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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming.
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Evaluation of renal toxicity by combination exposure to melamine and cyanuric Acid in male sprague-dawley rats.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Melamine-induced nephrotoxicity is closely associated with crystal formation in the kidney caused by combined exposure to melamine (Mel) and cyanuric acid (CA). However, there are few dosage-finding studies for toxicological evaluation of chronic co-exposure to Mel and CA. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which a Mel and CA mixture lead to renal toxicity in rats. Mel and CA were co-administered to rats via oral gavage for 50 days. Nephrotoxicity was determined by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) levels. Relative kidney weights were significantly increased in rats after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) mixtures. BUN and sCr levels were significantly increased after Mel and CA co-exposure. Taken together, significant increase in KIM-1, NGAL, and calbindin levels were observed in the urine of rats exposed to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) compared with the corresponding control group. Histological analysis revealed epithelial degeneration and necrotic cell death in the proximal tubules of the kidney after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg). Our data suggest that Mel-mediated renal toxicity may be influenced by CA concentrations in Mel-contaminated milk or foods.
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Diagnosis of trace toxic uranium ions in organic liver cell.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Uranium is toxic and radioactive traces of it can be found in natural water and soils. High concentrations of it in biological systems cause genetic disorders and diseases. For the in vivo diagnosis, micro and nano range detection limits are required. Here, an electrochemical assay for trace toxic uranium was searched using stripping voltammetry. Renewable and simplified graphite pencils electrode (PE) was used in a three-electrode cell system. Seawater was used instead of an electrolyte solution. This setup can yield good results and the detection limit was attained to be at 10 ?gL(-1). The developed skill can be applied to organic liver cell.
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Discovery of an integrative network of microRNAs and transcriptomics changes for acute kidney injury.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The contribution of miRNA to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not well understood. Here we evaluated an integrative network of miRNAs and mRNA data to discover a possible master regulator of AKI. Microarray analyses of the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin were used to extract putative miRNAs that cause renal injury. Of them, miR-122 was mostly downregulated by cisplatin, whereas miR-34a was upregulated. A network integrating dysregulated miRNAs and altered mRNA expression along with target prediction enabled us to identify Foxo3 as a core protein to activate p53. The miR-122 inhibited Foxo3 translation as assessed using an miR mimic, an inhibitor, and a Foxo3 3'-UTR reporter. In a mouse model, Foxo3 levels paralleled the degree of tubular injury. The role of decreased miR-122 in inducing Foxo3 during AKI was strengthened by the ability of the miR-122 mimic or inhibitor to replicate results. Increase in miR-34a also promoted the acetylation of Foxo3 by repressing Sirt1. Consistently, cisplatin facilitated the binding of Foxo3 and p53 for activation, which depended not only on decreased miR-122 but also on increased miR-34a. Other nephrotoxicants had similar effects. Among targets of p53, Phlda3 was robustly induced by cisplatin, causing tubular injury. Consistently, treatment with miR mimics and/or inhibitors, or with Foxo3 and Phlda3 siRNAs, modulated apoptosis. Thus, our results uncovered an miR integrative network regulating toxicant-induced AKI and identified Foxo3 as a bridge molecule to the p53 pathway.
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Alleviation of alcoholic liver injury by betaine involves an enhancement of antioxidant defense via regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Previous studies suggested that the hepatoprotective activity of betaine is associated with its effects on sulfur amino acid metabolism. We examined the mechanism by which betaine prevents the progression of alcoholic liver injury and its therapeutic potential. Rats received a liquid ethanol diet for 6 wk. Ethanol consumption elevated serum triglyceride and TNF? levels, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and lipid accumulation in liver. The oxyradical scavenging capacity of liver was reduced, and expression of CD14, TNF?, COX-2, and iNOS mRNAs was induced markedly. These ethanol-induced changes were all inhibited effectively by betaine supplementation. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione levels, reduced in the ethanol-fed rats, were increased by betaine supplementation. Methionine adenosyltransferase and cystathionine ?-lyase were induced, but cysteine dioxygenase was down-regulated, which appeared to account for the increment in cysteine availability for glutathione synthesis in the rats supplemented with betaine. Betaine supplementation for the final 2 wk of ethanol intake resulted in a similar degree of hepatoprotection, revealing its potential therapeutic value in alcoholic liver. It is concluded that the protective effects of betaine against alcoholic liver injury may be attributed to the fortification of antioxidant defense via improvement of impaired sulfur amino acid metabolism.
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Alterations in sulfur amino acid metabolism in mice treated with silymarin: a novel mechanism of its action involved in enhancement of the antioxidant defense in liver.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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It has been known that silymarin exhibits protective activity against oxidative liver injury induced by various hepatotoxicants, but the underlying mechanism of its beneficial action remains unclear. We determined the alterations in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism induced by silymarin in association with its effects on the antioxidant capacity of liver. Male mice were treated with silymarin (100 or 200 mg/kg, p. o.) every 12 h for a total of 3 doses, and sacrificed 6 h after the final dosing. The hepatic methionine level was increased, but the activity and protein expression of methionine adenosyltransferase were decreased by silymarin in a dose-dependent manner. S-Adenosylmethionine or homocysteine concentration was not changed, whereas the sulfur-containing metabolites generated from homocysteine in the transsulfuration pathway including cystathionine, cysteine, and glutathione were increased significantly. Cystathionine ?-synthase was induced, but cysteine dioxygenase was downregulated, both of which would contribute to the elevation of cysteine and its product, glutathione, in liver. Oxygen radical scavenging capacity of liver cytosol against peroxyl radical and peroxynitrite was increased, and also hepatic lipid peroxidation was diminished in the silymarin-treated mice. Taken together, the results demonstrate that silymarin enhances hepatic glutathione generation by elevating cysteine availability via an increment in cysteine synthesis and an inhibition of its catabolism to taurine, which may subsequently contribute to the antioxidant defense of liver.
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Comparison between Source-induced Dissociation and Collision-induced Dissociation of Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, and Oxytetracycline via Mass Spectrometry.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very powerful instrument that can be used to analyze a wide range of materials such as proteins, peptides, DNA, drugs, and polymers. The process typically involves either chemical or electron (impact) ionization of the analyte. The resulting charged species or fragment is subsequently identified by the detector. Usually, single mass uses source-induced dissociation (SID), whereas mass/mass uses collision-induced dissociation (CID) to analyze the chemical fragmentations Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. While CID is most effective for the analysis of pure substances, multiple- step MS is a powerful technique to get structural data. Analysis of veterinary drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and oxytetracycline serves to highlight the slight differences between SID and CID. For example, minor differences were observed between ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline via SID or CID. However, distinct fragmentation patterns were observed for ampicllin depending on the analysis method. Both SID and CID showed similar fragmentation spectra but different signal intensities for chloramphenicol. There are several factors that can influence the fragmentation spectra, such as the collision energy, major precursor ion, electrospray mode (positive or negative), and sample homogeneity. Therefore, one must select a fragmentation method on an empirical and case-by-case basis.
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Implementation of a biocircuit implants for neurotransmitter release during neuro-stimulation.
Curr Neurovasc Res
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Neurotransmitter assay of epinephrine (EP) was sought using a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (PE). Using optimum conditions, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the square wave (SW) stripping voltammetric working ranges were attained to 10-100 mgL(-1) (CV) and 20-140 ngL(-1) (SW). The relative standard deviation of 0.0549 (n=15) was obtained at 20.0 mgL(-1) EP constant. Here, the analytical detection limit (S/N) was reached with 4.60 ngL(-1) (2.5×10(-11) molL(-1)) EP. The hand-made electrode was implanted into the in-vivo brain core of the animals and was used in chronoamperometric neuro detection. The results obtained are applicable in neuro sensing, physiological control, and other neuroscience fields.
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Identification of differentially expressed genes by gabapentin in cultured dorsal root ganglion in a rat neuropathic pain model.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain disorder caused by nervous system lesions as a direct consequence of a lesion or by disease of the portions of the nervous system that normally signal pain. The spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model in rats that reflect some components of clinical pain have played a crucial role in the understanding of neuropathic pain. To investigate the direct effects of gabapentin on differential gene expression in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells of SNL model rats, we performed a differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with random priming approach using annealing control primer. Genes encoding metallothionein 1a, transforming growth factor-?1 and palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-2 were up-regulated in gabapentin-treated DRG cells of SNL model rats. The functional roles of these differentially expressed genes were previously suggested as neuroprotective genes. Further study of these genes is expected to reveal potential targets of gabapentin.
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Resveratrol regulates the cell viability promoted by 17?-estradiol or bisphenol A via down-regulation of the cross-talk between estrogen receptor ? and insulin growth factor-1 receptor in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and estrogens appear to promote development of estrogen-dependent cancers, including breast and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, we evaluated the cell viability effect of BPA on BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells, along with the growth inhibitory effect of resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), a naturally occurring phytoestrogen. In addition, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) of BPA and RES in regulating the interaction between estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signals, a non- genomic pathway induced by 17?-estradiol (E2). BPA induced a significant increase in BG-1 cell growth and up-regulated mRNA levels of ER? and IGF-1R. In parallel with its mRNA level, the protein expression of ER? was induced, and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (p-IRS-1), phosphorylated Akt1/2/3, and cyclin D1 were increased by BPA or E2. However, RES effectively reversed the BG-1 cell proliferation induced by E2 or BPA by inversely down-regulating the expressions of ER?, IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt1/2/3, and cyclin D1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, these results suggest that RES is a novel candidate for prevention of tumor progression caused by EDCs, including BPA via effective inhibition of the cross-talk of ER? and IGF-1R signaling pathways.
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Ursolic acid is a PPAR-? agonist that regulates hepatic lipid metabolism.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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In this study, we confirmed that ursolic acid, a plant triterpenoid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? in vitro. Surface plasmon resonance and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses do not show direct binding of ursolic acid to the ligand-binding domain of PPAR-?; however, ursolic acid enhances the binding of PPAR-? to the peroxisome proliferator response element in PPAR-?-responsive genes, alters the expression of key genes in lipid metabolism, significantly reducing intracellular triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in hepatocytes. Thus, ursolic acid is a PPAR-? agonist that regulates the expression of lipid metabolism genes, but it is not a direct ligand of PPAR-?.
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Effects of acute oral administration of vitamin C on the mouse liver transcriptome.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant that alters gene expression in cells, and its effects can be modified by cellular oxidative stress. We investigated the genome-wide effects of vitamin C on the in vivo transcriptome in the liver, which synthesizes various enzymes and proteins to defend against cellular oxidative stress. We fed mice vitamin C (0.056?mg/g of body weight) for 1 week and performed DNA microarray analysis with hepatic mRNA in fasting and refeeding states to mimic physiological conditions of oxidative stress. Significance analysis of microarray data identified approximately 6,000 genes differentially expressed in both fasting and refeeding states. In the fasting state, vitamin C induced overall energy metabolism as well as radical scavenging pathways. These were ameliorated in the refeeding state. These findings suggest that vitamin C has profound and immediate global effects on hepatic gene expression, which may help prevent oxidative stress, and that long-term treatment with vitamin C might reduce the risk of chronic disease.
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Rapid and direct detection of apolipoprotein E genotypes using whole blood from humans.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful molecular biological tool in the field of toxicity testing and diagnostics. The use of PCR for large-scale genetic testing requires an effective method of sample processing. Unfortunately, isolation of PCR-quality DNA is time-consuming. PCR performed directly on whole blood is preferred because of time efficiency, cost of the procedure, and possible automation for large-scale toxicity evaluation and diagnosis. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene contains two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located at codons 112 and 158, producing three APOE protein isoforms known to be associated with the risks of developing cardiovascular disease and susceptibility to Alzheimers disease. In the present study, an attempt was made to use the AnyDirect solution for APOE genotyping by PCR using whole blood directly without DNA purification. Results for two PCR methods, (1) conventional PCR using purified DNA and conventional buffer and (2) direct PCR using whole blood and AnyDirect solution, were compared in four different PCR-based APOE genotyping methods including PCR restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), allele-specific PCR, SNaPshot mini-sequencing, and multiplex tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (T-ARMS) PCR. There was complete concordance in the APOE genotypes between conventional PCR and direct PCR, in all four different PCR-based APOE genotyping methods. Data demonstrated that the four different PCR-based APOE genotyping methods are able to determine the APOE genotypes successfully using whole blood directly with the use of AnyDirect solution. The direct multiplex T-ARMS PCR using whole blood may be the most rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for detecting APOE genotypes among four different APOE genotyping methods.
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Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m(2)) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P < 0.001); they also preferred convenience foods less than the male subjects (P < 0.05). Obese individuals were more likely than overweight or normal weight individuals to misperceive their weight (P < 0.001). Those with a high BMI responded feeling more depressed (P < 0.01), lacking self-confidence (P < 0.01), and feeling isolated (P < 0.01), as well as having more difficulty doing outdoor activities (P < 0.01). After exercise, body fat (%) and WHR were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while body weight and BMI were also decreased without statistical significance. Total cholesterol and blood HDL were significantly improved (207.1 mg/dl vs. 182.6 mg/dl, HDL: 45.6 mg/dl vs. 50.6 mg/dl, P < 0.05). Other benefits obtained from exercise were improvements in self-confidence (26.4%), movement (22.6%), stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self-confidence, and stress.
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Identification of differentially expressed genes in human mesenchymal stem cell-derived neurons.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have greater potential for immediate clinical and toxicological applications, due to their ability to self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate into a variety of cell types. To identify novel candidate genes that were specifically expressed during transdifferentiation of human MSCs to neuronal cells, we performed a differential expression analysis with random priming approach using annealing control primer-based differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach. We identified genes for acyl-CoA thioesterase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, brain glycogen phosphorylase, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase and aldehyde reductase were up-regualted, whereas genes for transgelin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan were down-regulated in MSC-derived neurons. These differentially expressed genes may have potential role in regulation of neurogenesis. This study could be applied to environmental toxicology in the field of testing the toxicity of a chemical or a physical agent.
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Dietary exposure and risk assessment of mercury from the Korean total diet study.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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As a national project, obtaining information on the amount of heavy metal exposure of individuals through food intake is an important basic parameter for risk assessment. This study was conducted to evaluate dietary exposure levels and various risks from mercury (Hg) in Korean foods. In total, 342 samples comprising 114 food items were collected and then cooked prior to analysis. As found by Hg analysis, the mean content of metal in the fish and shellfish group was highest among the 15 Korean food groups. The total daily amount of Hg intake from typical Korean foods was 2.40 microg/person/d. The daily amount (microg/person/d) of Hg intake from each food group was 0.155 in grains and cereals, 0.008 potatoes and starch, 0.005 sugars and sweets, 0.0093 pulses, 0.0018 nuts and seeds, 0.203 vegetables, 0.027 fruits, 0.021 meats and poultry, 0.004 eggs, 1.826 fish and shellfish, 0.022 seaweed, 0.043 milk and dairy products, 0.008 oils and fats, 0.042 beverages, and 0.023 seasonings. The fish and shellfish group contributed most to total dietary intake at 76%. For risk assessment, probable daily intake (PDI) was calculated and compared with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The level of Hg intake through fish and shellfish of 0.001 mg/kg body weight bw/wk corresponded to 4.54% of the PTWI value of 0.005 mg/kg bw/wk, the safety standard for JECFA. The level of Hg intake through selected foods from the Food list for Koreans was 0.001 mg/kg bw/wk, corresponding to 5.95% of PTWI value. Therefore, overall intake was at levels below the recommended JECFA levels. The relative gender Hg hazard from Korean foods was 6.26% and 5.5% for males and females, respectively. The relative age Hg hazard from Korean foods was, 8.9% in those 3-6 yr old, 6.7% in those 7-12 yr old, 5.2% in those 13-19 yr old, 5.9% in those 20-29 yr old, 6.3% in those 30-49 yr old, 5.6% in those ages 50-64 yr, and 3.7% in the group of those over 65 yr of age. Relative regional Hg hazard from Korean foods was 6.3% in urban versus 5.5% in rural areas. Thus, the amount of Hg intake through consumption of Korean foods was found to be at a relatively safe level. These data may be thus used to establish safety standards for fish and shellfish consumption.
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Comparison of peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of commonly consumed beverages.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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The antioxidant potential of commercial beverages against peroxyl radical was determined using the Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity (TOSC) assay. Peroxyl radicals generated from thermal homolysis of 2,2-azobis-amidinopropane oxidize alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyric acid to ethylene, which is monitored by gas chromatography. The TOSC of each beverage is quantified from its ability to inhibit ethylene generation relative to a control reaction. Nine different beverages (green tea, jasmine tea, black tea, instant coffee, brewed coffee, cocoa mix, oolong tea, prune juice, and grape juice) were selected for this study. Their antioxidant capacities per a cup-serving (125 mL) were measured and compared to peroxyl radical scavenging capacity provided by a recommended daily dose of ascorbic acid (90 mg) dissolved in the same volume of water. The greatest antioxidant capacity was found in brewed coffee, which was followed, in decreasing order, by prune juice, instant coffee, green tea, cocoa mix, grape juice, jasmine tea, black tea, oolong tea, and ascorbic acid. There was an almost 7-fold difference in the TOSC between brewed coffee and ascorbic acid. The data suggest a potential role for commonly consumed beverages in lowering the risk of pathophysiologies associated with peroxyl radical-mediated events.
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Heavy metal risk management: case analysis.
Toxicol Res
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To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods.
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Taurine is a liver X receptor-? ligand and activates transcription of key genes in the reverse cholesterol transport without inducing hepatic lipogenesis.
Mol Nutr Food Res
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Taurine, which is abundant in seafood, has antiatherogenic activities in both animals and humans; however, its molecular target has been elusive. We examined whether taurine could activate liver X receptor-? (LXR-?), a critical transcription factor in the regulation of reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.
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The association of heavy metal of blood and serum in the Alzheimers diseases.
Toxicol Res
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This study has attempted to establish an analysis method through validation against heavy metals in the body (Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and Gold amalgamation and find out the relevance between heavy metal and Alzheimers disease after analyzing the distribution of heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd and Hg) and correlations between a control group and Alzheimers disease group. In this study, Pb and Cd levels in the blood and serum were validation using ICP-MS. For analysis of Hg levels in the blood and serum, the gold amalgamation-based Direct Mercury Analyzer has been used. According to an analysis on the heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd and Hg concentration) in the blood, Cd concentration was high in the Alzheimers disease group. In the serum, on the contrary, Pb and Hg were high in the Alzheimers disease group. For analysis of correlations between heavy metal levels in the blood and serum and Alzheimers disease, t-test has been performed. Even though correlations were observed between the blood lead levels and Alzheimers disease, they were statistically insignificant because the concentration was higher in a control group. No significance was found in Cd and Hg. In the serum, on the other hand, no statistical significance was found between the heavy metal (Pb, Cd and Hg) and Alzheimers disease. In this study, no statistical significance was observed between heavy metal and decrease in cognitive intelligence. However, it appears that a further study needs to be performed because the results of the conventional studies were inconsistent.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.