JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Measuring coverage in MNCH: design, implementation, and interpretation challenges associated with tracking vaccination coverage using household surveys.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vaccination coverage is an important public health indicator that is measured using administrative reports and/or surveys. The measurement of vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries using surveys is susceptible to numerous challenges. These challenges include selection bias and information bias, which cannot be solved by increasing the sample size, and the precision of the coverage estimate, which is determined by the survey sample size and sampling method. Selection bias can result from an inaccurate sampling frame or inappropriate field procedures and, since populations likely to be missed in a vaccination coverage survey are also likely to be missed by vaccination teams, most often inflates coverage estimates. Importantly, the large multi-purpose household surveys that are often used to measure vaccination coverage have invested substantial effort to reduce selection bias. Information bias occurs when a childs vaccination status is misclassified due to mistakes on his or her vaccination record, in data transcription, in the way survey questions are presented, or in the guardians recall of vaccination for children without a written record. There has been substantial reliance on the guardians recall in recent surveys, and, worryingly, information bias may become more likely in the future as immunization schedules become more complex and variable. Finally, some surveys assess immunity directly using serological assays. Sero-surveys are important for assessing public health risk, but currently are unable to validate coverage estimates directly. To improve vaccination coverage estimates based on surveys, we recommend that recording tools and practices should be improved and that surveys should incorporate best practices for design, implementation, and analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error) comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.
Related JoVE Video
Studies with staggered starts: multiple baseline designs and group-randomized trials.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple baseline designs (MBDs) have been suggested as alternatives to group-randomized trials (GRT). We reviewed structural features of MBDs and considered their potential effectiveness in public health research. We also reviewed the effect of staggered starts on statistical power.
Related JoVE Video
Cutoff designs for community-based intervention studies.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Public health interventions are often designed to target communities defined either geographically (e.g. cities, counties) or socially (e.g. schools or workplaces). The group randomized trial (GRT) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating these interventions. However, community leaders may object to randomization as some groups may be denied a potentially beneficial intervention. Under a regression discontinuity design (RDD), individuals may be assigned to treatment based on the levels of a pretest measure, thereby allowing those most in need of the treatment to receive it. In this article, we consider analysis, power, and sample size issues in applying the RDD and related cutoff designs in community-based intervention studies. We examine the power of these designs as a function of intraclass correlation, number of groups, and number of members per group and compare results to the traditional GRT.
Related JoVE Video
Performance characteristics of a methodology to quantify adverse events over time in hospitalized patients.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the performance characteristics of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Global Trigger Tool (GTT) to determine its reliability for tracking local and national adverse event rates.
Related JoVE Video
Ohio Appalachian womens perceptions of the cost of cervical cancer screening.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite evidence of the importance of cervical cancer screening, screening rates in the United States remain below national prevention goals. Women in the Appalachia Ohio region have higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates along with lower cancer screening rates. This study explored the expectations of Appalachian Ohio women with regard to Papanicolaou (Pap) test cost and perceptions of cost as a barrier to screening.
Related JoVE Video
Intraclass correlation estimates for cancer screening outcomes: estimates and applications in the design of group-randomized cancer screening studies.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Screening has become one of our best tools for early detection and prevention of cancer. The group-randomized trial is the most rigorous experimental design for evaluating multilevel interventions. However, identifying the proper sample size for a group-randomized trial requires reliable estimates of intraclass correlation (ICC) for screening outcomes, which are not available to researchers. We present crude and adjusted ICC estimates for cancer screening outcomes for various levels of aggregation (physician, clinic, and county) and provide an example of how these ICC estimates may be used in the design of a future trial.
Related JoVE Video
Designing studies that would address the multilayered nature of health care.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We review design and analytic methods available for multilevel interventions in cancer research with particular attention to study design, sample size requirements, and potential to provide statistical evidence for causal inference. The most appropriate methods will depend on the stage of development of the research and whether randomization is possible. Early on, fractional factorial designs may be used to screen intervention components, particularly when randomization of individuals is possible. Quasi-experimental designs, including time-series and multiple baseline designs, can be useful once the intervention is designed because they require few sites and can provide the preliminary evidence to plan efficacy studies. In efficacy and effectiveness studies, group-randomized trials are preferred when randomization is possible and regression discontinuity designs are preferred otherwise if assignment based on a quantitative score is possible. Quasi-experimental designs may be used, especially when combined with recent developments in analytic methods to reduce bias in effect estimates.
Related JoVE Video
Domestic violence assessments in the child advocacy center.
Child Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was designed to identify the frequency, methods, and practices of universal assessments for domestic violence (DV) within child advocacy centers (CACs) and determine which factors are associated with CACs that conduct universal DV assessments.
Related JoVE Video
LQAS: User Beware.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Researchers around the world are using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) techniques to assess public health parameters and evaluate program outcomes. In this paper, we report that there are actually two methods being called LQAS in the world today, and that one of them is badly flawed.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-informant assessment of anxiety regarding ano-genital examinations for suspected child sexual abuse (CSA).
Child Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10 and to medical providers rating of emotional distress using the Genital Examination Distress Scale (GEDS).
Related JoVE Video
Psychosocial predictors of adherence to risk-appropriate cervical cancer screening guidelines: a cross sectional study of women in Ohio Appalachia participating in the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) project.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe factors, in the context of the Social Determinants of Health model, associated with receiving Pap smears within risk-appropriate guidelines (i.e., guidelines that specify screening intervals based upon a womans individual risk of developing cervical cancer).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.