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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recent developments and applications of hyperspectral imaging for quality evaluation of agricultural products: a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2015
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Food quality and safety is the foremost issue for consumers, retailers as well as regulatory authorities. Most quality parameters are assessed by traditional methods, which are time consuming, laborious, and associated with inconsistency and variability. Non-destructive methods have been developed to objectively measure quality attributes for various kinds of food. In recent years, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has matured into one of the most powerful tools for quality evaluation of agricultural and food products. HSI allows characterization of a sample's chemical composition (spectroscopic component) and external features (imaging component) in each point of the image with full spectral information. In order to track the latest research developments of this technology, this paper gives a detailed overview of the theory and fundamentals behind this technology and discusses its applications in the field of quality evaluation of agricultural products. Additionally, future potentials of HSI are also reported.
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Recent advances in methods and techniques for freshness quality determination and evaluation of fish and fish fillets: a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2015
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The freshness quality of fish plays an important role in human health and the acceptance of consumers as well as in international fishery trade. Recently, with food safety becoming a critical issue of great concern in the world, determination and evaluation of fish freshness is much more significant in research and development. This review renovates and concentrates recent advances of evaluating methods for fish freshness as affected by preharvest and postharvest factors and highlights the determination methods for fish freshness including sensory evaluation, microbial inspection, chemical measurements of moisture content, volatile compounds, protein changes, lipid oxidation, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decomposition (K value), physical measurements, and foreign material contamination detection. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and techniques are compared and discussed and some viewpoints about the current work and future trends are also presented.
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Molecular charge transfer by adsorbing TCNQ/TTF molecules via ?-? interaction: a simple and effective strategy to modulate the electronic and magnetic behaviors of zigzag SiC nanoribbons.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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By means of first-principles computations, we first propose a simple and effective strategy through the molecular charge transfer via noncovalent ?-? interaction to modulate the electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag SiC nanoribbons (zSiCNRs). This charge transfer is induced by adsorbing the electron-withdrawing/donating tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecules on the surface of the pristine zSiCNR. It is revealed that all the TCNQ- and TTF-modified zSiCNR-systems can exhibit considerable adsorption energies in the range from -137.2 to -184.0 kJ mol(-1) and from -71.3 to -76.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively, indicating that these zSiCNR-complexes possess high structure stabilities. This kind of a molecular charge transfer via ?-? interaction can break the magnetic degeneracy of zSiCNRs, and the sole ferromagnetic (FM) metallicity and even antiferromagnetic (AFM) half-metallicity can be achieved. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting SiC-based nanomaterials in the application of spintronics and multifunctional nanodevices in the near future.
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Association between process indicators and in-hospital mortality among patients with chronic heart failure in China.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Quality indicators for Chinese patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have been developed. However, little is known about the compliance with quality indicators and the association between process indicators and in-hospital mortality in China.
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[Community nursing intervention in population with high-risk coronary heart disease in Hengyang].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To explore the effect of community nursing intervention on awareness regarding primary prevention knowledge, self-management, and risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Hengyang City, Hunan Province.
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Local Supersaturation Dictated Branching and Faceting of Submicrometer PbS Particles with Cubic Growth Habit.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Hierarchical cubelike submicrometer PbS particles consisting of truncated octahedrons, cuboctahedrons, and cubes were prepared in ethylene glycol solution under favorable high mole ratio of thiourea (Tu) to Pb(AC)2 (RS/Pb) via a pumping process. A qualitative analysis based on the classical nucleation theory coupled with the crystal growth theory is employed to interpret the observed experimental phenomena. By varying the concentration of reactants, RS/Pb, and reaction temperature, it is possible to tune the local supersaturation degree (LSD), which is determined by the number of nuclei and overall growth unit (or concentration), surrounding each growing particle that dictates the branching and faceting of PbS particle. Relatively high LSD that is required for branching growth could be achieved at lower concentration of Tu and reaction temperature. Increasing the concentration of Tu and reaction temperature resulted in less LSD and yielded cubic PbS particles.
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Zinc finger nucleases targeting the human papillomavirus E7 oncogene induce E7 disruption and a transformed phenotype in HPV 16/18-positive cervical cancer cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Purpose: Cervical cancer is mainly caused by infections of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Persistent expression of HR-HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 is implicated in malignant transformation. The aim was to provide proof-of-concept data to support use of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting HPV E7 to treat HPV-related cervical cancer. Experimental Design: We designed and constructed ZFNs that could specifically recognize and cleave HPV16/18 E7 DNA. We tested the cleavage efficiency of selected ZFN16-E7-S2 and ZFN18-E7-S2 by using single strand annealing (SSA) assay. Cell viability and colony formation assays were used to estimate the inhibition of cell growth that received treatments of ZFNs. Gene disruption of HPV E7 and downstream genes were examined by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis assay were used to test the specificity and efficiency of induction of HPV type-specific apoptosis. We also introduced xenograft formation assays to estimate the potential of inhibition of HPV-related disease. Results: We found ZFN16-E7-S2 and ZFN18-E7-S2 disrupted HPV E7 oncogenes in HPV16/18-positive cervical cancer cells. Both ZFNs effectively leaded to inhibition of type -specific cervical cancer cell growth, and specifically induced apoptosis of corresponding HPV16- and HPV18-positive cervical cancer cell lines. ZFN16-E7-S2 and ZFN18-E7-S2 also repressed xenograft formation in vivo. Conclusion: ZFNs targeted HPV16/18 E7 could effectively induce disruption of E7 oncogenes, lead to type-specific and efficient growth inhibition and apoptosis of HPV-positive cells. ZFNs targeted HPV16/18 E7 oncogenes could be used as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of HPV-related cervical cancer.
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ATF4: a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the activating transcription factor family and its expression is increased upon the stimulation of a diverse array of microenvironmental stresses. ATF4 plays a major role in the development, metabolism, and memory formation. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease in aged population. The dominant pathological changes in AD brain, including the neurofibrillary tangles, consist of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, senile plaques composed of ?-amyloid proteins, loss of neurons in the whole brain, and dysfunction of synapses. The protein level of ATF4 is upregulated in both AD brain and AD mouse model, indicating its latent roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this paper, we reviewed the related literatures about the interaction of ATF4 with the different types of pathological changes in AD brain and pointed out some unsolved problems in this area. We also proposed that a fine regulation of ATF4 in separate neurons or brain regions might be benefit to the therapy of AD.
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Tfh cell differentiation and their function in promoting B-cell responses.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are a newly defined helper T-cell subset that is specialized in facilitating B-cell responses. These cells have a unique tissue localization pattern and a distinct transcriptional program suited for the B-cell helper function. Co-opting of the follicular program affords regulatory T cells, NK T cells, and ?? T cells with opportunities to participate in the regulation of humoral immunity. Abnormal Tfh development and function can lead to immunodeficiencies, autoimmune inflammation, and tumors. Detailed understanding of Tfh cell differentiation and function in animal models and the human system promises better strategies toward vaccine development and therapies for inflammatory diseases.
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Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Exacerbates Lipid Accumulation and Atherosclerosis Through Downregulation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 and G1 Expression in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Both clinical data and basic science studies suggest that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AOPPs on ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 expression, lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-KO) mice.Methods?and?Results:Male 8-week-old apoE-KO mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of AOPPs (5 mg/kg) and/or Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor AG-490 (5 mg/kg) once every other day for 8 weeks. As shown in our data, AOPPs increased lipid levels of plasma, and promoted advanced lesions in the aortic regions in apoE-KO mice. The ABCA1, ABCG1 and liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) expression were downregulated in apoE-KO mice treated with AOPPs, whereas the lesions in the aortas were decreased, and the ABCA1, ABCG1 and LXR? expression were upregulated in mice treated with AOPPs plus AG-490, compared to the mice treated with AOPPs only. The ABCA1 and LXR? expressions of aortas, liver and intestine were downregulated in the AOPPs group, while the expressions were upregulated in the AOPPs-plus-AG-490 group when compared to the AOPPs group. The same results can be also observed in peritoneal macrophages.
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[Research on the variation regularity of effluent from the leachate reverse osmosis concentrate recirculation].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To provide certain theoretical basis for selecting recirculation landfill scientifically and reasonably, the variation regularity of recirculation effluent from the landfill columns in three different years was studied. By using leachate reverse osmosis concentrate from a refuse landfill in Chengdu, the recirculation experiments were carried out in three landfill columns filled with garbage in 1, 5 and 15 landfill ages respectively. The variation regularity of pH, total organic carbon, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and heavy metals of recirculation effluent was researched. It showed that the one-year landfill column with a favorable ability of removing nitrate nitrogen and degradation rate of nitrate nitrogen reaching above 88% was in the stage of producing methanation, but the concentration of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen of the effluent is higher and changes in the parameters mainly depend on the biological function. The five-year landfill column without typical features of mineralized refuse and with relatively poor adsorption capacity and biological effects, as well as removal capacity of organic matter, salinity, Cr and Ni approaches stabilization. The fifteen-year landfill column has high capability of adsorption, complexing, as well as organic matter, salinity, Cr and Ni removal, and the removal rate at the initial stage reaches 90%, 78%, 93% and 78%, respectively, but the recirculation process and progress need to be controlled when the rate approaches or reaches the adsorption capacity.
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PARP-1 rs3219073 Polymorphism May Contribute to Susceptibility to Lung Cancer.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To investigate the relationship between the PARP-1 rs3219073 C>G polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in Chinese people.
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Construction of 3,6-anhydrohexosides via intramolecular cyclization of triflates and its application to the synthesis of natural product isolated from leaves of Sauropus rostratus.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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A novel synthetic approach to construct various 3,6-anhydrohexosides via an intramolecular cyclization of corresponding triflates is described. The nucleophilic attack from C3 p-methoxybenzylated hydroxyl to C6 trifluoromethanesulfonate on triflate structures triggered the cyclization reaction to provide 3,6-anhydrohexosides in excellent yields, making the strategy more efficient with respect to the reported protocols. By applying this methodology, a concise first total synthesis of natural product isolated from leaves of Sauropus rostratus was accomplished.
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Activation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mediates the Olfactory Deficit-Induced Hippocampal Impairments.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The populations with olfactory dysfunction show an increased chance for hippocampus-dependent episodic memory deficit. Although it is known that the olfactory information projects to the hippocampus through entorhinal cortex layer II, the molecular mechanisms linking olfactory deficit to the hippocampus is not understood. Using bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) as a model, we found that OBX induced memory deficits with activation of several memory-related protein kinases in the hippocampal extracts, including glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), protein kinase A (PKA), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (PKB). The OBX rats also show suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP); reduction of synapsin I, synaptophysin, NR2A/B, and PSD95; thinner presynaptic active zone and postsynaptic density with enlarged synaptic space; decreased spine numbers and mushroom-type spines; and tau hyperphosphorylation. After injection of SB216763 for several weeks by vena caudalis, selective inhibition of GSK-3? ameliorated the OBX-induced memory deficits with recovery of the synaptic components and tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, genetic ablation of GSK-3? by lentivirus-packed shRNA effectively rescued the memory deficits, synaptic disorder, and tauopathy. Our data indicate that GSK-3 activation mediates the olfactory deficits to the hippocampus, and targeting GSK-3 blocks the pathological connection.
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Shape-controlled Paclitaxel nanoparticles with multiple morphologies: rod-shaped, worm-like, spherical, and fingerprint-like.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Although many nanocarriers have been developed to encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX), the drug loading and circulation time in vivo always are not ideal because of its rigid "brickdust" molecular structure. People usually concentrate their attention on the spherical nanocarriers, here paclitaxel nanoparticles with different geometries were established through the chemical modification of PTX, nanoprecipitation, and core-matched cargos. Previously we have developed rod-shape paclitaxel nanocrystals using block copolymer, pluronic F127. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of PTX nanocrystals is very poor. However, when PTX was replaced by its prodrug, the geometry of the nanoparticles changed from rod-shaped to worm-like. The worm-like nanoparticles can be further changed to spherical nanoparticles using the nanoprecipitation method, and changed to fingerprint-like nanoparticles upon the addition of the core-matched PTX. The nanoparticles with nonspherical morphologies, including worm-like nanoparticles and fingerprint-like nanoparticles, offer significant advantages in regards to key PK parameters in vivo. More important, in this report the application of the core-matching technology in creating a core-matched environment capable of controlling the in vivo PK of paclitaxel was demonstrated, and it revealed a novel technique platform to construct nanoparticles and improve the poor PK profiles of the drugs.
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Disulfide bond bridge insertion turns hydrophobic anticancer prodrugs into self-assembled nanomedicines.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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It is commonly observed that hydrophobic molecules alone cannot self-assemble into stable nanoparticles, requiring amphiphilic or ionic materials to support nanoparticle stability and function in vivo. We report herein newly self-assembled nanomedicines through entirely different mechanisms. We present proof-of-concept methodology and results in support of our hypothesis that disulfide-induced nanomedicines (DSINMs) are promoted and stabilized by the insertion of a single disulfide bond into hydrophobic molecules, in order to balance the competition between intermolecular forces involved in the self-assembly of nanomedicines. This hypothesis has been explored through diverse synthetic compounds, which include four first-line chemotherapy drugs (paclitaxel, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and gemcitabine), two small-molecule natural products and their derivatives, as well as a fluorescent probe. Such an unprecedented and highly reproducible system has the potential to serve as a synthetic platform for a wide array of safe and effective therapeutic and diagnostic nanomedicine strategies.
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Host-guest interaction dictated selective adsorption and fluorescence quenching of a luminescent lightweight metal-organic framework toward liquid explosives.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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In this article, we report the successful preparation of a Mg-based luminescent MIL-53 metal-organic framework (MOF), namely [Mg2(BDC)2(BPNO)]·2DMF (1) (BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylate, BPNO = 4,4'-dipyridyl-N,N'-dioxide, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) in a mixed solvent containing a 2?:?3 volume ratio of DMF and ethanol (EtOH) under solvothermal conditions. Desolvated compound 1a can be used as an absorbent for selective adsorption and separation of liquid explosives, including nitroaromatic (nitrobenzene (NB)) and nitroaliphatic (nitromethane (NM) and nitroethane (NE)) compounds, through single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transformations. As one of the weakly luminescent MOFs, the luminescence of compound 1a could be quenched by the incorporation of the three liquid nitro explosives. On the basis of single crystal analysis, we provide direct evidence that both the selective adsorption and fluorescence quenching of the desolvated compound 1a are dictated by host-guest interactions between guest liquid explosives and the host framework. Such findings differ from those reported in previous works, which were dominated by surficial close contact interactions. Moreover, based on the experimentally obtained single-crystal structures, we explain that the luminescence of 1a follows the intraligand ?*?? emission states or weak ligand to ligand charge transfer (LLCT), with little incorporation of intraligand charge transfer (ILCT).
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Adrenergic signaling promotes angiogenesis through endothelial cell-tumor cell crosstalk.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Angiogenesis is an important factor in invasive tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Multiple proangiogenic mechanisms are involved in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we showed that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine upregulated VEGF (VEGFA) expression in breast cancer cells and that the culture supernatant from norepinephrine-treated breast cancer cells promoted the formation of the capillary-like network of endothelial cells. However, the effects of norepinephrine were further enhanced when the endothelial cells were cocultured with breast cancer cells, indicating a critical role of tumor cell-endothelial cell contacts in norepinephrine-induced tumor angiogenesis. Interestingly, norepinephrine dramatically induced the activation of the Notch pathway, which is a cell-contact-mediated intercellular signaling pathway and tightly linked to tumor cell-stromal cell interaction and angiogenesis, in the endothelial cells that had been cocultured with breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged 1 was significantly upregulated by norepinephrine at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. Inhibitors of ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR), protein kinase A (PKA), and mTOR could reverse norepinephrine-induced Jagged 1 upregulation, indicating that the ?2-AR-PKA-mTOR pathway participates in this process. Knockdown of Jagged 1 expression in breast cancer cells not only repressed norepinephrine-induced activation of the Notch pathway in cocultured endothelial cells but also evidently impaired the effects of norepinephrine on capillary-like sprout formation. These data demonstrate that tumor angiogenesis mediated by the Jagged 1/Notch intercellular signaling is governed by the norepinephrine-activated ?2-AR-PKA-mTOR pathway.
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T-B-cell entanglement and ICOSL-driven feed-forward regulation of germinal centre reaction.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The germinal centre (GC) reaction supports affinity-based B-cell competition and generates high-affinity bone-marrow plasma cells (BMPCs). How follicular T-helper (TFH) cells regulate GC selection is not clear. Using competitive mixed chimaera, we show here that, beyond the role in promoting TFH development, ICOSL (inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand, also known as ICOSLG) is important for individual B cells to competitively participate in the GC reaction and to develop into BMPCs. Using intravital imaging aided by a calcium reporter, we further show that ICOSL promotes an 'entangled' mode of TFH-B-cell interactions, characterized by brief but extensive surface engagement, productive T-cell calcium spikes, and B-cell acquisition of CD40 signals. Reiterated entanglement promotes outer-zone co-localization of outcompeting GC B cells together with TFH cells, affording the former increased access to T-cell help. ICOSL on GC B cells is upregulated by CD40 signals. Such an intercellular positive feedback between contact-dependent help and ICOSL-controlled entanglement promotes positive selection and BMPC development, as evidenced by observations that higher-affinity B-cell receptor variants are enriched in the ICOSL(high) fraction, that numerically disadvantaged ICOSL-deficient GC B cells or BMPCs exhibit strong affinity compensation in competitive chimaera, and that when GC competition proceeds without ICOSL, selection of high-affinity variants in otherwise normal GC reactions is impaired. By demonstrating entanglement as the basic form of GC TFH-B-cell interactions, identifying ICOSL as a molecular linkage between T-B interactional dynamics and positive selection for high-affinity BMPC formation, our study reveals a pathway by which TFH cells control the quality of long-lived humoral immunity.
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Malignancy-associated metabolic profiling of human glioma cell lines using 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Ambiguity in malignant transformation of glioma has made prognostic diagnosis very challenging. Tumor malignant transformation is closely correlated with specific alterations of the metabolic profile. Exploration of the underlying metabolic alterations in glioma cells of different malignant degree is therefore vital to develop metabolic biomarkers for prognosis monitoring.
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Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Surveillance CT Schedule after Hepatectomy Based on Risk Stratification.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Purpose To evaluate alternative schedules for surveillance computed tomography (CT) for patients who underwent hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to demonstrate an appropriate schedule on the basis of stratification for risk of recurrence. Materials and Methods CT and pathologic reports for consecutive patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy at one institution were evaluated with institutional review board approval. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for recurrence. Patients were categorized into risk groups on the basis of classification and regression tree analysis. Average recurrence detection rates (RDRs) between consecutive CT scans were calculated for existing and alternative surveillance schedules for each risk group, and the difference in RDR was determined by using the Student t test. A P value of less than .05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. Expected delay in diagnosis was also computed for the alternative surveillance schedules for each risk group. Results Two hundred sixty patients (216 men; mean age, 56.0 years ± 22.5) underwent 2705 CT studies. Independent risk factors for recurrence were microvascular invasion (P = .001), cirrhosis (P = .007), and tumor multiplicity (P = .001). Three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) were identified. For low- and intermediate-risk groups, average RDR was not significantly different in the first 2 years after hepatectomy when the interval was extended from 3 months (3.3% and 4.6%, respectively) to 4 months (4.3% [expected delay, 16 days] and 6.1% [expected delay, 18 days], respectively) or for the subsequent 3 years when the interval was extended from 6 months (1.3% and 3.5%, respectively) to 12 months (2.5% [expected delay, 72 days] and 7.0% [expected delay, 103 days], respectively). This alternative schedule included five (35.7%) fewer CT scans than the 14 in the original schedule, and a reduction in radiation dose and cost during the 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion Posthepatectomy surveillance CT schedules may be tailored and optimized according to stratification by risk of recurrence to reduce the frequency of CT scans without compromising surveillance benefits. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Enalapril inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome expression in BSA-overload nephropathy of rats.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Proteinuria is not only a common marker of renal disease, but also involved in renal tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of enalapril, an ACEI, against nephropathy in rats.
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Expression of netrin-1 receptors in retina of oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Netrin-1 has been reported to promote retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). However, netrin-1 receptors, which may mediate netrin-1 action during retinal neovascularization, have not been characterized. In this study, we investigated netrin-1 receptor subtype expression and associated changes in the retinas of mice with OIR.
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Interleukin-27 inhibits foam cell formation by promoting macrophage ABCA1 expression through JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The purpose of this study is to determine whether IL-27 regulates macrophage ABCA1 expression, foam cell formation, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that IL-27 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux and increasing ABCA1 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Our study further demonstrated that IL-27 increased ABCA1 level via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of Janus kinase 2, (JAK2)/STAT3 suppressed the stimulatory effects of IL-27 on ABCA1 expression. The present study concluded that IL-27 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cell by upregulating ABCA1 expression via JAK2/STAT3. Therefore, targeting IL-27 may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.
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SIX1 promotes tumor lymphangiogenesis by coordinating TGF? signals that increase expression of VEGF-C.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Lymphatic vessels are one of the major routes for the dissemination of cancer cells. Malignant tumors release growth factors such as VEGF-C to induce lymphangiogenesis, thereby promoting lymph node metastasis. Here, we report that sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1), expressed in tumor cells, can promote tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis by coordinating with TGF? to increase the expression of VEGF-C. Lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer were closely correlated with higher expression of SIX1 in tumor cells. By enhancing VEGF-C expression in tumor cells, SIX1 could augment the promoting effect of tumor cells on the migration and tube formation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) in vitro and lymphangiogenesis in vivo. SIX1 enhanced TGF?-induced activation of SMAD2/3 and coordinated with the SMAD pathway to modulate VEGF-C expression. Together, SIX1 and TGF? induced much higher expression of VEGF-C in tumor cells than each of them alone. Despite its effect in promoting VEGF-C expression, TGF? could inhibit lymphangiogenesis by directly inhibiting tube formation by LECs. However, the increased production of VEGF-C not only directly promoted migration and tube formation of LECs but also thwarted the inhibitory effect of TGF? on LECs. That is, tumor cells that expressed high levels of SIX1 could promote lymphangiogenesis and counteract the negative effects of TGF? on lymphangiogenesis by increasing the expression of VEGF-C. These findings provide new insights into tumor lymphangiogenesis and the various roles of TGF? signaling in tumor regulation. Our results also suggest that SIX1/TGF? might be a potential therapeutic target for preventing lymph node metastasis of tumor.
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Interstitial diffusion and the relationship between compartment modelling and multi-scale spatial-temporal modelling of (18)F-FLT tumour uptake dynamics.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Tumour cell proliferation can be imaged via positron emission tomography of the radiotracer 3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT). Conceptually, the number of proliferating cells might be expected to correlate more closely with the kinetics of 18F-FLT uptake than with uptake at a fixed time. Radiotracer uptake kinetics are standardly visualized using parametric maps of compartment model fits to time-activity-curves (TACs) of individual voxels. However the relationship between the underlying spatiotemporal accumulation of FLT and the kinetics described by compartment models has not yet been explored. In this work tumour tracer uptake is simulated using a mechanistic spatial-temporal model based on a convection-diffusion-reaction equation solved via the finite difference method. The model describes a chain of processes: the flow of FLT between the spatially heterogeneous tumour vasculature and interstitium; diffusion and convection of FLT within the interstitium; transport of FLT into cells; and intracellular phosphorylation. Using values of model parameters estimated from the biological literature, simulated FLT TACs are generated with shapes and magnitudes similar to those seen clinically. Results show that the kinetics of the spatial-temporal model can be recovered accurately by fitting a 3-tissue compartment model to FLT TACs simulated for those tumours or tumour sub-volumes that can be viewed as approximately closed, for which tracer diffusion throughout the interstitium makes only a small fractional change to the quantity of FLT they contain. For a single PET voxel of width 2.5-5?mm we show that this condition is roughly equivalent to requiring that the relative difference in tracer uptake between the voxel and its neighbours is much less than one.
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Preparation of a monolith functionalized with zinc oxide nanoparticles and its application in the enrichment of fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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This study describes the enrichment ability of ZnO-modified methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate polymer monoliths as stationary phases for the simultaneous determination of antibiotics (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and pefloxacin) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The polymer monolith microextraction method has been applied to the enrichment of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and satisfactory results were obtained in the analysis of water samples. Compared with the conventional methacrylic acid based monolith, the developed monolith exhibited a higher enrichment capacity because of the introduction of zinc oxide into the preparation process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Large and fast single-crystal resistive humidity sensitivity of metal pnictide halides containing van der Waals host-guest interactions.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Two new metal pnictide halides, (Hg(9.75)As(5.5))(GaCl4)3 and (Hg13Sb8)(ZnBr4)4, have been prepared by solid-state reactions. Their structures feature 3D cationic host frameworks built of mercury pnictide polyhedra and form 1D tunnels filled with discrete guest halide polyanions; the guests and hosts are assembled by van der Waals interactions. Both complexes exhibit good single-crystal humidity sensitivity, with a humidity sensitivity factor as big as three orders of magnitude, a quick resistance response, fast recovery, and good reproducibility. This study provide a new way to design promising resistive humidity detectors by introducing van der Waals host-guest interactions into their structures.
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Plasma miRNAs might be promising biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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We previously showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma are potential biomarkers for cigarette smoking-related lung fibrosis. Here, we want to find out promising miRNAs for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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[Research on therapeutic effect of yangganjiejiu prescription on alcoholic fatty liver and its mechanism].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To research pharmacodynamic effect of Yangganjiejiu prescription on alcoholic fatty liver and its mechanism.
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Myostatin knockout in bovine fetal fibroblasts by using TALEN.
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Myostatin (MSTN) can negatively regulate the growth and development of skeletal muscle, and mutations of bovine MSTN gene can cause a "double-muscle" feature. To knock out MSTN gene in bovine fetal fibroblast by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and obtain MSTN knockout cell lines, we constructed one pair of MSTN-TALEN vector and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells by PEI and electroporation. Sequencing results demonstrated that TALEN was available for MSTN knockout. T7 endonuclease 1 (T7E1) was used for the detection of mutation efficiency. The results indicated that knockout efficiency of electroporation transfection was 20.4%, and 10 MSTN(+/-) and MSTN(-/-) cell colonies were obtained via limiting dilution method. The deletion number of nucleotides ranged from 1 to 20, and some of them were frameshift mutation, which could provide the possibility in production of MSTN knockout cattle in the future.
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CD105 promotes hepatocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis through VEGF.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Tumor neovascularization is necessarily required for tumor progression and metastasis. CD105 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have separately been identified as important contributors to angiogenesis; however, it is unclear if these factors interact to promote the progression of HCC. The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between CD105 and VEGF in HCC, using HCC tissue samples and the human HCC cell line SMMC-7721. In a survey of 89 HCC tumor samples, we determined that CD105 and VEGF expressions were positively correlated with each other and expressed at a higher level in tumor cells. Furthermore, the expression of CD105 was closely related to the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging of HCC, degree of tumor differentiation, portal vein invasion, and lymph node metastasis (P?
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[Evaluation of drug release behavior in vitro of ginkgolides component drug release unit].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composition is a multi-component multiple drug release system and more components preparation system. How to evaluate the drug release behavior of diversification has been a block for the modernization of TCM. This article through to study of more representative components of ginkgolides drug release and similarity analysis of more representative components of ginkgolides drug release behavior and use Weight coefficient method to integrate the multicomponent drug release curve. So it can provide the idea and method for drug evaluation of TCM component preparation.
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Synthesis of methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18?-olean-1,9(11)-dien-30-oate analogues to determine the active groups for inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in leukemia cells.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Fourteen of the methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18?-olean-1,9(11)-dien-30-oate (CDODO-Me-12, 10d) analogues with different structures of ring C were synthesized to determine the active groups for inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. An unsaturated group in ring C was required to maintain the ability to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Compound 10e with 9(11),12-dien in ring C displayed comparable apoptosis induction ability to 10d associated with decreased levels of c-FLIP, but not Mcl-1 and XIAP. Compound 10e had decreased ability to deplete GSH compared to compound 10d. Compound 10e represents a new active compound acting through a different mechanism from that of compound 10d.
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A comparative study on the degradation of gallic acid by Aspergillus oryzae and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Recently, as an emerging persistent dissolved organic pollutant (DOP), gallic acid (GA) and its efficient decomposition methods have received global attention. The present work aimed to compare the effect of Aspergillus oryzae 5992 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 40719 on degradation of different concentrations of GA. The A. oryzae grew well and achieved a GA removal rate up to 99% in media containing 1-4% GA, much higher than P. chrysosporium. The activity of laccase and lignin peroxidase excreted by A. oryzae was higher than that by P. chrysosporium in the presence of GA. Based on the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, three relevant intermediate metabolites were determined as progallin A, methyl gallate, and pyrogallic acid, implying that A. oryzae could not degrade GA unless the carboxyl in the molecule was protected or removed. In view of the ability of A. oryzae to accommodate a high concentration of GA and achieve a high removal rate, as well as the significantly different enzyme activities involved in GA degradation and the underlying mechanisms between the two fungal strains, A. oryzae is proven to be a superior strain for the degradation of DOP.
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[Study on oral absorption enhancers of astragalus polysaccharides].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Astragalus polysaccharides was lounded to 4-(2-aminoethylphenol), followed by labeling the APS-Tyr with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) at the secondary amino group. The absorption enhancement effects of low molecular weight chitosan and protamine on astragalus polysaccharides were evaluated via Caco-2 cell culture model. The results show that the fluorecent labeling compound has good stability and high sensitivity. On the other hand low molecular weight chitosan and protamine also can promoted absorption of the astragalus polysaccharides without any cytotoxity, and the absorption increase was more significant with increasing the amount of low molecular weight chitosan and protamine. At the same time, the low molecular weight chitosan has slightly better effect. The transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells show that absorption enhancers could improve its membrane transport permeability by opening tight junctions between cells and increasing the cell membrane fluidity.
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[Effects of suplatast tosilate on airway inflammation and interleukin-5 in asthmatic rats].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To study the effects of suplatast tosilate (IPD) on the airway inflammation and expression of interleukin-5 in asthmatic rats.
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Theranostic nanoemulsions: codelivery of hydrophobic drug and hydrophilic imaging probe for cancer therapy and imaging.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Aim: To develop a theranostic nanoemulsion (TNE) that can codeliver the conjugates of a hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX) and a hydrophilic imaging probe sulforhodamine B (SRB). Materials & methods: The TNE was established using core-matched technology, and can achieve high encapsulation efficiency and synchronized release of the loaded cargo. It has been examined for a correlation between the dynamic uptake of PTX and the intensity of SRB imaging signal in different organs. Results & discussion: Our data demonstrate that the TNE, with improved circulation time, increases therapeutic efficacy and imaging efficiency in both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer. The TNE could not satisfy the demand of visual diagnosis in the living animal because of interference. We therefore formulated a long-circulating theranostic nanoemulsion (LCTNE). Results showed that the LCTNE can meet imaging requirements in vivo. Conclusion: The LCTNE plays a good therapeutic and diagnostic role for subcutaneous tumors in the living animal. Original submitted 3 January 2014; Revised submitted 28 February 2014.
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Mapping genomic features to functional traits through microbial whole genome sequences.
Int J Bioinform Res Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Recently, the utility of trait-based approaches for microbial communities has been identified. Increasing availability of whole genome sequences provide the opportunity to explore the genetic foundations of a variety of functional traits. We proposed a machine learning framework to quantitatively link the genomic features with functional traits. Genes from bacteria genomes belonging to different functional traits were grouped to Cluster of Orthologs (COGs), and were used as features. Then, TF-IDF technique from the text mining domain was applied to transform the data to accommodate the abundance and importance of each COG. After TF-IDF processing, COGs were ranked using feature selection methods to identify their relevance to the functional trait of interest. Extensive experimental results demonstrated that functional trait related genes can be detected using our method. Further, the method has the potential to provide novel biological insights.
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Relationships between p16 gene promoter methylation and clinicopathologic features of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 27 cohort studies.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Many existing studies have demonstrated that p16 promoter methylation might be correlated with the clinicopathologic features of colorectal cancer (CRC), but individually published results are inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationships between p16 promoter methylation and the clinicopathologic features of CRC. We searched the CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from inception through August 1, 2013. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated under fixed- or random-effects models. Twenty-seven clinical cohort studies were included with a total of 3311 CRC patients. Our meta-analysis results revealed that p16 promoter methylation was associated with pathological characteristics of CRC (tumor, nodes, metastasis stage: OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.14-2.13, p=0.006; lymph node metastasis: OR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.37-4.19, p=0.002; histologic grade: OR=2.72, 95% CI: 1.63-4.54, p<0.001; Dukes stage: OR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.57-2.71, p=0.002; tumor size: OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.03-3.85, p=0.041; location: OR=2.49, 95% CI: 1.95-3.18, p<0.001, respectively). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that there were also significant correlations between p16 gene promoter methylation and pathological characteristics of CRC among both Caucasian and Asian populations (all p<0.05). Our meta-analysis suggests that promoter methylation of the p16 gene may be strongly correlated with the clinicopathologic features of CRC. Thus, p16 gene promoter methylation may be a potential biomarker for CRC.
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[Synthesis and antitumor activity of S-hexyl(heptyl) substituted ethanethioate derivatives].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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To simplify the macrocyclic fragment and to modify the zinc binding group of the natural product apicidin, two series of S-hexyl (heptyl) ethanethioate derivatives were designed and synthesized. Twenty-six compounds were synthesized and confirmed with 1H NMR, IR, MS and HR-MS spectrum, which were not reported. Take vorinostat as control, their antiporliferative activities against cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HL-60, were tested with MTT assay or trypan blue staining method. Generally in both series it was found that, the chiral carbon atom at 7 position is not necessary, compounds II-1, II-3, II-6 and II-13 showed good activity on HL-60 cells in vitro, with the IC50 values less than 10 micromol x L(-1). II-7 and II-8 showed stronger activity against MCF-7 than Vorinostat, with the IC50 of 3.19 and 6.29 micromol x L(-1), respectively.
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Ammonia drives dendritic cells into dysfunction.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Ammonia levels are often elevated in patients with cirrhosis or tumors. Patients with these diseases are immunocompromised. In this study, we investigated the effects of ammonia on a member of the immune cell family, the dendritic cells (DCs). Our results demonstrated that ammonia diminished cell count, phagocytosis, and lymphocyte stimulation of DCs. Ammonia also induced DC swelling, excessive reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial damage, which may constitute the underlying mechanism of ammonia-induced DC dysfunction. In ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)-loaded mice, DCs exhibited lowered phagocytosis and a weakened immune response to the chicken OVA vaccine. DCs from patients with cirrhosis or ammonia-treated healthy human blood both exhibited diminished phagocytosis. Moreover, tumor cell conditioned medium drove DCs into dysfunction, which could be reversed by ammonia elimination. In a murine colon carcinoma model, we found that ammonia could regulate tumor growth involving DCs and their related immune response. These findings reveal that ammonia could drive DCs into dysfunction, which contributes to the immunocompromised state of patients with cirrhosis or tumors.
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[Study on preparation of ginkgolides component solid dispersions micro pill drug release unit].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan were applied to prepare ginkgolides component solid dispersions micro pill drug release unit and study the dissolution of GKS. Microcrystalline cellulose, chitosan as composite carrier, solvent method was used to prepare ginkgolides component solid dispersions. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to Characterization of ginkgolides component solid dispersions. Ginkgolides component solid dispersions as principle agent were prepared for micro-pellet. Comparison of different types, different doses of the adhesive, drug-polymer interactions, and disintegrating agent for the preparation of ginkgolides components of micro-pellet drug release unit, the optimum preparation ginkgolides components of micro-pellet drug release unit was screened by orthogonal design experiment. Preparation of ginkgolides components solid dispersions with microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan at ratio 1: 3. Drug cumulative dissolution was more than 80% in 60 min. Solid dispersion-micro-pellet drug release unit can significantly improve the dissolution of ginkgolides components, it has practical application value.
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Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: A novel mechanism of albumin-induced tubulointerstitial inflammation.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Albuminuria is not only an important marker of chronic kidney disease but also a crucial contributor to tubulointerstitial inflammation (TIF). In this study, we determined whether activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome is involved in albuminuria induced-TIF and the underlying mechanisms of inflammasome activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS). We established an albumin-overload induced rat nephropathy model characterised by albuminuria, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular dilation and atrophy. The renal expression levels of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, IL-1? and IL-18 were significantly increased in this animal model. In vitro, albumin time- and dose-dependently increased the expression levels of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, IL-1? and IL18. Moreover, the silencing of the Nlrp3 gene or the use of the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the albumin-induced increase in IL-1? and IL-18 expression in HK2 cells. In addition, mROS generation was elevated by albumin stimulation, whereas the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) inhibited Nlrp3 expression and the release of IL-1? and IL-18. In kidney biopsy specimens obtained from patients with IgA nephropathy, Nlrp3 expression was localised to the proximal tubular epithelial cells, and this result is closely correlated with the extent of proteinuria and TIF. In summary, this study demonstrates that albuminuria may serve as an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that stimulates TIF via the mROS-mediated activation of the cytoplasmic Nlrp3 inflammasome.
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Downregulation of ribosomal protein S6 inhibits the growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest, rather than apoptosis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit, has been found to be associated with multiple physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, its effects and mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still remain unknown. Here, we showed that expressions of total rpS6 and phosphorylation rpS6 (p-rpS6) were both significantly overexpressed in NSCLC. Further survival analysis revealed the shortened overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in p-rpS6 overexpressed patients and confirmed it as an independent adverse predictor. Stable downregulation of rpS6 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma H520 cell lines was then achieved by two specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses separately. Subsequent experiments showed that downregulation of rpS6 dramatically inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, loss of rpS6 promoted cells arrested in G0-G1 phase and reduced in G2-M phase, along with the expression alterations of relative proteins. However, no notable change in apoptosis was observed. Collectively, these results suggested that rpS6 is overactivated in NSCLC and its downregulation suppresses the growth of NSCLC mainly by inducing G0-G1 cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis.
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AMPK inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by promoting autophagy via mTORC1.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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AMPK, a serine/threonine protein kinase, has proven to be an important positive regulator of autophagy, which is a key factor in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, we explored whether AMPK could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by regulating autophagy. In pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy, decreased autophagy was detected. Administration of AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin) significantly blocked hypertrophy, accompanied by enhanced autophagy level in the hearts. Furthermore, AMPK activation resulted in enhanced autophagosome formation and unimpaired lysosomal function. In vitro studies demonstrated adenoviral overexpression of constitutively activated AMPK increased autophagy and blunted PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Additionally, we found AICAR reduced the phosphorylation of the mTORC1 downstream effectors 4EBP1 and p70S6K, but AKT, which is a downstream signal of mTORC2, was not affected. Furthermore, activation by AMPK failed to lead to an additive effect on autophagy induced by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, indicating AMPK activates autophagy through the inhibition of mTORC1 but not of mTORC2. This study proved that AMPK can inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by stimulating autophagy through mTORC1 signaling.
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Thymosin beta 10 correlates with lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Thymosin beta 10 (TMSB10) has recently been recognized as being an important player in the metastatic cascade including tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, a role for this protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not yet been established.
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Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver in an iron-overload murine model.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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We previously demonstrated that iron overload induces liver damage by causing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine is a potent free radical scavenger that attenuates the damage caused by excessive oxygen free radicals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether taurine could reduce the hepatotoxicity of iron overload with regard to ROS production. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with iron 5 days/week for 13 weeks to achieve iron overload. It was found that iron overload resulted in liver dysfunction, increased apoptosis and elevated oxidative stress. Taurine supplementation increased liver taurine levels by 40% and led to improved liver function, as well as a reduction in apoptosis, ROS formation and mitochondrial swelling and an attenuation in the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with taurine mediated a reduction in oxidative stress in iron?overloaded mice, attenuated liver lipid peroxidation, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and maintained reduced glutathione levels. These results indicate that taurine reduces iron?induced hepatic oxidative stress, preserves liver function and inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis. Therefore, taurine may be a potential therapeutic drug to reduce liver damage caused by iron overload.
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In situ Demonstration and Characteristic Analysis of the Protease Components from Marine Bacteria Using Substrate Immersing Zymography.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Zymography is a widely used technique for the study of proteolytic activities on the basis of protein substrate degradation. In this study, substrate immersing zymography was used in analyzing proteolysis of extracellular proteases. Instead of being added directly into a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel, the substrates were added into the immersing solution after electrophoresis. Substrate immersing zymography could accurately determine the molecular weight of trypsin, and band intensities were linearly related to the amount of protease. The diversity of extracellular proteases produced by different marine bacteria was analyzed by substrate immersing zymography, and large variations of proteolysis were evidenced. The proteolytic activity of Pseudoalteromonas strains was more complicated than that of other strains. Five Pseudoalteromonas strains and five Vibrio strains were further analyzed by substrate immersing zymography with different substrates (casein and gelatin), and multiple caseinolytic and gelatinolytic profiles were detected. The extracellular proteolytic profiles of Pseudoalteromonas strains exhibited a large intraspecific variation. Molecular weight (Mw) of the main protease secreted by Vibrio was 35 kDa. Additionally, the time-related change trends of the activities of extracellular proteases produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. SJN2 were analyzed by substrate immersing zymography. These results implied the potential application of substrate immersing zymography for the analysis of the diversity of bacterial extracellular proteases.
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FTY720 inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats via the Sphk1 pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Aim:FTY720, a new immunomodulatory drug with low cytotoxicity, is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on inflammatory cell infiltration in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats.Methods:Male Wistar rats were subjected to right-side nephrectomy and divided into 3 groups. One week after the surgery, albumin overload (AO) group was treated with BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; AO+FTY720 group was given BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) plus FTY720 (0.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; and control group received daily ip injection of equivalent volume of saline. All rats were killed 9 weeks after nephrectomy.Results:AO rats exhibited gradually increased urinary protein excretion accompanied by elevated urinary N-acetyl-?-O-glucosaminidase activity, and both reached their peak values at week 7. Furthermore, AO significantly increased lymphocytes and monocytes in circulation and the inflammatory cells recruited to tubulointerstitium, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6, as well as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1pr1 and S1pr3, and S1P-synthesizing enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) in the kidney. Concomitant administration of FTY720 significantly attenuated all the AO-induced pathological changes.Conclusion:FTY720 alleviates tubulointerstitium inflammation in an AO rat model of nephropathy via down-regulation of the Sphk1 pathway.
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LPS promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of TLR4/JNK signaling.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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The endotoxin level in the portal and peripheral veins of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is higher and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been reported to inhibit tumor growth. However, in this study, we found that LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling was involved in tumor invasion and the molecular mechanism was investigated. The HCC cells were used to study the invasion ability of LPS-induced HCC cells and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that LPS could significantly enhance the invasive potential and induce EMT in HCC cells with TLR4 dependent. Further studies showed that LPS could directly activate JNK/MAPK signaling through TLR4 in HCC cells. Interestingly, blocking JNK/MAPK signaling significantly inhibited EMT occurrence. Our results indicate that TLR4/JNK/MAPK signaling is required for LPS-induced EMT, tumor cell invasion and metastasis, which provide molecular insights for LPS-related pathogenesis and a basis for developing new strategies against metastasis in HCC.
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Hydrophilic organic/salt-containing aqueous two-phase solvent system for counter-current chromatography: a novel technique for separation of polar compounds.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Hydrophilic organic/salt-containing aqueous two-phase system composing of ethanol, water and ammonium sulfate for separation polar compounds was investigated on multilayer coil associated with J-type HSCCC devices. Compared to the classical polar solvent system based on 1-butanol-water or PEG1000-ammonium sulfate-water, the water content of upper phase in ethanol-ammonium sulfate-water systems was from 53.7% to 32.8% (wt%), closed to PEG1000-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase systems and higher than 1-butanol-water (22.0%, wt%). Therefore, the polarity of ethanol-ammonium sulfate-water is in the middle of 1-butanol-water and PEG-ammonium sulfate-water system, which is quite good for separating polar compounds like phenols, nucleosides and amino acids with low partition coefficient in 1-octanol-water system. The retention of stationary phase in four elution mode on type-J counter-current chromatography devices with multilayer coil column changed from 26% to 71%. Hydrodynamic trend possess both intermediate and hydrophilic solvent system property, which closely related to the composition of solvent system. The applicability of this system was demonstrated by successful separation of adenosine, uridine guanosine and cytidine.
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Tert-butylhydroquinone as a phenolic activator of Nrf2 antagonizes arsenic-induced oxidative cytotoxicity but promotes arsenic methylation and detoxication in human hepatocyte cell line.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Oxidative stress plays crucial roles in exerting a variety of damages upon arsenic exposure. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcriptional regulator protecting cells and tissues from oxidative injuries. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a well-known synthetic Nrf2 inducer, could protect human hepatocytes against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that 5 and 25 ?mol/l tBHQ pretreatment suppressed the arsenic-induced hepatocellular cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and hepatic lipid peroxidation, while relieved the arsenic-induced disturbances of intracellular glutathione balance. In addition, we also observed that tBHQ treatment promoted the arsenic biomethylation process and upregulated Nrf2-regulated downstream heme oxygenase-1 and NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase 1 mRNA expressions. Collectively, we suspected that Nrf2 signaling pathway may be involved in the protective effects of tBHQ against arsenic invasion in hepatocytes. These data suggest that phenolic Nrf2 inducers, such as tBHQ, represent novel therapeutic or dietary candidates for the population at high risk of arsenic poisoning.
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Identification of Aberrantly Expressed miRNAs in Gastric Cancer.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The noncoding components of the genome, including miRNA, can contribute to pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Their expression has been profiled in many human cancers, but there are a few published studies in gastric cancer. It is necessary to identify novel aberrantly expressed miRNAs in gastric cancer. In this study, the expression profile of 1891 miRNAs was analyzed using a miRCURY array LNA miRNA chip from three gastric cancer tissues and three normal tissues. The expression levels of 4 miRNAs were compared by real-time PCR between cancerous and normal tissues. We found that 31 miRNAs are upregulated in gastric cancer (P < 0.05) and 10 miRNAs have never been reported by other studies; 30 miRNA are downregulated (P < 0.05) in gastric cancer tissues. Gene ontology analysis revealed that those dysregulated miRNAs mainly take part in regulating cell proliferation. The levels of has-miR-105, -213?, -514b, and -548n were tested by real-time PCR and have high levels in cancerous tissues. Here, we report a miRNA profile of gastric cancer and provide new perspective to understand this malignant disease. This novel information suggests the potential roles of these miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis biomarkers, or therapy targets of gastric cancer.
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Can non-invasive positive pressure ventilation prevent endotracheal intubation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome? A meta-analysis.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NIPPV could prevent endotracheal intubation and decrease mortality rate in patients with ALI/ARDS. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) which reported endotracheal intubation and mortality rate in patients with ALI/ARDS treated by NIPPV were identified in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Central Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, reference lists and by manual searches. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks. This meta-analysis included six RCT involving 227 patients. The results showed that endotracheal intubation rate was lower in NIPPV (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.80, z?=?3.44, P?=?0.0006), but no significant difference was found either in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (95% CI: 0.45-1.07, z?=?1.65, P?=?0.10) or in hospital mortality (95% CI: 0.17-1.58, z?=?1.16, P?=?0.25). Only two studies discussed the aetiology of ALI/ARDS as pulmonary or extra-pulmonary, and neither showed statistical heterogeneity (I(2) ?=?0%, ?(2) ?=?0.31, P?=?0.58), nor a significant difference in endotracheal intubation rate (95% CI: 0.35-9.08, z?=?0.69, P?=?0.49). In conclusion, the early use of NIPPV can decrease the endotracheal intubation rate in patients with ALI/ARDS, but does not change the mortality of these patients.
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The Axin2 rs2240308 polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2) is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, and functions as a tumor suppressor in a number of human cancers. Previous pilot studies have suggested an association between Axin2 exon1 148 (rs2240308) SNP polymorphism and risk for lung cancer. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the Axin2 exon1 148 polymorphism and its association with lung cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese population. The Axin2 exon1 148 SNP was genotyped in 555 controls and 520 lung cancer patients using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). We observed that the genotype frequencies of TC, TT, and CC were significantly different between controls and cases (? (2)?=?6.849, P?=?0.03256, df?=?2). Subjects carrying T allele (TC?+?TT genotypes) had decreased susceptibility to lung cancer as compared to those carrying CC genotype (OR?=?0.733, 95?% CI?=?0.5726-0.9393, P?=?0.01382). No significant association was found between rs2240308 polymorphism and histological subtypes of lung cancers. Findings from this study suggest that Axin2 exon1 T148C polymorphism (rs2240308) contributes to increased susceptibility to lung cancer in Chinese population. This further implicates Axin2 as a lung cancer-related gene.
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Endobronchial ultrasound guided-transbronchial needle aspiration vs. conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses: A meta-analysis.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBUS-TBNA performs better compared to conventional TBNA as it is capable of sampling in real-time compared with conventional TBNA. However, some clinicians consider conventional TBNA to be sufficient for diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated these two methods according to diagnostic yield. A search was conducted through PubMed, Embase and the proceedings of major conferences, for studies comparing TBNA with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses. The identified studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. The primary outcome was diagnostic yield. Pooled odds ratio (OR) estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated using the fixed-effects model. Five studies, including a total of 407 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The EBUS-TBNA arm was associated with a significantly higher OR compared to that of the TBNA arm in terms of diagnostic yield (OR=2.72, 95% CI: 1.72-4.30, P<0.001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)=0%, P=0.540) or publication bias (Egger's test, P=0.568; Begg-Mazumdar test, P=0.806). In conclusion, EBUS-TBNA and conventional TBNA are safe and provide good diagnostic yield in the diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal masses and lymphadenopathies; however, EBUS-TBNA performs better compared to conventional TBNA, with a shorter aspiration time and higher sensitivity.
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Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 promotes DNA replication and cell proliferation in cervical cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Malignant proliferation is the fundamental trait of tumor cells. The initiation of DNA replication represents a key process for cell proliferation, and has a marked impact on tumorigenesis and progression. Here we report that Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) functions as a master regulator in DNA replication of cervical cancer cells. The expression of SIX1 was induced by the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. The increase of SIX1 expression resulted in the upregulation of multiple genes related to the initiation of DNA replication, including the genes coding for the proteins in minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM2, MCM3, MCM6), DNA polymerase ?-primase complex (POLA1, PRIM1, PRIM2), clamp loader (RFC3, RFC4, RFC5), DNA polymerase ? complex (POLD3) and DNA polymerase ? complex (POLE2). In line with this, the increase of SIX1 expression enhanced DNA synthesis, accelerated G1 to S phase progression, and promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and the growth of cervical cancer. Consistently, knockdown of SIX1 could hamper DNA synthesis, slow down G1 to S phase progression, and suppress tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. Importantly, SIX1 could more efficiently promote anchorage-independent cell growth. These results suggest that the increase of SIX1 expression could promote tumorigenesis, progression and invasive growth of cervical cancer by promoting DNA replication, and that targeting SIX1 may have significant therapeutic value in cervical cancer treatment.
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Microstructure formation and fracturing characteristics of grey cast iron repaired using laser.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased.
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Establishment of using serum YKL-40 and SCCA in combination for the diagnosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Elevated serum YKL-40 levels have been observed in various cancers. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of serum YKL-40 alone or in combination with the CEA, CYFRA21-1 and SCCA tumor markers for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Effect of Zn toxicity on root morphology, ultrastructure, and the ability to accumulate Zn in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The effects of zinc (Zn) on seed germination and growth of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were investigated. Under zinc stress, the seed germination rate did not show significant difference from that of the control. Hydroponics experiments indicated that Moso bamboo had a strong ability to accumulate Zn in the shoot and it reached its maximum value in the shoot at 100 ?M Zn. The root Zn concentration ranged from 2,329.29 to 8,642.51 mg kg(-1), with the root Zn concentration at 10 ?M Zn being 58.23 times that of the control. The root morphology parameters slightly increased at the lower Zn treatments, while growth restriction was evident at higher Zn treatments. Root ultrastructural studies revealed that the cell structure, root tips, and organelles were significantly changed under Zn stress as compared to those of the control. Some abnormalities were evident in the cell walls, vacuoles, mitochondria, plasmalemma, tonoplast, and xylem parenchyma of root cells. While Moso bamboo seems a suitable candidate for phytoremediation, its metal remediation ability should be further explored in future investigations.
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Evaluation of four surface coating treatments for resin to zirconia bonding.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To compare the effects of four surface coating methods on resin to zirconia shear bond strength.
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14-3-3? protein attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocytes injury through the Bcl-2 family/mitochondria pathway.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Previous studies have indicated that 14-3-3? is upregulated by stress in LPS-induced cardiovascular injury. In this study, we investigated the interaction of 14-3-3? and Bcl-2 family members in the control of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) to test the hypothesis that abundant levels of 14-3-3? can protect against LPS-induced injury via a Bcl-2 family/mitochondria pathway. The cardiomyocytes were treated with LPS (1mg l(-1)) for 6h; the interaction between 14-3-3? and phospho-Bad(S112) was detected by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP); the levels of Bcl-2 family members in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions were examined by Western blot; the apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were detected by flow cytometry; and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was tested by mitochondrial swelling. Our results revealed that LPS treatment results in cardiomyocyte injury, and these effects were significantly attenuated by pFLAG-14-3-3?. Moreover, LPS treatment induced Bax translocation to the mitochondria, ??m loss, mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release, and pFLAG-14-3-3? reversed these effects induced by LPS. Moreover, overexpressed 14-3-3? protein could assist Bad(S112) phosphorylation and interact with it to form a complex, which might result in the disassociation of Bcl-2 from the Bad/Bcl-2 complex and its translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Our data firstly confirmed that a high level of 14-3-3? protects against LPS-induced cardiomyocyte injury likely through a pathway associated with the regulation of the subcellular localizations of Bcl-2 and Bad that results in the prevention of mPTP opening, the maintenance of ??m, and ultimately the inhibition of apoptosis.
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Hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy in patients with a relapse-free history of phaeochromocytoma.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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In patients with a relapse-free history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PGL), persistent hypertension has been reported, but has not been well characterized.
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State of the art of single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis on surfaces.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) directly synthesized on surfaces are promising building blocks for nanoelectronics. The structures and the arrangement of the SWNTs on surfaces determine the quality and density of the fabricated nanoelectronics, implying the importance of structure controlled growth of SWNTs on surfaces. This review summarizes the recent research status in controlling the orientation, length, density, diameter, metallicity, and chirality of SWNTs directly synthesized on surfaces by chemical vapor deposition, together with a session presenting the characterization method of the chirality of SWNTs. Finally, the remaining major challenges are discussed and future research directions are proposed.
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Feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to predict moisture content of porcine meat during salting process.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique (1000-2500 nm) for predicting moisture content (MC) during the salting process of porcine meat was assessed. Different spectral profiles including reflectance spectra (RS), absorbance spectra (AS) and Kubelka-Munk spectra (KMS) were examined to investigate the influence of spectroscopic transformations on predicting moisture content of salted pork slice. The best full-wavelength partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were acquired based on reflectance spectra (Rc(2)=0.969, RMSEC=0.921%; Rc(2)=0.941, RMSEP=1.23%). On the basis of the optimal wavelengths identified using the regression coefficient, two calibration models of PLSR and multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared. The optimal RS-MLR model was considered to be the best for determining the moisture content of salted pork, with a Rc(2) of 0.917 and RMSEP of 1.48%. Visualisation of moisture distribution in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using the prediction model display moisture evolution and migration in pork slices.
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MicroRNA-19b promotes macrophage cholesterol accumulation and aortic atherosclerosis by targeting ATP-binding cassette transporter A1.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Macrophage accumulation of cholesterol leads to foam cell formation which is a major pathological event of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that microRNA (miR)-19b might play an important role in cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we have identified miR-19b binding to the 3'UTR of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) transporters, and further determined the potential roles of this novel interaction in atherogenesis.
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MicroRNA-183 inhibits gastric cancer proliferation and invasion via directly targeting Bmi-1.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The aberrant expression of microRNA-183 (miRNA/miR-183) has been found to be involved in numerous tumor types. However, the role of miR-183 in gastric cancer pathology is unclear and requires investigation. In the present study, the miR-183 expression levels of gastric cancer cell lines and tissues obtained from gastric cancer patients were measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effect of miR-183 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion was evaluated using MTT, colony formation and Transwell assays. The target of miR-183 was identified and confirmed using a luciferase activity assay. The results revealed that miR-183 was significantly downregulated in gastric cancer cells compared with GES-1 normal gastric epithelial cells. In addition, miR-183 was reduced in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. The ectopic expression of miR-183 significantly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. Bmi-1 was also confirmed as a downstream target of miR-183 in the gastric cancer cells by western blot analysis and luciferase activity assays. In conclusion, miR-183 is downregulated in gastric cancer cells and tissues, and inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion by targeting Bmi-1. Therefore, targeting miR-183 may be a potential therapeutic strategy in gastric cancer patients.
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Global validation of a process-based model on vegetation gross primary production using eddy covariance observations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. However, large uncertainties in current global estimations persist. In this study, we examined the performance of a process-based model (Integrated BIosphere Simulator, IBIS) at 62 eddy covariance sites around the world. Our results indicated that the IBIS model explained 60% of the observed variation in daily GPP at all validation sites. Comparison with a satellite-based vegetation model (Eddy Covariance-Light Use Efficiency, EC-LUE) revealed that the IBIS simulations yielded comparable GPP results as the EC-LUE model. Global mean GPP estimated by the IBIS model was 107.50±1.37 Pg C year-1 (mean value ± standard deviation) across the vegetated area for the period 2000-2006, consistent with the results of the EC-LUE model (109.39±1.48 Pg C year-1). To evaluate the uncertainty introduced by the parameter Vcmax, which represents the maximum photosynthetic capacity, we inversed Vcmax using Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedures. Using the inversed Vcmax values, the simulated global GPP increased by 16.5 Pg C year-1, indicating that IBIS model is sensitive to Vcmax, and large uncertainty exists in model parameterization.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.