JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Modeling of hemophilia A using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells derived from urine cells.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemophilia A (HA) is a severe, congenital bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency of clotting factor VIII (FVIII). For years, traditional laboratory animals have been used to study HA and its therapies, although animal models may not entirely mirror the human pathophysiology. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can undergo unlimited self-renewal and differentiate into all cell types. This study aims to generate hemophilia A (HA) patient-specific iPSCs that differentiate into disease-affected hepatocyte cells. These hepatocytes are potentially useful for in vitro disease modeling and provide an applicable cell source for autologous cell therapy after genetic correction.
Related JoVE Video
Lithium enhances axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brachial plexus injury often involves traumatic root avulsion resulting in permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. The lack of sufficient regeneration from spinal motoneurons to the peripheral nerve (PN) is considered to be one of the major causes of the unsatisfactory outcome of various surgical interventions for repair of the devastating injury. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential inhibitory signals which influence axonal regeneration after root avulsion injury. The results of the study showed that root avulsion triggered GSK-3? activation in the injured motoneurons and remaining axons in the ventral funiculus. Systemic application of a clinical dose of lithium suppressed activated GSK-3? in the lesioned spinal cord to the normal level and induced extensive axonal regeneration into replanted ventral roots. Our study suggests that GSK-3? activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3? inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of CD44v6 and integrin-?1 for the prognosis evaluation of pancreatic cancer patients after cryosurgery.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many previous studies demonstrated that cell adhesion molecules CD44v6 and integrin-?1 had been extensively investigated as potential prognostic markers of various cancers. However, data in PC are scarce.
Related JoVE Video
Sequential introduction of reprogramming factors reveals a time-sensitive requirement for individual factors and a sequential EMT-MET mechanism for optimal reprogramming.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Present practices for reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells involve simultaneous introduction of reprogramming factors. Here we report that a sequential introduction protocol (Oct4-Klf4 first, then c-Myc and finally Sox2) outperforms the simultaneous one. Surprisingly, the sequential protocol activates an early epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as indicated by the upregulation of Slug and N-cadherin followed by a delayed mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). An early EMT induced by 1.5-day TGF-? treatment enhances reprogramming with the simultaneous protocol, whereas 12-day treatment blocks reprogramming. Consistent results were obtained when the TGF-? antagonist Repsox was applied in the sequential protocol. These results reveal a time-sensitive role of individual factors for optimal reprogramming and a sequential EMT-MET mechanism at the start of reprogramming. Our studies provide a rationale for further optimizing reprogramming, and introduce the concept of a sequential EMT-MET mechanism for cell fate decision that should be investigated further in other systems, both in vitro and in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Ventral root re-implantation is better than peripheral nerve transplantation for motoneuron survival and regeneration after spinal root avulsion injury.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peripheral nerve (PN) transplantation and ventral root implantation are the two common types of recovery operations to restore the connection between motoneurons and their target muscles after brachial plexus injury. Despite experience accumulated over the past decade, fundamental knowledge is still lacking concerning the efficacy of the two microsurgical interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Transplanted motoneurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells form functional connections with target muscle.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold promise for the treatment of motoneuron diseases because of their distinct features including pluripotency, self-derivation and potential ability to differentiate into motoneurons. However, it is still unknown whether human iPSC-derived motoneurons can functionally innervate target muscles in vivo, which is the definitive sign of successful cell therapy for motoneuron diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that human iPSCs derived from mesenchymal cells of the umbilical cord possessed a high yield in neural differentiation. Using a chemically-defined in vitro system, human iPSCs efficiently differentiated into motoneurons which displayed typical morphology, expressed specific molecules, and generated repetitive trains of action potentials. When transplanted into the injured musculocutaneous nerve of rats, they survived robustly, extended axons along the nerve, and formed functional connections with the target muscle (biceps brachii), thereby protecting the muscle from atrophy. Our study provides evidence for the first time that human iPSC-derived motoneurons are truly functional not only in vitro but also in vivo, and they have potential for stem cell-based therapies for motoneuron diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial metabolism transition cooperates with nuclear reprogramming during induced pluripotent stem cell generation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great clinical potential for regenerative medicine. Much work has been done to investigate the mechanisms of their generation, focusing on the cell nucleus. However, the roles of specific organelles and in particular mitochondria in the potential mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the role of mitochondrial metabolism transition in nuclear reprogramming. We found that the mitochondrial cristae had remodeled in iPSCs. The efficiency of iPSC generation was significantly reduced by down-regulation of mitochondrial inner membrane protein (IMMT), which regulates the morphology of mitochondrial cristae. Moreover, cells with the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) advantage had higher reprogramming efficiency than normal cells and the glycolysis intermediate lactic acid enhanced the efficiency of iPSCs generation. Our results show that the remodeling of mitochondrial cristae couples with the generation of iPSCs, suggesting mitochondrial metabolism transition plays an important role in nuclear reprogramming.
Related JoVE Video
Immediate expression of Cdh2 is essential for efficient neural differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exhibit reduced efficiency and higher variability in neural differentiation compared to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In this study, we showed that mouse iPSCs failed to efficiently give rise to neuronal cells using conventional methods previously established for driving mouse ESC differentiation. We reported a novel approach which remarkably increases neural differentiation of mouse iPSCs. This novel approach initiated embryoid body (EB) formation directly from the whole cell clones isolated from the top of feeder cells. Compared to conventional neural induction methods such as single cell suspension or monolayer culture, the cell clone-derived EB method led to a pronounced increase in directed generation of various types of neural cells including neural stem cells, motoneurons and dopaminergic neurons in response to different inducers. Through gene expression microarray analysis, we identified 14 genes that were highly expressed in the cell clone-derived EBs. Among them, we found that Cdh2, also known as N-cadherin, played important roles in controlling the neural differentiation efficiency of mouse iPSCs. Forced expression of Cdh2 in iPSCs substantially enhanced the differentiation efficiency while knocking-down of Cdh2 by shRNA blocked the neural differentiation. Our results revealed a critical role of Cdh2 in the process of efficient neural differentiation of mouse iPS cells.
Related JoVE Video
Generating a non-integrating human induced pluripotent stem cell bank from urine-derived cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) holds great potential for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and disease modeling. We describe here a practical method to generate human iPS cells from urine-derived cells (UCs) under feeder-free, virus-free, serum-free condition and without oncogene c-MYC. We showed that this approach could be applied in a large population with different genetic backgrounds. UCs are easily accessible and exhibit high reprogramming efficiency, offering advantages over other cell types used for the purpose of iPS generation. Using the approach described in this study, we have generated 93 iPS cell lines from 20 donors with diverse genetic backgrounds. The non-viral iPS cell bank with these cell lines provides a valuable resource for iPS cells research, facilitating future applications of human iPS cells.
Related JoVE Video
Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation.
Related JoVE Video
Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells by high-performance engineered factors.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reprogramming somatic cells to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using defined factors represents an important breakthrough in biology and medicine, yet remains inefficient and poorly understood. We therefore devised synthetic factors by fusing the VP16 transactivation domain to OCT4 (also known as Pou5f1), NANOG and SOX2, respectively. These synthetic factors could reprogramme both mouse and human fibroblasts with enhanced efficiency and accelerated kinetics. Remarkably, Oct4-VP16 alone could efficiently reprogramme mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into germline-competent iPSCs. Furthermore, episomally delivered synthetic factors could reproducibly generate integration-free iPSCs from MEFs with enhanced efficiency. Our results not only demonstrate the feasibility of engineering more potent reprogramming factors, but also suggest that transcriptional reactivation of OCT4 target genes might be a rate-limiting step in the conversion of somatic cells to pluripotent cells. Synthetic factor-based reprogramming might lead to a paradigm shift in reprogramming research.
Related JoVE Video
Towards an optimized culture medium for the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells using defined factors has potential relevant applications in regenerative medicine and biology. However, this promising technology remains inefficient and time consuming. We have devised a serum free culture medium termed iSF1 that facilitates the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. This optimization of the culture medium is sensitive to the presence of Myc in the reprogramming factors. Moreover, we could reprogram meningeal cells using only two factors Oct4/Klf4. Therefore, iSF1 represents a basal medium that may be used for mechanistic studies and testing new reprogramming approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Role of Lef1 in sustaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem cells.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self-renew indefinitely while maintaining the ability to generate all three germ-layer derivatives. Despite the importance of ESCs in developmental biology and their potential impact on regenerative medicine, the molecular mechanisms controlling ESC behavior are incompletely understood. Previously, activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to contribute to mouse ESC self-renewal. Here we report that ectopic expression of Lef1, a component of the Wnt signaling pathway, has a positive effect on the self-renewal of mouse ESCs. Lef1 up-regulates Oct4 promoter activity and physically interacts with Nanog, two key components of the ESC pluripotency machinery. Moreover, siRNA for Lef1 induced mouse ESC differentiation. Our results thus suggest that in response to Wnt signaling Lef1 binds to stabilized beta-catenin and helps maintain the undifferentiated status of ESCs through modulation of Oct4 and Nanog.
Related JoVE Video
A mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition initiates and is required for the nuclear reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process important for cell fate determination. Fibroblasts, a product of EMT, can be reset into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via exogenous transcription factors but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that the generation of iPSCs from mouse fibroblasts requires a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) orchestrated by suppressing pro-EMT signals from the culture medium and activating an epithelial program inside the cells. At the transcriptional level, Sox2/Oct4 suppress the EMT mediator Snail, c-Myc downregulates TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta receptor 2, and Klf4 induces epithelial genes including E-cadherin. Blocking MET impairs the reprogramming of fibroblasts whereas preventing EMT in epithelial cells cultured with serum can produce iPSCs without Klf4 and c-Myc. Our work not only establishes MET as a key cellular mechanism toward induced pluripotency, but also demonstrates iPSC generation as a cooperative process between the defined factors and the extracellular milieu. PAPERCLIP:
Related JoVE Video
Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from umbilical cord matrix and amniotic membrane mesenchymal cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The umbilical cord and placenta are extra-embryonic tissues of particular interest for regenerative medicine. They share an early developmental origin and are a source of vast amounts of cells with multilineage differentiation potential that are poorly immunogenic and without controversy. Moreover, these cells are likely exempt from incorporated mutations when compared with juvenile or adult donor cells such as skin fibroblasts or keratinocytes. Here we report the efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mesenchymal cells of the umbilical cord matrix (up to 0.4% of the cells became reprogrammed) and the placental amniotic membrane (up to 0.1%) using exogenous factors and a chemical mixture. iPSCs from these 2 tissues homogeneously showed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-like characteristics including morphology, positive staining for alkaline phosphatase, normal karyotype, and expression of hESC-like markers including Nanog, Rex1, Oct4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-80, SSEA-3, and SSEA-4. Selected clones also formed embryonic bodies and teratomas containing derivatives of the 3 germ layers, and could as well be readily differentiated into functional motor neurons. Among other things, our cell lines may prove useful for comparisons between iPSCs derived from multiple tissues regarding the extent of the epigenetic reprogramming, differentiation ability, stability of the resulting lineages, and the risk of associated abnormalities.
Related JoVE Video
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell lines from Tibetan miniature pig.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology appears to be a general strategy to generate pluripotent stem cells from any given mammalian species. So far, iPS cells have been reported for mouse, human, rat, and monkey. These four species have also established embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines that serve as the gold standard for pluripotency comparisons. Attempts have been made to generate porcine ESC by various means without success. Here we report the successful generation of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts isolated from the Tibetan miniature pig using a modified iPS protocol. The resulting iPS cell lines more closely resemble human ESC than cells from other species, have normal karyotype, stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, express high levels of ESC-like markers (Nanog, Rex1, Lin28, and SSEA4), and can differentiate into teratomas composed of the three germ layers. Because porcine physiology closely resembles human, the iPS cells reported here provide an attractive model to study certain human diseases or assess therapeutic applications of iPS in a large animal model.
Related JoVE Video
Generation of integration-free neural progenitor cells from cells in human urine.
Nat. Methods
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human neural stem cells hold great promise for research and therapy in neural disease. We describe the generation of integration-free and expandable human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We combined an episomal system to deliver reprogramming factors with a chemically defined culture medium to reprogram epithelial-like cells from human urine into NPCs (hUiNPCs). These transgene-free hUiNPCs can self-renew and can differentiate into multiple functional neuronal subtypes and glial cells in vitro. Although functional in vivo analysis is still needed, we report that the cells survive and differentiate upon transplant into newborn rat brain.
Related JoVE Video
Neural progenitor cells generate motoneuron-like cells to form functional connections with target muscles after transplantation into the musculocutaneous nerve.
Cell Transplant
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are suggested to be a valuable source of cell transplant in treatment of various neurological diseases because of their distinct attributes. They can be expanded and induced to differentiate in vitro. However, it remains uncertain whether in vitro expanded NPCs have the capacity to give rise to functional motoneurons after transplantation in vivo. Here, we showed that in vitro expanded NPCs, when transplanted into the musculocutaneous nerve, generated motoneuron-like cells that exhibited typical morphology with large cell bodies, expressed specific molecules, and extended axons to form functional connections with the target muscle. In contrast, transplanted NPCs failed to yield motoneurons in the injured ventral horn of the spinal cord. The results of the study demonstrate that NPCs have the potential to generate functional motoneurons in an appropriate environment. The distinct differentiating fate of NPCs in the musculocutaneous nerve and the injured ventral horn suggests the importance and necessity of modifying the host microenvironment in use of NPCs for cell replacement therapies for motoneuron diseases.
Related JoVE Video
The propensity for tumorigenesis in human induced pluripotent stem cells is related with genomic instability.
Chin J Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs) is a promising advancement in the field of regenerative medicine. Previous studies have indicated that the teratoma-forming propensity of iPSCs is variable; however, the relationship between tumorigenic potential and genomic instability in human iPSCs (HiPSCs) remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we evaluated the malignant potential of HiPSCs by using both colony formation assays and tumorigenicity tests. We demonstrated that HiPSCs formed tumorigenic colonies when grown in cancer cell culture medium and produced malignancies in immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, we analyzed genomic instability in HiPSCs using whole-genome copy number variation analysis and determined that the extent of genomic instability was related with both the cells propensity to form colonies and their potential for tumorigenesis. These findings indicate a risk for potential malignancy of HiPSCs derived from genomic instability and suggest that quality control tests, including comprehensive tumorigenicity assays and genomic integrity validation, should be rigorously executed before the clinical application of HiPSCs. In addition, HiPSCs should be generated through the use of combined factors or other approaches that decrease the likelihood of genomic instability.
Related JoVE Video
Detection and clinical significance of CD44v6 and integrin-?1 in pancreatic cancer patients using a triplex real-time RT-PCR assay.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cell adhesion molecules CD44v6 and integrin-?1 are associated with the progression and metastasis of cancer. A novel triplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to quantify CD44v6 and integrin-?1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 pancreatic cancer (PC) patients and 12 healthy individuals. The standard curve of the triplex qRT-PCR was constructed by optimizing the reaction condition and the amplification efficiency was 102.5, 101.1, and 100.6 % for CD44v6, integrin-?1 and endogenous gene (?-actin) amplification. Nonspecific bands were not observed from the triplex qRT-PCR amplification and the detection limit of this assay was 100 copies. Expression levels of CD44v6 and integrin-?1 gene were significantly lower in healthy individuals than PC patients (P<0.05). CD44v6 and integrin-?1 gene expression were not associated with the sex, age, and tumor position in PC (P>0.05). CD44v6 gene expression was significantly associated with clinical stage, liver metastasis, and tumor size (P<0.05). Integrin-?1 gene expression was significantly associated with clinical stage and liver metastasis (P<0.05). This triplex qRT-PCR assay may provide a useful tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic evaluation in PC.
Related JoVE Video
The efficacy evaluation of cryosurgery in pancreatic cancer patients with the expression of CD44v6, integrin-?1, CA199, and CEA.
Mol. Biotechnol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased expression of cell adhesion molecule CD44v6, integrin-?1, carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are closely associated with the progression and metastasis of numerous cancers. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and serum samples were collected from 37 pancreatic cancer patients and 12 healthy people. A novel triplex TaqMan real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to measure the expression levels of CD44v6 and integrin-?1 gene in PBMCs, while chemiluminescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the levels of CA199 and CEA expression in serum. The results showed that both the levels of CD44v6 and integrin-?1 expression had significant correlation with clinical stage, lymph node, and liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.05). Age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, clinical stage, lymph nodes, and liver metastasis were significantly associated with the levels of CA199 and CEA expression (P < 0.05). The levels of CD44v6, integrin-?1, CA199, and CEA expression in the patients prior cryosurgery and chemotherapy were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was found between the patients 1 month post cryosurgery and control group (P > 0.05). The expression levels of CD44v6, integrin-?1, CA199, and CEA in the patients 1 month post cryosurgery were significantly lower than those in the patients prior cryosurgery (P < 0.05). Interestingly, no significant difference was found for the CD44v6, integrin-?1, CA199, and CEA levels between the patients prior and post-chemotherapy (P > 0.05). The higher expression of CD44v6, integrin-?1, CA199, and CEA are closely related to the progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer and may play a important role in the curative evaluation of cryosurgery of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
The establishment of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of CD44v6 in pancreatic cancer patients and clinical application.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell adhesion molecule CD44v6 has been found to be associated with the progression and metastasis of numerous cancers. In this study, a novel duplex real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to quantitatively detect the CD44v6 gene expression in pancreatic cancer patients. The primers and probes of CD44v6 and ?-actin genes were designed and standard curve of the duplex qRT-PCR was constructed by optimizing the reaction conditions. The specificity and reproducibility of this assay were satisfactory and the detection limit was 100 copies, which was 10 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay. This assay was also used to detect the expression levels of CD44v6 messenger RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell in 37 pancreatic cancer patients and 12 healthy people. The results showed that 37 clinical samples were tested positive by the duplex qRT-PCR compared with only 30 by the conventional RT-PCR. The levels of CD44v6 expression showed significant correlation with sex, tumor size, tumor differentiation, clinical stage, lymph node, and liver metastasis (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, CD44v6 levels in patients prior and 10 days post cryosurgery were significantly increased (P < 0.05) but had no significant change in those 1 month post cryosurgery (P > 0.05). The duplex qRT-PCR assay may provide a useful tool for the evaluation of prognosis and curative effect of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models in Mitochondrial Diseases.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial diseases are clinical phenotypes associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which can be caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or of nuclear genes. Since there are no high-performance transfect systems yet to make particular mtDNA mutation, and tissue sources are limited by ethical issue and injury, the molecular pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult somatic cells has opened a remarkable avenue for theoretic study and therapeutic application. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells derived from themare attracting increasing attention to elucidate the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial diseases. In this review, we summarize the advances of iPS cells, advantages of patient-specific iPS cells as a novel disease model, especially in mitochondrial disease. Occurring challenges and perspectives of patient-specific iPS cells research are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.