressed sequence tag data generated for the fructophilic yeast Candida magnoliae JH110, we identified two fructose-specific transporters, CmFSY1 and CmFFZ1, which show high homology with known fructose transporters of other yeasts. The CmFSY1 and CmFFZ1 genes harbor no introns and encode proteins of 574 and 582 amino acids, respectively. Heterologous expression of the two fructose-specific transporter genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is unable to utilize hexoses, revealed that both transporters are functionally expressed and specifically transport fructose. These results were further corroborated by kinetic analysis of the fructose transport that showed that CmFsy1p is a high-affinity fructose-proton symporter with low capacity (K M?=?0.13?±?0.01 mM, V max?=?2.1?±?0.3 mmol h(-1) [gdw](-1)) and that CmFfz1p is a low-affinity fructose-specific facilitator with high capacity (K M?=?105?±?12 mM, V max?=?8.6?±?0.7 mmol h(-1) [gdw](-1)). These fructose-specific transporters can be used for improving fructose transport in engineered microorganisms for the production of biofuels and chemicals from fructose-containing feedstock.
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NPS-1034, a novel MET inhibitor, inhibits the activated MET receptor and its constitutively active mutants.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The MET proto-oncogene product, which is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. Point mutations in MET lead to the aberrant activation of the receptor in many types of human malignancies, and the deregulated activity of MET has been correlated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. MET has therefore attracted considerable attention as a potential target in anticancer therapy. Here, we report that a novel MET kinase inhibitor, NPS-1034, inhibits various constitutively active mutant forms of MET as well as HGF-activated wild-type MET. NPS-1034 inhibited the proliferation of cells expressing activated MET and promoted the regression of tumors formed from such cells in a mouse xenograft model through anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions. NPS-1034 also inhibited HGF-stimulated activation of MET signaling in the presence or absence of serum. Furthermore, when tested on 27 different MET variants, NPS-1034 inhibited 15 of the 17 MET variants that exhibited autophosphorylation with nanomolar potency; only the F1218I and M1149T variants were not inhibited by NPS-1034. Notably, NPS-1034 inhibited three MET variants that are resistant to the MET inhibitors SU11274, NVP-BVU972, and PHA665752. Together, these results suggest that NPS-1034 can be used as a potent therapeutic agent for human malignancies bearing MET point mutations or expressing activated MET.
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Proangiogenic TIE2(+)/CD31 (+) macrophages are the predominant population of tumor-associated macrophages infiltrating metastatic lymph nodes.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) accumulate in various cancers and promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, and thus may be ideal targets for the clinical diagnosis of tumor metastasis with high specificity. However, there are few specific markers to distinguish between TAMs and normal or inflammatory macrophages. Here, we show that TAMs localize in green fluorescent protein-labeled tumors of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) from B16F1 melanoma cells but not in necrotic tumor regions, suggesting that TAMs may promote the growth of tumor cells and the progression of tumor metastasis. Furthermore, we isolated pure populations of TAMs from MLNs and characterized their gene expression signatures compared to peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and found that TAMs significantly overexpress immunosuppressive cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-? as well as proangiogenic factors such as VEGF, TIE2, and CD31. Notably, immunological analysis revealed that TIE2(+)/CD31(+) macrophages constitute the predominant population of TAMs that infiltrate MLNs, distinct from tissue or inflammatory macrophages. Importantly, these TIE2(+)/CD31(+) macrophages also heavily infiltrated MLNs from human breast cancer biopsies but not reactive hyperplastic LNs. Thus, TIE2(+)/ CD31(+) macrophages may be a unique histopathological biomarker for detecting metastasis in clinical diagnosis, and a novel and promising target for TAM-specific cancer therapy.
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Effect of jeju water on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Jeju water is the groundwater of Jeju Island, a volcanic island located in Republic of Korea. We investigated whether Jeju water improved glycemic control in patients with diabetes. This was a 12-week single-center, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. The subjects daily drank a liter of one of three kinds of water: two Jeju waters (S1 and S2) and Seoul tap water (SS). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the per-protocol (PP) population achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% at week 12. In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS); 146 patients were considered in the PP population. There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS. However, the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 8% was significantly higher in the S2 group than in the SS group. In the ITT population, the 12-week HbA1c and fructosamine levels were lower in the S1 group than in the SS group and the 4-, 8-, and 12-week fructosamine levels were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group. Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients.
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Clinical utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT concurrent with 131I therapy in intermediate-to-high-risk patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: dual-center experience with 286 patients.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are treated with (131)I therapy after total thyroidectomy or surgical resection of recurrent tumor. However, some recurrent DTC lesions are not iodine-avid, which affects further treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed concurrently with (131)I therapy in DTC patients with intermediate to high risk.
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Localized nodular synovitis of the infrapatellar fat pad.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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We report a case of localized nodular synovitis of the infrapatellar fat pad impinging on the patellofemoral joint causing limitation of extension. Arthroscopy involved use of a superolateral portal because location of lesion hindered access via a conventional anterior portal. The infrapatellar mass impinged in the patellofemoral joint upon knee extension and retracted upon flexion. Superior-superior triangulation allowed for complete excision of the mass.
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Identification of repurposed small molecule drugs for chordoma therapy.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Chordoma is a rare, slow growing malignant tumor arising from remnants of the fetal notochord. Surgery is the first choice for chordoma treatment, followed by radiotherapy, although postoperative complications remain significant. Recurrence of the disease occurs frequently due to the anatomy of the tumor location and violation of the tumor margins at the initial surgery. Currently, there are no effective drugs available for patients with chordoma. Due to the rarity of the disease, there is limited opportunity to test agents in clinical trials and no concerted effort to develop agents for chordoma in the pharmaceutical industry. To rapidly and efficiently identify small molecules that inhibit chordoma cell growth, we screened the NCGC Pharmaceutical Collection (NPC) containing approximately 2800 clinically approved and investigational drugs at 15 different concentrations in chordoma cell lines, U-CH1 and U-CH2. We identified a group of drugs including bortezomib, 17-AAG, digitoxin, staurosporine, digoxin, rubitecan, and trimetrexate that inhibited chordoma cell growth, with potencies from 10 to 370 nM in U-CH1 cells, but less potently in U-CH2 cells. Most of these drugs also induced caspase 3/7 activity with a similar rank order as the cytotoxic effect on U-CH1 cells. Cantharidin, digoxin, digitoxin, staurosporine, and bortezomib showed similar inhibitory effect on cell lines and 3 primary chordoma cell cultures. The combination treatment of bortezomib with topoisomerase I and II inhibitors increased the therapeutic potency in U-CH2 and patient-derived primary cultures. Our results provide information useful for repurposing currently approved drugs for chordoma and potential approach of combination therapy.
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The role of ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at response assessment after autologous stem cell transplantation in T-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma patients.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Although a few studies have evaluated the utility of ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in treatment-naive T-cell non-Hodgkins lymphomas (T-NHLs), a few studies had been conducted to evaluate the role of FDG-PET in patients after treatment. A total of 41 patients with T-NHLs were included who underwent post-autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) PET for response assessment in addition to contrast-enhanced CT. The impact of post-ASCT PET on response assessment and predicting prognosis was retrospectively evaluated. Of the 41 patients, 11 (26.8%) patients showed discordant response between two image modalities (Cohens ? = 0.465). The additional PET study actually guides changing the post-ASCT response in six (54.5%) of these 11 patients. Moreover, positive post-ASCT PET was associated with worse prognosis in event-free survival and overall survival than negative post-ASCT PET (P = 0.003 and P = 0.044, respectively). Excluding four patients in whom further confirmation was not available due to early mortality, in 22 lesions showing discrepancy between two image modalities, 12 lesions were true positive (N = 4) or true negative (N = 8) for PET and ten lesions were false positive (N = 7) or false negative (N = 3). The accuracy for the discrepant lesions was 54.5% (12 of 22), the overall accuracy for the detected lesions was 76.7% (33 of 43), and the overall accuracy for patients was 89.2% (33 of 37). Post-ASCT PET was useful in response assessment after ASCT, and the positive post-ASCT PET result was associated with worse prognosis than the negative post-ASCT PET in patients with T-NHLs.
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Synovial osteochondromatosis in the subacromial bursa mimicking calcific tendinitis: Sonographic diagnosis.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Synovial osteochondromatosis is an idiopathic benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane rarely found in an extra-articular bursa. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with synovial osteochondromatosis in the subacromial bursa mimicking calcific tendinitis. Plain radiographs showed a radiopaque mass over the middle facet of the greater tuberosity, suggesting calcific tendinitis. Sonography, however, showed a loose body in the subacromial bursa, and no evidence of calcification inside the rotator cuff. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2013.
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A randomized, phase II study of vandetanib maintenance for advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer following first-line platinum-doublet chemotherapy.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This randomized, phase II study investigated whether benefit could be obtained by giving vandetanib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial and epithelial growth factor receptor, as a maintenance treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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The genome organization of Thermotoga maritima reflects its lifestyle.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The generation of genome-scale data is becoming more routine, yet the subsequent analysis of omics data remains a significant challenge. Here, an approach that integrates multiple omics datasets with bioinformatics tools was developed that produces a detailed annotation of several microbial genomic features. This methodology was used to characterize the genome of Thermotoga maritima--a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium. Experimental data were generated for whole-genome resequencing, transcription start site (TSS) determination, transcriptome profiling, and proteome profiling. These datasets, analyzed in combination with bioinformatics tools, served as a basis for the improvement of gene annotation, the elucidation of transcription units (TUs), the identification of putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and the determination of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This revealed many distinctive properties of the T. maritima genome organization relative to other bacteria. This genome has a high number of genes per TU (3.3), a paucity of putative ncRNAs (12), and few TUs with multiple TSSs (3.7%). Quantitative analysis of promoters and ribosome binding sites showed increased sequence conservation relative to other bacteria. The 5UTRs follow an atypical bimodal length distribution comprised of "Short" 5UTRs (11-17 nt) and "Common" 5UTRs (26-32 nt). Transcriptional regulation is limited by a lack of intergenic space for the majority of TUs. Lastly, a high fraction of annotated genes are expressed independent of growth state and a linear correlation of mRNA/protein is observed (Pearson r = 0.63, p<2.2 × 10(-16) t-test). These distinctive properties are hypothesized to be a reflection of this organisms hyperthermophilic lifestyle and could yield novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of microbial life on earth.
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CD26/DPP4 levels in peripheral blood and T cells in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (CD26/DPP4) is expressed on blood T cells and also circulates in a soluble form (sCD26/DPP4).
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Amnestic multiple cognitive domains impairment and periventricular white matter hyperintensities are independently predictive factors progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) usually represents a transitional phase between normal cognitive function and dementia, but not all people with MCI develop dementia because MCI is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous grouping. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical subtypes of MCI and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were associated with progression of MCI to dementia.
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Influence of gap balance on the sagittal movement of a specific mobile bearing floating platform design in total knee arthroplasty.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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We analyzed 119 knees implanted with mobile bearing floating platform prostheses using the navigation-assisted gap balancing technique to analyze the relationship between intraoperative sagittal movement of floating platforms and soft tissue balancing. The 95 (79.8%) knees were classified into the positive rollback group (mean insert posterior rollback 5.86 ± 1.24 mm), and the remaining 24 (20.2%) into the negative rollback group. Lateral flexion gap (LFG) differed significantly between knees with positive and negative rollback (20.5 ± 1.7 mm vs 22.1 ± 1.7 mm, P = .021). Only LFG significantly influenced the occurrence of bearing sagittal movement. Sagittal translation of the insert occurred in about 80% of knees implanted with mobile bearing floating platforms in TKA, and was affected by flexion gaps, especially on the lateral side.
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Mid-term outcomes of floating platform mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty under navigational guidance with a minimum 4-year follow-up.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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We evaluated 106 knees that underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with the navigation-assisted gap balancing technique using an e.-motion cruciate retaining floating platform (FP) mobile-bearing prosthesis to prospectively assess the survival of the e.-motion FP system after a minimum follow-up of 4 years. There was no evidence of any complications, including dissociation or breakage of the polyethylene liner or component loosening at last follow up (5.1 ± 0.6 years). Four knees, however, required re-operation, three for distal femoral fracture, and one for infection. The estimated 5-year prosthesis survival rates without revision for any reason and for prosthesis-associated problems were 96.2% and 100%, respectively. The e.-motion floating platform, with a cruciate retaining design under navigation guidance, demonstrated excellent clinical results and 5-year survival rate.
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Rare sleeve fracture of the superior patella pole in an adult due to forceful passive physiotherapy following cast immobilization.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Sleeve fractures are generally restricted to children or adolescents, and usually occur at the lower patella pole. Here we report on a superior pole sleeve fracture in an adult that occurred following forceful passive physiotherapy after cast immobilization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a superior pole sleeve fracture in an otherwise healthy adult. The case highlighted that a diagnosis of a superior patella pole sleeve fracture in an adult can easily be missed because it is a rare injury, and hence is unlikely to be suspected by physicians.
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Three-arm randomised controlled phase 2 study comparing pemetrexed and erlotinib to either pemetrexed or erlotinib alone as second-line treatment for never-smokers with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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This randomised controlled phase 2 study compared pemetrexed and erlotinib in combination with either agent alone in terms of efficacy and safety as second-line treatment in a clinically selected population of never-smokers with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Flexion and extension gaps created by the navigation-assisted gap technique show small acceptable mismatches and close mutual correlations.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the development of gap differences in total knee arthroplasty using the navigation-assisted gap technique and to assess whether these gap differences have statistical significance.
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Prognostic implications of tumor extent in early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Therapeutic strategies for early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are often influenced by tumor extent, but the prognostic value of this parameter is rarely defined. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed to define the impact of tumor extent on survival of patients with early-stage DLBCL. Eighty-six patients with stage II DLBCL, diagnosed from 2000-2007, were categorized into localized (n = 55, 64 %) and disseminated groups (n = 31, 36 %) based on tumor extent at time of diagnosis. Treatment modalities, chemotherapy regimen and number of chemotherapy cycles were the same between groups. With a median follow-up of 7.6 years (range 2.1-12.1 years), overall 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 70.6 and 76.5 %, respectively. EFS (P = 1.00) and OS (P = 0.20) did not differ between the two groups. Older age (>60 years) was significantly associated with poor EFS (P = 0.01) and OS (P = 0.04). High-risk patients as rated by stage-modified international prognostic index (IPI) had inferior EFS (P = 0.04) and OS (P = 0.06) compared with the intermediate-risk group. These results indicate that tumor extent has no prognostic value in patients with early-stage DLBCL. Consistent with previous studies, age and stage-modified IPI were useful prognostic indices for these patients.
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Postural stability in patients with anterior cruciate ligament tears with and without medial meniscus tears.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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To compare postural stability in patients with isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and ACL tears with associated meniscal tears.
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Phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibits hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1? and VEGF expression in human glioma cells.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, inhibits angiogenesis but the molecular mechanisms that underlie this effect are not known. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O2), we examined the effect of PEITC on the intracellular level of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1?) and extracellular level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that PEITC suppressed the HIF-1? accumulation during hypoxia in human glioma U87, human prostate cancer DU145, colon cancer HCT116, liver cancer HepG2, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. PEITC treatment also significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1? accumulation during treatment with PEITC in hypoxia was related to PI3K and MAPK pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that PEITC inhibits the HIF-1? expression through inhibiting the PI3K and MAPK signalling pathway and provide a new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of PEITC.
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Fisetin regulates obesity by targeting mTORC1 signaling.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Fisetin, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have demonstrated that fisetin prevents diet-induced obesity through regulation of the signaling of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central mediator of cellular growth, cellular proliferation and lipid biosynthesis. To evaluate whether fisetin regulates mTORC1 signaling, we investigated the phosphorylation and kinase activity of the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and mTORC1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Fisetin treatment of preadipocytes reduced the phosphorylation of S6K1 and mTORC1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. To further our understanding of how fisetin negatively regulates mTORC1 signaling, we analyzed the phosphorylation of S6K1, mTOR and Akt in fisetin-treated TSC2-knockdown cells. The results suggested that fisetin treatment inhibits mTORC1 activity in an Akt-dependent manner. Recent studies have shown that adipocyte differentiation is dependent on mTORC1 activity. Fisetin treatment inhibited adipocyte differentiation, consistent with the negative effect of fisetin on mTOR. The inhibitory effect of fisetin on adipogenesis is dependent of mTOR activity, suggesting that fisetin inhibits adipogenesis and the accumulation of intracellular triglycerides during adipocyte differentiation by targeting mTORC1 signaling. Fisetin supplementation in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly attenuated HFD-induced increases in body weight and white adipose tissue. We also observed that fisetin efficiently suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, S6K1 and mTORC1 in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by fisetin prevents adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity in HFD-fed mice. Therefore, fisetin may be a useful phytochemical agent for attenuating diet-induced obesity.
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Generating in vivo cloning vectors for parallel cloning of large gene clusters by homologous recombination.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A robust method for the in vivo cloning of large gene clusters was developed based on homologous recombination (HR), requiring only the transformation of PCR products into Escherichia coli cells harboring a receiver plasmid. Positive clones were selected by an acquired antibiotic resistance, which was activated by the recruitment of a short ribosome-binding site plus start codon sequence from the PCR products to the upstream position of a silent antibiotic resistance gene in receiver plasmids. This selection was highly stringent and thus the cloning efficiency of the GFPuv gene (size: 0.7 kb) was comparable to that of the conventional restriction-ligation method, reaching up to 4.3 × 10(4) positive clones per ?g of DNA. When we attempted parallel cloning of GFPuv fusion genes (size: 2.0 kb) and carotenoid biosynthesis pathway clusters (sizes: 4 kb, 6 kb, and 10 kb), the cloning efficiency was similarly high regardless of the DNA size, demonstrating that this would be useful for the cloning of large DNA sequences carrying multiple open reading frames. However, restriction analyses of the obtained plasmids showed that the selected cells may contain significant amounts of receiver plasmids without the inserts. To minimize the amount of empty plasmid in the positive selections, the sacB gene encoding a levansucrase was introduced as a counter selection marker in receiver plasmid as it converts sucrose to a toxic levan in the E. coli cells. Consequently, this method yielded completely homogeneous plasmids containing the inserts via the direct transformation of PCR products into E. coli cells.
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Multiple compartment syndrome in a pediatric patient with CML.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening and life-threatening emergency resulting from elevated intracompartmental pressure. Prompt surgical intervention and treatment are necessary to prevent irreparable damage to muscle and nerve tissues. Leukemic infiltration of the muscle is an unusual cause of compartment syndrome and has been documented to occur secondary to hyperleukocytic leukemias, most commonly in acute myeloid leukemia. We present a rare case of multiple compartment syndrome in the buttock and thigh of an 11-year-old male patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was delayed, causing irreversible tissue damage. Physicians are generally unfamiliar with leukemia-induced complications and may not initially suspect leukemic compartment syndrome because of its rarity. Awareness of its clinical features is critical, because early diagnosis and prompt surgical debridement can prevent significant morbidity and even death.
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A randomized phase 3 trial comparing pemetrexed/carboplatin and docetaxel/carboplatin as first-line treatment for advanced, nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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This study compared survival without toxicity in patients with advanced, nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with first-line pemetrexed/carboplatin or docetaxel/carboplatin.
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Erlotinib in first-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective phase II study.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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This phase II study evaluated efficacy of first-line erlotinib therapy for chemo-naïve patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by their clinicopathological and/or molecular characteristics.
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Optimal timing to evaluate prediagnostic baseline erectile function in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Accurate assessment of prediagnostic baseline erectile function (EF) is crucial when evaluating postoperative changes of EF in patients undergoing bilateral nerve sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP). Because score domains of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) can be affected by factors such as recall intervals and psychological stress or discomfort due to cancer diagnosis and treatment, it is important to assess the prediagnostic baseline EF at appropriate times.
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Evaluation of wheat gluten hydrolysates as taste-active compounds with antioxidant activity.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Wheat gluten was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with various proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Protamex) and the taste-enhancing properties and antioxidant activities of the resulting wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs) were characterized. The contents of the hydrophobic amino acid of the WGHs were highly correlated with the degree of hydrolysis by Flavourzyme and Protamex, except Alcalase. The taste profiles of the Alcalase-treated WGHs showed decreased bitterness while umami and overall acceptability increased. On the other hand, the WGHs produced by Flavourzyme and Protamex showed increased bitterness with increasing hydrolysis duration. However, taste profiles, such as umami, kokumi, and overall acceptability of the WGHs by Flavourzyme and Protamex were unaffected by the degree of hydrolysis. The WGH treated by Alcalase for 24 h (A24h) exhibited taste-enhancing property and its antioxidant effects were concentration-dependent. As a result, the A24h may be used as a multi-functional seasoning ingredient having potential antioxidant activity.
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Effect of fiber geometry on macroscale friction of ordered low-density polyethylene nanofiber arrays.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Ordered low-density polyethylene (LDPE) nanofiber arrays are fabricated from silicon nanowire (SiNW) templates synthesized by a simple wet-chemical process based on metal-assisted electroless etching combined with colloidal lithography. The geometrical effect of nanofibrillar structures on their macroscale friction is investigated over a wide range of diameters and lengths under the same fiber density. The optimum geometry for contacting a smooth glass surface is presented with discussions on the compromise between fiber tip-contact area and fiber compliance. A friction design map is developed, which shows that the theoretical optimum design condition agrees well with the LDPE nanofiber geometries exhibiting high measured friction.
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Anterior cruciate ligament rupture in gouty arthritis.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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A 34-year-old male presented with right knee instability without any trauma. He had been diagnosed with right knee gouty arthritis 2 years prior. An arthroscopic examination revealed abundant calcific material deposited around the knee joint, including in the ACL tissue, and that the ACL was torn at the femoral attachment site. Treatment involved a synovectomy to remove calcific material, followed by an ACL reconstruction. Histology evaluation revealed gouty arthritis with the presence of tophi in the synovium, soft tissue, and ACL tissue. The case presented here indicates the possibility of pathologic rupture of the ACL associated with gouty tophus infiltration of that ligament. Level of evidence IV.
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Phase II Study of S-1 Plus Either Irinotecan or Docetaxel for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with More Than Three Lines of Treatment.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a combination treatment of S-1 plus either irinotecan or docetaxel for advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who have already failed 3 or more lines of treatment.
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Cumulative number of cell divisions as a meaningful timescale for adaptive laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) under controlled conditions has become a valuable approach for the study of the genetic and biochemical basis for microbial adaptation under a given selection pressure. Conventionally, the timescale in ALE experiments has been set in terms of number of generations. As mutations are believed to occur primarily during cell division in growing cultures, the cumulative number of cell divisions (CCD) would be an alternative way to set the timescale for ALE. Here we show that in short-term ALE (up to 40-50 days), Escherichia coli, under growth rate selection pressure, was found to undergo approximately 10(11.2) total cumulative cell divisions in the population to produce a new stable growth phenotype that results from 2 to 8 mutations. Continuous exposure to a low level of the mutagen N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was found to accelerate this timescale and led to a superior growth rate phenotype with a much larger number of mutations as determined with whole-genome sequencing. These results would be useful for the fundamental kinetics of the ALE process in designing ALE experiments and provide a basis for its quantitative description.
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Hepatitis B virus X protein regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Dysregulation of liver functions leads to insulin resistance causing type 2 diabetes mellitus and is often found in chronic liver diseases. However, the mechanisms of hepatic dysfunction leading to hepatic metabolic disorder are still poorly understood in chronic liver diseases. The current work investigated the role of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in regulating glucose metabolism. We studied HBx-overexpressing (HBxTg) mice and HBxTg mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Here we show that gene expressions of the key gluconeogenic enzymes were significantly increased in HepG2 cells expressing HBx (HepG2-HBx) and in non-tumor liver tissues of hepatitis B virus patients with high levels of HBx expression. In the liver of HBxTg mice, the expressions of gluconeogenic genes were also elevated, leading to hyperglycemia by increasing hepatic glucose production. However, this effect was insufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance. Importantly, the actions of HBx on hepatic glucose metabolism are thought to be mediated via iNOS signaling, as evidenced by the fact that deficiency of iNOS restored HBx-induced hyperglycemia by suppressing the gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes. Treatment of HepG2-HBx cells with nitric oxide (NO) caused a significant increase in the expression of gluconeogenic genes, but JNK1 inhibition was completely normalized. Furthermore, hyperactivation of JNK1 in the liver of HBxTg mice was also suppressed in the absence of iNOS, indicating the critical role for JNK in the mutual regulation of HBx- and iNOS-mediated glucose metabolism. These findings establish a novel mechanism of HBx-driven hepatic metabolic disorder that is modulated by iNOS-mediated activation of JNK.
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Does intraabdominal pressure affect development of subcutaneous emphysema at gynecologic laparoscopy?
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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To estimate the effect of intraabdominal pressure and risk factors related to the occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopic surgery.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.