JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ursolic acid carried in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system in rats studied by UPLC-MS/MS].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study is to report the establishment of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of plasma concentration of UA carried in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and its pharmacokinetics in rats. It was used for determination and analysis when serum with internal standard was extracted from C18 solid-phase column. Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) was used for separation. The mobile phase was acetonitrile -0.1% ammonia with gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.2 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 40 degrees C and the detection wave length was 210 nm. It was detected by negative ion using electrospray ionization source (ESI) and scanned by multiple reaction ion monitoring (MRM) mode. The liner relationship of UA was very good in the range of 1.19-3 815.00 ng x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 0). Recovery rate of different concentrations were 87.42%-89.95%. The precision of inter-day and intra-day were less than 11%. The method developed in our study was proved to be sensitive, rapid and simple. It is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of UA-SMEDDS in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Identification and characterization of microRNAs related to salt stress in broccoli, using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of endogenous regulators of a broad range of physiological processes, which act by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. The brassica vegetable, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), is very popular with a wide range of consumers, but environmental stresses such as salinity are a problem worldwide in restricting its growth and yield. Little is known about the role of miRNAs in the response of broccoli to salt stress. In this study, broccoli subjected to salt stress and broccoli grown under control conditions were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Differential miRNA expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The prediction of miRNA targets was undertaken using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology (KO) database and Gene Ontology (GO)-enrichment analyses.
Related JoVE Video
Biological activity studies of the novel glucagon-like peptide-1 derivative HJ07.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify the glucose lowering ability and chronic treatment effects of a novel coumarin-glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conjugate HJ07.
Related JoVE Video
Joint analysis of three genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese populations.
Chen Wu, Zhaoming Wang, Xin Song, Xiao-Shan Feng, Christian C Abnet, Jie He, Nan Hu, Xian-Bo Zuo, Wen Tan, Qimin Zhan, Zhibin Hu, Zhonghu He, Weihua Jia, Yifeng Zhou, Kai Yu, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jian-Min Yuan, Wei Zheng, Xue-Ke Zhao, She-Gan Gao, Zhi-Qing Yuan, Fu-You Zhou, Zong-Min Fan, Ji-Li Cui, Hong-Li Lin, Xue-Na Han, Bei Li, Xi Chen, Sanford M Dawsey, Linda Liao, Maxwell P Lee, Ti Ding, You-Lin Qiao, Zhihua Liu, Yu Liu, Dianke Yu, Jiang Chang, Lixuan Wei, Yu-Tang Gao, Woon-Puay Koh, Yong-Bing Xiang, Ze-Zhong Tang, Jin-Hu Fan, Jing-jing Han, Sheng-Li Zhou, Peng Zhang, Dong-Yun Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Huang, Chunling Liu, Kan Zhai, Yan Qiao, Guangfu Jin, Chuanhai Guo, Jianhua Fu, Xiaoping Miao, Changdong Lu, Haijun Yang, Chaoyu Wang, William A Wheeler, Mitchell Gail, Meredith Yeager, Jeff Yuenger, Er-Tao Guo, Ai-li Li, Wei Zhang, Xue-Min Li, Liang-Dan Sun, Bao-Gen Ma, Yan Li, Sa Tang, Xiu-Qing Peng, Jing Liu, Amy Hutchinson, Kevin Jacobs, Carol Giffen, Laurie Burdette, Joseph F Fraumeni, Hongbing Shen, Yang Ke, Yixin Zeng, Tangchun Wu, Peter Kraft, Charles C Chung, Margaret A Tucker, Zhi-Chao Hou, Ya-Li Liu, Yan-Long Hu, Li Wang, Guo Yuan, Li-Sha Chen, Xiao Liu, Teng Ma, Hui Meng, Li Sun, Xin-Min Li, Xiu-Min Li, Jian-Wei Ku, Ying-Fa Zhou, Liu-Qin Yang, Zhou Wang, Yin Li, Qirenwang Qige, Wen-jun Yang, Guang-Yan Lei, Long-qi Chen, En-Min Li, Ling Yuan, Wen-Bin Yue, Ran Wang, Lu-Wen Wang, Xue-Ping Fan, Fang-Heng Zhu, Wei-Xing Zhao, Yi-min Mao, Mei Zhang, Guo-Lan Xing, Ji-Lin Li, Min Han, Jing-Li Ren, Bin Liu, Shu-Wei Ren, Qing-Peng Kong, Feng Li, Ilyar Sheyhidin, Wu Wei, Yan-Rui Zhang, Chang-Wei Feng, Jin Wang, Yu-Hua Yang, Hong-Zhang Hao, Qi-De Bao, Bao-Chi Liu, Ai-Qun Wu, Dong Xie, Wan-Cai Yang, Liang Wang, Xiao-Hang Zhao, Shu-Qing Chen, Jun-Yan Hong, Xue-Jun Zhang, Neal D Freedman, Alisa M Goldstein, Dongxin Lin, Philip R Taylor, Li-dong Wang, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conducted a joint (pooled) analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in individuals of Chinese ancestry (5,337 ESCC cases and 5,787 controls) with 9,654 ESCC cases and 10,058 controls for follow-up. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, study and two eigenvectors, two new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by rs7447927 at 5q31.2 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.88; P = 7.72 × 10(-20)) and rs1642764 at 17p13.1 (per-allele OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91; P = 3.10 × 10(-13)). rs7447927 is a synonymous SNP in TMEM173, and rs1642764 is an intronic SNP in ATP1B2, near TP53. Furthermore, a locus in the HLA class II region at 6p21.32 (rs35597309) achieved genome-wide significance in the two populations at highest risk for ESSC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.22-1.46; P = 1.99 × 10(-10)). Our joint analysis identifies new ESCC susceptibility loci overall as well as a new locus unique to the population in the Taihang Mountain region at high risk of ESCC.
Related JoVE Video
Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov., an exoelectrogenic microbe in bioelectrochemical systems.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A previously isolated exoelectrogenic bacterium, strain SD-1(T), was further characterized and identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Geobacter. Strain SD-1(T) was Gram-negative, aerotolerant, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-fermentative and non-motile. Cells were short, curved rods (0.8-1.3 µm long and 0.3 µm in diameter). Growth of strain SD-1(T) was observed at 15-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5, with optimal growth at 30-35 °C and pH 7. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Geobacter, with the closest known relative being Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98% similarity). Similar to other members of the genus Geobacter, strain SD-1(T) used soluble or insoluble Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor coupled with the oxidation of acetate. However, SD-1(T) could not reduce fumarate as an electron acceptor with acetate oxidization, which is an important physiological trait for G. sulfurreducens. Moreover, SD-1(T) could grow in media containing as much as 3% NaCl, while G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) can tolerate just half this concentration, and this difference in salt tolerance was even more obvious when cultivated in bioelectrochemical systems. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain SD-1(T) and its closest relative, G. sulfurreducens ATCC 51573(T), showed a relatedness of 61.6%. The DNA G+C content of strain SD-1(T) was 58.9 mol%. Thus, on the basis of these characteristics, strain SD-1(T) was not assigned to G. sulfurreducens, and was instead classified in the genus Geobacter as a representative of a novel species. The name Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SD-1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12536(T) = KCTC 4672(T)).
Related JoVE Video
Identification of nuclear factor-?B inhibitors in the folk herb Rhizoma Menispermi via bioactivity-based ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhizoma Menispermi (RM) is the dried root of Menispermum dauricum DC, which is traditionally used to treat swelling and pain for sore throat, enteritis and rheumatic arthralgia in the clinic, but its bioactive compounds remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and cyclooxygenase-2 in non-small cell lung cancer: Correlations with angiogenesis and prognosis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in angiogenesis and their association with the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using immunohistochemical staining, the expression of 15-PGDH and COX-2, and the microvessel density (MVD) levels were evaluated in 35 NSCLC specimens. Paracancerous normal lung tissue was collected as control samples from six patients. The correlation of 15-PGDH with COX-2, clinicopathological characteristics, MVD and overall survival (OS) was studied. NSCLC tissues showed a significantly lower expression level of 15-PGDH (P=0.009) and a significantly higher expression level of COX-2 (P=0.004) compared with normal lung tissue. The expression level of 15-PGDH was negatively correlated with MVD (P<0.001) and COX-2 expression (P=0.032). A low expression level of 15-PGDH, a high expression level of COX-2 and high levels of MVD were significantly correlated with a shorter OS time (15-PGDH, P<0.0001; COX-2, P=0.038; MVD, P<0.0001). This study provided clinical evidence that a low expression level of 15-PGDH is associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. Furthermore, it was shown that 15-PGDH and COX-2 reciprocally regulate cancer angiogenesis, which may affect the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Slug promotes hepatocellular cancer cell progression by increasing sox2 and nanog expression.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transcription factor Slug plays an important role in the tumor invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to explore the mechanism involved in the promotion of HCC progression by Slug. In the precent study, we demonstrated that Slug expression was significantly associated with metastasis and shorter survival time of HCC patients. Using ChIP-on-chip and microarray analysis, we identified the molecular profile of Slug downstream targets in HCC cells with Slug overexpression. The Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways were identified to promote pluripotency maintaining overexpression factors sox2 and nanog. Importantly, Slug showed a close relationship with sox2 and nanog expression in HCC patients and in HCC xenografts in vivo. Notably, the DNA damaging reagent hydroxyurea had no effect on Slug, sox2 and nanog expression in HCC cells with Slug overexpression; however knockdown of Slug by the short hairpin RNA approach markedly reduced sox2 and nanog expression and inhibited HCC cell migration in vitro. The results of this study indicate that Slug promotes progression of HCC by promoting sox2 and nanog overexpression. The related molecular pathways may be used as novel therapeutic targets for HCC.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of synchronous perfusion of NaN3 in changes in content of cholinergic neurotransmitter in medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal extra-cellular fluid].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of synchronous perfusion of specific respiratory chain complex IV inhibitor sodium azide (NaN3) in brain on rat ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) contents in hippocampal extra-cellular fluid, and establish the AD rat model induced by mitochondrial acute injury.
Related JoVE Video
A solution-phase bifunctional catalyst for lithium-oxygen batteries.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A lithium-oxygen battery would deliver the highest energy density of a rechargeable battery, but the multiphase electrochemical reaction on the air cathode has difficulty proceeding when operated with only solid catalysts. We report here the organic-electrolyte-dissolved iron phthalocyanine (FePc) as a shuttle of (O2)(-) species and electrons between the surface of the electronic conductor and the insulator Li2O2 product of discharge. The Li2O2 is observed to grow and decompose without direct contact with carbon, which greatly enhances the electrochemical performance. Our results signal that the use of molecular shuttles that are catalytically active may prove to be enablers of a practical lithium-air rechargeable battery.
Related JoVE Video
Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the hirudin-modified silk fibroin.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hirudin (Hir), a thrombin direct inhibitor, was used to modify a polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEG-DE) crosslinked regenerated silk fibroin (SF) material to improve hemocompatibility. Hemolysis characteristics, platelet adhesion, platelet activity, and plasma recalcification time were investigated using absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, MTT analysis, and the time counting method. Hirudin could be grafted evenly to the silk fibroin, and the modified material was resistant to hemolysis at ratios of less than 0.5%. Scanning electron microscopy and MTT results showed that platelet adhesion and aggregation activity decreased after modificaton with trace amounts of hirudin, compared with PEG-DE crosslinked and ethanol-treated silk fibroin film. Plasma recalcification of PEG-DE crosslinked silk fibroin film was slower than with ethanol-treated material, and this increased slightly after hirudin modification. Furthermore, L929, HAVSMC, and HUVEC cells adhered to the modified material, grew well, and possessed high proliferation activity on SF/Hir blend films. This study suggests that hirudin could improve the anticoagulation properties of regenerated silk fibroin materials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced levels of interleukin?1 receptor antagonist act as a marker for pneumonia in the elderly.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pneumonia is a disease causing serious inflammation and infection of the lungs and accounts for >50,000 mortalities annually. The elderly are at an increased risk of developing pneumonia. Pneumonia is more serious in the elderly than in any other age group due to the increased inflammation and risk of community?acquired pneumonia associated with aging. Interleukin?1 receptor antagonist (IL?1RA) is an anti?inflammatory protein that counteracts the destructive effects of inflammatory proteins. Therefore, the possible association between pneumonia in elderly individuals and reduced levels of IL?1RA was investigated in the present study. The number of lymphocytes was counted in all subjects and the relative protein expression levels of IL?1RA were determined using western blot analysis. In addition, the immunological activities of IL?1RA were measured using ELISA. The results demonstrated that the numbers of lymphocytes in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly higher in elderly patients than those in young patients. Furthermore, the serum and BALF levels of IL?1RA in elderly patients were significantly lower than those in young patients (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Therefore, reduced levels of IL?1RA in BALF may act as a marker for pneumonia in the elderly and may be a potential adjuvant for the diagnosis of pneumonia in elderly individuals. The results also showed that smoking was associated with significant reductions in the levels of IL?1RA in the BALF of elderly patients. The association between smokers and non?smokers found in this study provides support for the hypothesis that smoking may contribute to the pathogenesis of pneumonia by further reducing IL?IRA levels in certain elderly patients.
Related JoVE Video
Diallyl disulfide inhibits proliferation and transdifferentiation of lung fibroblasts through induction of cyclooxygenase and synthesis of prostaglandin E?.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) are critically involved in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inducing the proliferation and transdifferentiation of lung fibroblasts. In the present study, we examined the impact of diallyl disulfide (DADS), a garlic-derived compound, on such pathological conditions. DADS showed profound inhibitory effects on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of human and mouse lung fibroblasts. DADS also abrogated the TGF-?1-induced expression of ?-smooth muscle actin, type I collagen and fibronectin. Following treatment with DADS, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the synthesis of prostaglandin E? (PGE?) were found to be markedly enhanced, which in turn led to elevated cAMP levels in lung fibroblasts. Notably, the effect of DADS was largely abolished in the presence of either COX inhibitor indomethacin or siRNA-targeting COX-2, or in the absence of the PGE? receptor EP2, supporting an essential role for the COX-2-PGE?-cAMP autocrine loop. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the upregulated expression of COX-2 was a result of increased level of histone 3 acetylation at COX-2 locus in DADS-treated cells. Together, these results suggest that DADS, by inducing COX-2 expression, may have therapeutic potential in treating lung fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1? are associated with vasculogenic mimicry and impact on survival in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation is important for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The present study aimed to investigate the association between signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphor-STAT3 (p-STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and VM formation in GAC, and discuss their clinical significance and correlation with the prognosis of patients with GAC. The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM were assessed in 60 cases of patients with GAC and 20 cases of patients with gastritis on tissue microarrays by immunohistochemical methods. The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM were higher in patients with GAC (particularly in poorly differentiated GAC) than in those with gastritis (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1? were higher in VM tissues compared with non-VM tissues (P<0.05). Positive correlations existed between STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM expression (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1?, VM, status of lymph node metastasis and tumor differentiation degree were associated with the overall survival time of patients with GAC (P<0.05). However, only p-STAT3 and VM expression were identified as the independent risk factors of GAC OS when analyzed with multivariate analysis. p-STAT3 and VM play a significant role in indicating the prognosis of patients with GAC. STAT3 activation may play a positive role in VM formation of GAC by the STAT3-p-STAT3-HIF-1?-VM effect axis.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative analysis of six lignans in fruits with different colours of Schisandra chinensis by HPLC.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method was utilised for the simultaneous determination of six major lignans in Schisandra chinensis with different colours continuously for the next 2 years. Six lignans were successfully separated on a C18 column at 254 nm using a gradient of acetonitrile and water. The assay was applied for analysing six lignans in the different colours of fruits of S. chinensis such as red, pink or white, and the component stability for the next 2 years was also detected. The result indicated that the total content of lignans in fruits with different colours varied remarkably, which was relatively high in red fruits, followed by white fruits and the lowest in pink fruits. Moreover, the contents of lignans in the samples of S. chinensis examined for the next 2 years changed irregularly and marginally.
Related JoVE Video
Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 deficiency exacerbates pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), an inducible enzyme that converts prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), plays an important role in a variety of diseases. So far, the role of mPGES-1 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remained unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the role of mPGES-1 in pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. We found that mPGES-1 deficient (mPGES-1-/-) mice exhibited more severe fibrotic lesions with a decrease in PGE2 content in lungs after bleomycin treatment when compared with wild type (mPGES-1+/+) mice. The mPGES-1 expression levels and PGE2 content were also decreased in bleomycin-treated mPGES-1+/+ mice compared to saline-treated mPGES-1+/+ mice. Moreover, in both mPGES-1-/- and mPGES-1+/+ mice, bleomycin treatment reduced the expression levels of E prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2) and EP4 receptor in lungs, whereas had little effect on EP1 and EP3. In cultured human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5), siRNA-mediated knockdown of mPGES-1 augmented transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-induced ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) protein expression, and the increase was reversed by treatment of PGE2, selective EP2 agonist and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings revealed mPGES-1 exerts an essential effect against pulmonary fibrogenesis via EP2-mediated signaling transduction, and activation of mPGES-1-PGE2-EP2-FAK signaling pathway may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IPF patients.
Related JoVE Video
Association of HLA-B*1502 and *1511 allele with antiepileptic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in central China.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and HLA-B*1502 in Han Chinese. Here, we extended the study of HLA-B*1502 susceptibility to two different antiepileptic drugs, oxcarbazepine (OXC) and phenobarbital (PB). In addition, we genotyped HLA-B*1511 in a case of CBZ-induced SJS with genotype negative for HLA-B*1502. The presence of HLA-B*1502 was determined using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). Moreover, we genotyped HLA-B*1502 in 17 cases of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs), in comparison with AEDs-tolerant (n=32) and normal controls (n=38) in the central region of China. The data showed that HLA-B*1502 was positive in 5 of 6 cases of AEDs-induced SJS (4 CBZ, 1 OXC and 1 PB), which was significantly more frequent than AEDs-tolerant (2/32, 18 CBZ, 6 PB and 8 OXC) and normal controls (3/38). Compared with AEDs-tolerant and normal controls, the OR for patients carrying the HLA-B*1502 with AEDs-induced SJS was 6.25 (95% CI: 1.06-36.74) and 4.86 (95% CI: 1.01-23.47). The sensitivity and specificity of HLA-B*1502 for prediction of AEDs-induced SJS were 71.4%. The sensitivity and specificity of HLA-B*1502 for prediction of CBZ-induced SJS were 60% and 94%. HLA-B*1502 was not found in 11 children with maculopapular exanthema (MPE) (n=9) and hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS) (n=2). However, we also found one case of CBZ-induced SJS who was negative for HLA-B*1502 but carried HLA-B*1511. It was suggested that the association between the CBZ-induced SJS and HLA-B*1502 allele in Han Chinese children can extend to other aromatic AEDs including OXC and PB related SJS. HLA-B*1511 may be a risk factor for some patients with CBZ-induced SJS negative for HLA-B*1502.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ? 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria.
Related JoVE Video
Two new susceptibility loci 1q24.2 and 11p11.2 confer risk to severe acne.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severe acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by widespread inflammatory lesions including nodules, cysts and potential scarring. Here we perform the first genome-wide association study of severe acne in a Chinese Han population comprising 1,056 cases and 1,056 controls using the Illumina HumanOmniZhongHua-8 BeadChip. In an independent cohort of 1,860 cases and 3,660 controls of Chinese Han, we replicate 101 SNPs of which 3 showed consistent association. We identify two new susceptibility loci at 11p11.2 (DDB2, rs747650, P(combined)=4.41 × 10?? and rs1060573, P(combined)=1.28 × 10??) and 1q24.2 (SELL, rs7531806, P(combined)=1.20 × 10??) that are involved in androgen metabolism, inflammation processes and scar formation in severe acne. These results point to new genetic susceptibility factors and suggest several new biological pathways related to severe acne.
Related JoVE Video
Combined effects of temperature and avermectins on life history and stress response of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Temperature and pesticide are two important factors that affect survival, reproduction and other physiological processes of insects. To determine interactions of elevated temperature and avermectins treatment on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, newly emerged adults were exposed to combinations of three temperatures (21, 26 and 33 °C) and two avermectins concentrations (0, 45 ppm), and survival rate, reproduction, longevity, antioxidant enzymes activities and heat shock proteins (hsps) induction were analyzed. The results showed that the survival, longevity and reproduction of F. occidentalis decreased with increased temperature and avermectins treatment. While elevated temperature and avermectins treatment significantly decreased activity of SOD, activities of POD and GST significantly increased after exposure to elevated temperature, avermectins or their combination. Elevated temperature had no effect on activity of CAT, but it was obviously improved by the combination of temperature and avermectins treatment. Expression analysis of hsps showed that four heat shock proteins (hsp90, hsc702, hsp60 and hop) were up-regulated by the induction of elevated temperature with small fold changes. After treatment with avermectins, expression levels of hsp90, hsc701, hsc702 and hop were significantly up-regulated with increased temperature and higher than those of their respective control at higher temperature. Surprisingly, expression level of hps60 was down-regulated with increased temperature, but the expression level at 21 or 26 °C remained higher than that of control. Overall, our studies suggest that elevated temperature enhance toxicity of avermectins and their combination induced acute oxidative damage to F. occidentalis. Therefore, consideration of temperature in evaluating avermectins toxicity is necessary to make accurate prediction of its effect on F. occidentalis and other insects.
Related JoVE Video
Time pressure inhibits dynamic advantage in the classification of facial expressions of emotion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies suggest an advantage in the recognition of dynamic over static facial expressions of emotion. Here, we explored the differences in the processing of static and dynamic faces under condition of time pressure. A group of 18 participants classified static and dynamic facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral). In order to increase the goal-directed attention, instructions emphasized speed and announced time pressure in the interval for the response (maximal 600 ms). Participants responded faster and more accurately in the static than in the dynamic condition. Event-related potentials (ERPs) showed larger amplitude of the P1 (90-130 ms) and LPC (300-600 ms) components for dynamic relative to static stimuli, indicating enhanced early visual processing and emotional attention. On the other hand, the N170 was more negative in static relative to dynamic faces, suggesting better structural encoding for static faces under time pressure. The present study shows some advantages in the processing of static over dynamic facial expressions of emotion when the top-down (goal-driven) attention is strengthened.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of developing xylem responding to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli in Betula platyphylla.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Betula platyphylla Suk (birch) is a fast-growing woody species that is important in pulp industries and the biofuels. However, as an important pulp species, few studies had been performed on its wood formation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular responses of birch xylem to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli. After trunks of birch trees were subjected to bending for 8 weeks, the cellulose content was significantly greater in tension wood (TW) than in opposite wood (OW) or normal wood (NW), whereas the lignin content in TW was significantly lower than that in OW and NW. In addition, TW grew more rapidly than OW and generated TW-specific fibers with an additional G-layer. Three transcriptome libraries were constructed from TW, OW and NW of B. platyphylla, respectively, after the plants were subjected to artificial bending. Overall, 80,909 nonredundant unigenes with a mean size of 768 nt were assembled. Expression profiles were generated, and 9,684 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the TW, OW and NW libraries. These included genes involved in secondary cell wall structure, wood composition, and cellulose or lignin biosynthesis. Our study showed that during TW formation, genes involved in cellulose synthesis were induced, while the expression of lignin synthesis-related genes decreased, resulting in increased cellulose content and decreased lignin levels in TW. In addition, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins play important role in TW formation. These findings may provide important insights into wood formation at the molecular level.
Related JoVE Video
[Detection and clinical significance of platelet derived growth factor-BB and microvessel density in clear cell renal cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and microvessel density (MVD) marked with CD34 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and explore their relevance to clinicopathologic features and prognoses of patients.
Related JoVE Video
An improve method for somatic embryogenesis of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon.
Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A somatic embryogenesis protocol for plant regeneration of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon was established. Increased callus induction was obtained from mature zygotic embryos on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) N-phenyl-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl-urea (TDZ) or 2.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Addition of Zeatin (Zt) promoted the formation of embryogenic calli. To induce somatic embryogenesis, 2,4-D, TDZ and Zt were incorporated in the medium alone or in combination. Development of the maximum number of somatic embryos (81 globular, 37 heart, 52 torpedo and 37 cotyledon-stage) and germination of the highest number of embryos (50%) was observed on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) TDZ and 0.2 mg L(-1) Zt. Further development of somatic embryos into plantlets was completed in 1/2 MS medium free of plant growth regulators.
Related JoVE Video
Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.
Related JoVE Video
Association analyses identifying two common susceptibility loci shared by psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus in the Chinese Han population.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed a large number of genetic risk loci for many autoimmune diseases. One clear finding emerging from the published genetic studies of autoimmunity is that different autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), share susceptibility loci. Our study explores additional susceptibility loci shared by psoriasis and SLE in the Chinese Han population.
Related JoVE Video
A single-site retrospective study of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke etiology, clinical presentation, and radiologic features.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stroke occurs upon obstruction of cerebral blood circulation and is clinically characterized by sudden onset symptoms. Advanced age is the main risk factor of stroke, but cases of pediatric stroke have been rarely reported. This study aimed to determine the etiology, clinical presentation, and radiologic features of neurological deficit for pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS).
Related JoVE Video
[The manipulation technique and clinical application of kinetic cupping].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The characteristic of kinetic cupping is explained from treatment principles, manipulation and clinical application. The kinetic cupping is a new particular therapy that combines traditional cupping and kinetic therapy. With cups on the patient, limb action like flexion-extension, adduction-abduction and rotation is made to reinforce clinical effects, which has simple and safe manipulation, obvious efficacy and is well accepted by patient. It has more obvious advantage for pain that was caused by large-area soft tissue injury and discomfort where acupuncture is not appropriate.
Related JoVE Video
The association between CCL2 polymorphisms and drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese children.
Epileptic Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy remains a major challenge, affecting approximately 30% of epilepsy patients. More recently, immunity and inflammation are considered to be key elements of epilepsy. Targeting brain inflammation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for epilepsy and refractory epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the association of a tag SNP of the CCL2 gene, rs1024611 (originally designated as -2578G>A or -2518G>A) with drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese children with epilepsy. We enrolled 484 epilepsy patients, including 98 drug-resistant patients and 386 drug-responsive patients. The rs1024611 was genotyped by PCR-RPLP. The rs1024611 AA genotype was associated with a greater susceptibility to drug-resistant epilepsy (p=0.008; OR=2.51, 95% CI: 1.33-4.72), adjusted for age, sex, and seizure type, and the association remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that the CCL2 genetic polymorphism is associated with drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese paediatric patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on correlation between neuropsychological features and Chinese medical syndrome types in patients with Wilsons disease].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the correlation between neuropsychological features and Chinese medical syndrome types in Wilsons disease (WD) patients, thus providing evidence for early intervention by syndrome typing.
Related JoVE Video
Live cell cycle analysis of Drosophila tissues using the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer and Vybrant DyeCycle violet DNA stain.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flow cytometry has been widely used to obtain information about DNA content in a population of cells, to infer relative percentages in different cell cycle phases. This technique has been successfully extended to the mitotic tissues of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster for genetic studies of cell cycle regulation in vivo. When coupled with cell-type specific fluorescent protein expression and genetic manipulations, one can obtain detailed information about effects on cell number, cell size and cell cycle phasing in vivo. However this live-cell method has relied on the use of the cell permeable Hoechst 33342 DNA-intercalating dye, limiting users to flow cytometers equipped with a UV laser. We have modified this protocol to use a newer live-cell DNA dye, Vybrant DyeCycle Violet, compatible with the more common violet 405nm laser. The protocol presented here allows for efficient cell cycle analysis coupled with cell type, relative cell size and cell number information, in a variety of Drosophila tissues. This protocol extends the useful cell cycle analysis technique for live Drosophila tissues to a small benchtop analyzer, the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, which can be run and maintained on a single-lab scale.
Related JoVE Video
Variants in TNFSF4, TNFAIP3, TNIP1, BLK, SLC15A4 and UBE2L3 interact to confer risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese population.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous genome-wide association studies on SLE have identified several susceptibility genes involved in NF-?B signaling pathway, including TNFSF4, TNFAIP3, TNIP1, BLK, SLC15A4 and UBE2L3. The aim of this study is to investigate the association model (additive, dominant, recessive) of these genes and search for possible gene-gene interactions between them. In this study, we explored the association model of these six genes and search for possible gene-gene interactions based on identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among them by using logistic regression analysis in the combined sample of 4,199 cases and 8,255 controls. The most significant association evidence was observed under recessive model for all of these SNPs. Besides, significant interactions between these SNPs were observed in this study: the TNFSF4 and TNIP1 SNPs (P adjusted = 1.68E-10), the TNFSF4 and SLC15A4 SNPs (P adjusted = 3.55E-08), the TNFSF4 and UBE2L3 SNPs (P adjusted = 8.74E-13), the TNIP1 and BLK SNPs (P adjusted = 9.45E-10), the TNIP1 and UBE2L3 SNPs (P adjusted = 8.25E-11), the TNFAIP3 and UBE2L3 SNPs (P adjusted = 3.06E-14) and the BLK and SLC15A4 SNPs (P adjusted = 4.51E-12). These results may contribute to our understanding of SLE genetic interactions and account for the additional risk of certain patients to develop SLE.
Related JoVE Video
Cytocompatibility of a silk fibroin tubular scaffold.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) materials are increasingly used for tissue engineering applications. In order to explore the feasibility of a novel biomimetic silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG-DE), biocompatibility with cells was evaluated. The novel biomimetic design of the SFTS consisted of three distinct layers: a regenerated SF intima, a silk braided media and a regenerated SF adventitia. The SFTS exhibited even silk fibroin penetration throughout the braid, forming a porous layered tube with superior mechanical, permeable and cell adhesion properties that are beneficial to vascular regeneration. Cytotoxicity and cell compatibility were tested on L929 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926). DNA content analysis, scanning electron and confocal microscopies and MTT assay showed no inhibitory effects on DNA replication. Cell morphology, viability and proliferation were good for L929 cells, and satisfactory for EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, the suture retention strength of the SFTS was about 23N and the Youngs modulus was 0.2-0.3MPa. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PEG-DE crosslinked SFTS possesses the appropriate cytocompatibility and mechanical properties for use as vascular scaffolds as an alternative to vascular autografts.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular cloning and expression pattern of 11 genes involved in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
11 genes involved in lipid metabolism were cloned from liver of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, including CPT 1A, CPT 1B, PPAR?, PPAR?, SREBP-1, G6PD, 6PGD, FAS, acetyl-CoA ACCa, ACCb, and LPL. Phylogenetic analysis further identified these genes, and confirmed the classification and evolutionary status of yellow catfish. mRNA of all eleven genes was present in liver, muscle, mesenteric adipose, ovary and heart, but at varying levels. The present study will facilitate further studies on the regulation of lipid metabolism at the molecular level for the fish species.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of mTOR signalling potentiates the effects of trichostatin A in human gastric cancer cell lines by promoting histone acetylation.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway (mTOR pathway) is associated with human cancer. The relationship between mTOR pathway and histone acetylation is still unclear in gastric cancer (GC). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the phosphorylation of mTOR and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in GC tissues. MKN45 and SGC7901 cells were treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) alone or in combination with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology was also used to knockdown mTOR. Phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated 4E-BP1 were expressed in 71.1% and 68.4% of the human GC tissues tested, respectively; significantly higher than the levels in para-cancerous tissues (50% and 57.9%) and normal tissues (44.6% and 29%). RAPA markedly inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 cell cycle arrest, and reduced phosphorylation of p70 S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) and 4E-BP1 in GC cells, particularly when used in combination with LY294002 or TSA. The mRNA expression of the tumour suppressor gene p21(WAF1) increased significantly in GC cells treated with both RAPA and TSA. Histone acetylation also increased after RAPA and TSA treatment or siRNA knockdown of mTOR. Our findings suggest that the mTOR pathway is activated in GC, and also that inhibition of mTOR enhances the ability of TSA to suppress cell proliferation and lead to cell cycle arrest via increasing histone acetylation and p21(WAF1) transcription in human MKN45 and SGC7901 GC cells.
Related JoVE Video
The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism rs11966200 in MHC region and clinical features of generalized vitiligo in Chinese Han population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes. A strong association at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11966200 within MHC region had been identified in a recent genome-wide association study of generalized vitiligo in Chinese Han population. This study aims to investigate the relationships between SNP rs11966200 and the clinical features of generalized vitiligo in Chinese Han population. We compared the allele and genotype frequency among different vitiligo subphenotypes including age onset, extent of disease, clinical subtypes, family history of vitiligo and history of autoimmune disease. Our data showed SNP rs11966200 was associated with early-onset vitiligo (onset age ? 20 years) (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; p = 2.01 × 10(-13)), moderate-severe vitiligo (involved body surface ? 5 %) (OR, 1.17; p = 0.025), vitiligo vulgaris (OR, 1.13; p = 0.043), and focal vitiligo (OR, 0.86; p = 0.018). The study suggested that the underlying risk causal allele tagged by SNP rs11966200 might not only play important roles in the development of vitiligo, but also contribute to the diverse clinical characteristics of generalized vitiligo at least in Chinese Han population.
Related JoVE Video
STAT3 is associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to explore the detailed signal transduction mechanism of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) that contributes to the progression of gastric cancer (GC). The STAT3 expression, phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression, and EGFR expression were evaluated by using molecular detection methods of GC tissues, adjacent non-tumor tissues, GC cell lines, and normal gastric cell line. Cetuximab was administered in each cell line to demonstrate the correlations among the above biomarkers. Survival and relationship analyses were adopted to demonstrate the important mechanism of EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway contributing to the progression of GC. STAT3 expression, pSTAT3 expression, and EGFR expression in GC tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissues, respectively. Similarly, we found that STAT3 expression, pSTAT3 expression, and EGFR expression were much higher in GC cell lines than those in GES-1 cell line. With cetuximab administration, both STAT3 expression and pSTAT3 expression in all GC cell lines decreased simultaneously. With Cox proportional hazards model analysis, pSTAT3 expression was identified as the independent predictors of the overall survival of GC patients, as was EGFR expression. Furthermore, we found that there were significant associations between STAT3 expression, pSTAT3 expression, EGFR expression, and lymph node metastasis in GC tissues. The activation of EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway may contribute to lymph node metastasis, which can promote the progression of GC.
Related JoVE Video
Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) ?g Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPAR? genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-? (PPAR?)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu exposure indicated the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism following waterborne Cu exposure. To our knowledge, the present study provides, for the first time, evidence that waterborne chronic Cu exposure can disturb the normal processes of lipid metabolism at both the enzymatic and molecular levels, and in two tissues (the liver and adipose tissue), which serves to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism during Cu exposure.
Related JoVE Video
A quantum dot probe conjugated with a? antibody for molecular imaging of Alzheimers disease in a mouse model.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The treatment of Alzheimers disease (AD) has been hampered by a lack of sensitive and specific non-invasive diagnostic methods. Quantum dots (QD) are nano-crystals with unique photo-physical properties that bypass some of the limitations of conventional dyes and imaging tools. This study is aimed to evaluate the fluorescence properties of a QD probe conjugated with an anti-A? antibody (QD-A?-Ab). Healthy mice and mice bearing mutated human APP695swe and APP717 V-F transgenes received intracerebroventricular injection of the probe for subsequent imaging. Immunohistochemistry revealed that A?1-42 was distributed in the hippocampus CA1 area in the APP transgenic mice. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that fluorescence was mainly observed in the hippocampus area, the cerebral cortex, sagittal septum and striatum of APP transgenic mice. In vivo imaging of mice receiving the QD-A?-Ab probe showed that healthy mice exhibited a narrow range of fluorescence and lower fluorescence intensity compared with APP transgenic mice. The mean fluorescence intensity of brain tissues of healthy C57BL mice was 12.3784 ± 3.9826, which was significantly lower than that of 10- and 16-month-old APP transgenic mice (45.03 ± 2.66 and 46.69 ± 3.22, respectively; P < 0.05). In this study we present the first direct evidence that QD-A?-Ab conjugate probes can track in vivo state of A? accumulation in mice and the findings suggest that such probes may be of potential use for early molecular diagnostic imaging of AD.
Related JoVE Video
Slug promoted vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumour cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator slug have been implicated in the tumour invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between slug and VM formation is not clear. In the study, we demonstrated that slug expression was associated with EMT and cancer stem cell (CSCs) phenotype in HCC patients. Importantly, slug showed statistically correlation with VM formation. We consistently demonstrated that an overexpression of slug in HCC cells significantly increased CSCs subpopulation that was obvious by the increased clone forming efficiency in soft agar and by flowcytometry analysis. Meantime, the VM formation and VM mediator overexpression were also induced by slug induction. Finally, slug overexpression lead to the maintenance of CSCs phenotype and VM formation was demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that slug induced the increase and maintenance of CSCs subpopulation and contributed to VM formation eventually. The related molecular pathways may be used as novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of HCC angiogenesis and metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiological and molecular characterization of community and hospital acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains prevailing in Shenyang, Northeastern China.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to obtain adequate information for the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, it is crucial to identify trends in epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance patterns of local S. aureus strains. Community and hospital acquired S. aureus isolates (n=202) were characterized using staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, spa typing and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (pvl) and several antibiotic resistance genes among the isolates were also detected by PCR. All of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. Three hospital isolates were resistant to teicoplanin while 14 showed intermediate resistance to teicoplanin. The resistance patterns of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates to other antimicrobials were similar to those of hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates except for clindamycin and gentamicin. There was excellent correlation between phenotypes and genotypes in the determination of S. aureus resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline. The SCCmec type II and SCCmec type IV were the predominant types detected in hospital and community isolates, respectively. The most frequently encountered spa types were t002 and t030 both in HA- and CA-MRSA isolates. Pulsotype A was the most predominant pulsotype identified among the isolates tested, followed by pulsotype B. Seventy-two hospital isolates (19 HA-MRSA and 53 HA-MSSA) and 10 CA-MRSA were positive for the pvl gene. This study shows that the combination of susceptibility testing and various molecular methods has provided useful information on the antibiotic resistance and molecular diversity of S. aureus in a specific region of China. The high proportion of pvl positive MSSA and MRSA isolates observed in this study indicates that adequate measures are needed to curtail the spread of those MRSA and MSSA clones prevailing both in hospital and the community.
Related JoVE Video
Estimated HIV Incidence in California, 2006-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial for prioritizing, targeting, and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. Using the methodology the CDC used to estimate national HIV incidence, we estimated HIV incidence in Los Angeles County (LAC), San Francisco (SF), and Californias remaining counties.
Related JoVE Video
One novel susceptibility locus associate with systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese Han population.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study is to explore additional susceptibility factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese Hans. Based on our previous GWAS of SLE, we performed a multistage replication study involving 3,152 cases and 7,050 controls from China to identify additional susceptibility loci for SLE by using the Sequenom MassArray system. All Chinese Han samples used in this study were obtained from doctors through collaboration with multiple hospitals in two geographic regions (central and southern China). Single-marker association analyses were performed using logistic regression with gender as a covariate in each case-control cohort. The joint analysis of all combined samples was performed using logistic regression with gender and sample cohorts as covariates. The significant association evidence for rs906868 (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08-1.20, P combined = 7.71 × 10(-10)) and rs7579944 (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19, P combined = 5.55 × 10(-9)) was observed, which located at 2p23.1. In this region, limb bud and heart development homolog (LBH) was the only gene indicated, suggesting LBH might be a susceptibility gene for SLE, although its function was still unknown. The results indicated that the SNP rs7579944, rs906868 at 2p23.1 showed significant association with SLE. The genes LBH which located in this loci might be the predisposing genes of SLE.
Related JoVE Video
Pelvic floor muscle exercise for chronic low back pain.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.
Related JoVE Video
Role of STAT3 and vitamin D receptor in EZH2-mediated invasion of human colorectal cancer.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), which has histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity, is overexpressed in malignant tumours. However, the role of EZH2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion is little known. Here we investigated the clinical significance, biological effects, and mechanisms of EZH2 signalling. Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced cell invasion and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9) in in vitro studies. Knockdown of EZH2 dramatically increased overall survival and decreased metastasis of lung in in vivo studies. Conversely, overexpression of EZH2 significantly increased lung metastasis and shortened overall survival when compared with control tumours. EZH2-induced CRC cell invasion may depend on down-regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is considered to be a marker of CRC invasion. EZH2 regulates the histone trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the VDR promoter. Moreover, we found that STAT3 directly binds to the EZH2 promoter and regulates VDR down-regulation in CRC cells. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the expression of EZH2 and pSTAT3 and that of VDR in CRC tissues compared with normal tissue in patients. We show the role of EZH2 in CRC metastasis and identify VDR as a target gene of EZH2. EZH2 expression may be directly regulated by STAT3, and STAT3 may play an important role in EZH2-mediated VDR down-regulation in CRC. This pathway may provide potential targets in aggressive CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Plasticity at axon initial segment of hippocampal CA3 neurons in rat after status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized membrane region in the axon of neurons wherein numerous specific voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are clustered and action potentials are initiated. The AIS is currently considered as a new plastic hotspot.
Related JoVE Video
A c-Myc-MicroRNA functional feedback loop affects hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
c-Myc (Myc) plays an important role in normal liver development and tumorigenesis. We show here that Myc is pathologically activated in and essential for promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Myc induces HCC through a novel, microRNA (miRNA)-mediated feedback loop comprised of miR-148a-5p, miR-363-3p, and ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28). Myc directly binds to conserved regions in the promoters of the two miRNAs and represses their expression. miR-148a-5p directly targets and inhibits Myc, whereas miR-363-3p destabilizes Myc by directly targeting and inhibiting USP28. Inhibition of miR-148a-5p or miR-363-3p induces hepatocellular tumorigenesis by promoting G1 to S phase progression, whereas activation of them has the opposite effects. The Myc-miRNA feedback loop is dysregulated in human HCC. Conclusion: These results define miR-148a-5p and miR-363-3p as negative regulators of Myc, thus revealing their heretofore unappreciated roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;57:2378-2389).
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a Missense Variant in LNPEP that Confers Psoriasis Risk.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a complex genetic architecture. To further advance gene discovery, we extended our genome-wide association study data set of 1,139 cases and 2,234 controls and replicated two independent cohorts of 7,200 cases and 10,491 controls. We identified the missense variant rs2303138 (p.Ala763Thr) within the LNPEP gene associated with psoriasis (Pcombined=1.83 × 10(-13), odds ratio=1.16) and validated four previously reported genes: IL28RA, NFKBIA, TRAF3IP2, and CARD14 (9.74 × 10(-11)?P?9.37 × 10(-5)), which confirmed the involvement of the nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway in psoriasis pathogenesis. LNPEP, also named insulin-responsive aminopeptidase, was identified as an angiotensin IV receptor. Protein function prediction suggested that this missense variant of LNPEP was most likely deleterious. Expression analysis showed that LNPEP was significantly downregulated in psoriatic lesions compared with the control skin (P=1.44 × 10(-6)) and uninvolved patient skin (P=2.95 × 10(-4)). Pathway analysis indicated that LNPEP was involved in the renin-angiotensin system, which also has a key role in cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These results provided genetic evidence that psoriasis might share common mechanisms with hypertension and diabetes, which was consistent with clinical observations. Our study identified a genetic susceptibility factor and provided genetic evidence of insight into psoriasis pathogenesis with the involvement of the renin-angiotensin system pathway.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 August 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.317.
Related JoVE Video
Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2 V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2 V produced the highest power of 1330±60 mW m(-2) for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2 V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential.
Related JoVE Video
Radioactive ¹²?I seed inhibits the cell growth, migration, and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by triggering DNA damage and inactivating VEGF-A/ERK signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although radiotherapy technology has progressed rapidly in the past decade, the inefficiency of radiation and cancer cell resistance mean that the 5-year survival rate of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is low. Radioactive (125)I seed implantation has received increasing attention as a clinical treatment for cancers. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important members of the VEGF family and plays an important role in cell migration through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that radioactive (125)I seeds more effectively inhibit NPC cell growth through DNA damage and subsequent induction of apoptosis, compared with X-ray irradiation. Moreover, cell migration was effectively inhibited by (125)I seed irradiation through VEGF-A/ERK inactivation. VEGF-A pretreatment significantly blocked (125)I seed irradiation-induced inhibition of cell migration by recovering the levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) protein. Interestingly, in vivo study results confirmed that (125)I seed irradiation was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than X-ray irradiation. Taken together, these results suggest that radioactive (125)I seeds exert novel anticancer activity by triggering DNA damage and inactivating VEGF-A/ERK signaling. Our finding provides evidence for the efficacy of (125)I seeds for treating NPC patients, especially those with local recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
HnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF regulate alternative splicing of interferon regulatory factor-3 and affect immunomodulatory functions in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticule A1/A2 (hnRNP A1/A2) and splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) are pivotal for precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) plays critical roles in host defense against viral and microbial infection. Truncated IRF-3 proteins resulting from alternative splicing have been identified and characterized as functional antagonists to full-length IRF-3. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for splicing regulation of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and first reported the regulatory effect of hnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF on IRF-3 splicing and activation. RNA interference-mediated depletion of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 gene and reduced expression levels of IRF-3 protein and IRF-3 downstream effector molecules interferon-beta and CXCL10/IP-10. In addition, direct binding of hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF to specific binding motifs in IRF-3 intron 1 was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Subsequent minigene splicing assay showed that IRF-3 minigenes with mutated hnRNPA 1/A2 or SF2/ASF binding motifs increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in NSCLC cells reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but suppressed that of interleukin-10 in NSCLC/PBMC co-cultures. Taken together, our results suggest that specific knockdown for hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF increase exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and influence immunomodulatory functions of human NSCLC cells.
Related JoVE Video
[Inhibitory effect of chondroitinase ABC on ephrin A4 expression after spinal cord injury in rats].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) on ephrin A4 (EphA4) expression after spinal cord impairment (SCI) in rats. Adult female SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: ChABC group, normal saline (NS) group and sham group. In the ChABC and NS group, the SCI model was produced by the spinal cord hemisection. The rats in sham group received sham operation without the spinal hemisection. ChABC and NS groups were intrathecally injected with ChABC and normal saline, respectively. At different time points after SCI, injured region of spinal cord was taken out as sample. The levels of EphA4 expression were measured by immunofluorescence technique and Western blot. And the expressions of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected using double immunofluorescent staining. Immunofluorescent results showed that, compared with that in sham group, the EphA4 expression was significantly down-regulated on 1, 3 and 7 d after SCI, then up-regulated on 14 and 21 d after SCI in NS group. In ChABC group, the level of EphA4 expression was significantly less than that in the NS group during the whole time after SCI. Western blot showed an identical result to that of immunofluorescent staining. The double labeling results showed that on 3 d after SCI, the number of GFAP, glial cells marker, positive cells in NS group was lower than that in sham group, but higher than that in ChABC group. Moreover, GAP-43 was not detected in all three groups. These results suggest that ChABC can decrease the expression level of EphA4 and reduce the number of astrocytes after SCI, thus improving microenvironment of the injured region and promoting axonal growth and extension.
Related JoVE Video
[A multicenter controlled study on aripiprazole treatment for children with Tourette syndrome in China].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of children with Tourette syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetics of the combined preparation of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide on Chinese healthy volunteers.
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study, performed on two different groups of volunteers, is to characterize the pharmacokinetics of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combined tablet. After administration of high, medium and low doses of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combined tablets, AUC and C(max) of two compounds both increase significantly with increase of dose. Neither normalized AUC/Dose nor C(max)/Dose has significant difference between every two tested dose groups. The similar results can be observed as for the parameters of t(max). Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are both eliminated with linear characteristics. After repeated administration of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combined tablets, AUC, C(max) and C(min) of lisinopril in the steady state increase. AUC and C(min) increase significantly. As for hydrochlorothiazide, AUC, C(max), C(min), and t(max) also increase in steady state. AUC and C(min) increase significantly. Administered with the test medication, lisinopril has an fluctuation index (FI) value of 2.29 and reaches a relative steady concentration. But hydrochlorothiazide has an FI value of 4.09 with relatively large fluctuating concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to establish a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (ATEPH) and to explore the feasibility of diagnosing pulmonary hypertension (PH) through the Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava (SVC). A canine model of ATEPH was developed by infusing thrombus into the right femoral vein. The pulmonary arterial pressure was simultaneously measured via a right heart catheter with the guidance of ultrasound. The maximum systolic peak flow velocity (SPV), ventricular reverse peak flow velocity (VRPV), diastolic peak flow velocity (DPV), and atrial reverse peak flow velocity (ARPV) of the SVC were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. ATEPH was successfully established in 24 dogs (88.9%) with the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) greater than 30 mmHg. ARPV increased significantly with the increase of PASP, and was positively correlated with PASP (P<0.001). The ARPV/SPV larger than 0.8 could be better adopted to identify all the subjects with PH in this study. The Doppler flow spectra of the SVC could be employed to assess the severity of ATEPH.?
Related JoVE Video
Syntrophic interactions improve power production in formic acid fed MFCs operated with set anode potentials or fixed resistances.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Formic acid is a highly energetic electron donor but it has previously resulted in low power densities in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different set anode potentials (-0.30, -0.15, and +0.15 V; vs. a standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) were used to evaluate syntrophic interactions in bacterial communities for formic acid degradation relative to a non-controlled, high resistance system (1,000 ? external resistance). No current was generated at -0.30 V, suggesting a lack of direct formic acid oxidation (standard reduction potential: -0.40 V). More positive potentials that allowed for acetic acid utilization all produced current, with the best performance at -0.15 V. The anode community in the -0.15 V reactor, based on 16S rDNA clone libraries, was 58% Geobacter sulfurreducens and 17% Acetobacterium, with lower proportions of these genera found in the other two MFCs. Acetic acid was detected in all MFCs suggesting that current generation by G. sulfurreducens was dependent on acetic acid production by Acetobacterium. When all MFCs were subsequently operated at an external resistance for maximum power production (100 ? for MFCs originally set at -0.15 and +0.15 V; 150 ? for the control), they produced similar power densities and exhibited the same midpoint potential of -0.15 V in first derivative cyclic voltammetry scans. All of the mixed communities converged to similar proportions of the two predominant genera (ca. 52% G. sulfurreducens and 22% Acetobacterium). These results show that syntrophic interactions can be enhanced through setting certain anode potentials, and that long-term performance produces stable and convergent communities.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study in Han Chinese identifies multiple susceptibility loci for IgA nephropathy.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in Han Chinese, with 1,434 affected individuals (cases) and 4,270 controls in the discovery phase and follow-up of the top 61 SNPs in an additional 2,703 cases and 3,464 controls. We identified associations at 17p13 (rs3803800, P = 9.40 × 10(-11), OR = 1.21; rs4227, P = 4.31 × 10(-10), OR = 1.23) and 8p23 (rs2738048, P = 3.18 × 10(-14), OR = 0.79) that implicated the genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNFSF13) and ?-defensin (DEFA) as susceptibility genes. In addition, we found multiple associations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (rs660895, P = 4.13 × 10(-20), OR = 1.34; rs1794275, P = 3.43 × 10(-13), OR = 1.30; rs2523946, P = 1.74 × 10(-11), OR = 1.21) and confirmed a previously reported association at 22q12 (rs12537, P = 1.17 × 10(-11), OR = 0.78). We also found that rs660895 was associated with clinical subtypes of IgAN (P = 0.003), proteinuria (P = 0.025) and IgA levels (P = 0.047). Our findings show that IgAN is associated with variants near genes involved in innate immunity and inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiological and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, from a hematology ward, with decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, we report on the reduced susceptibility to teicoplanin among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus haemolyticus in a hematology ward of a teaching hospital. The molecular characterization of 17 S. haemolyticus strains was performed using mec gene complex classification, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and minimum inhibitory concentration examination. Pulsotype A strains carrying a class C2 mec gene complex were the most prevalent strains, at 64.7%. In vivo selection of stepwise increase in resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin was observed in three S. haemolyticus strains serially isolated from a case patient. The results of the present study suggest the regional spread of certain S. haemolyticus clones with diminished susceptibility to glycopeptides, emphasizing the need for continuous monitoring of minimum inhibitory concentration levels of vancomycin and teicoplanin in S. haemolyticus strains, and the importance of infection control practices to prevent its transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiological investigation of measles in sera of healthy people in Heilongjiang Province, China.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serological samples of healthy people were collected to obtain the levels of measles antibodies in different groups of people in Heilongjiang Province, China. Using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure the antibody levels, we found the lowest antibody positive rate and the lowest geometric mean concentration values in healthy people aged 15-39. This group is the population at high risk for adult measles in Heilongjiang Province, and is the focus of measles elimination work. The new challenges for the eventual elimination of measles will be to address immunization strategies in this segment of the population in order to control the incidence.
Related JoVE Video
Wave propagation of functionally graded material plates in thermal environments.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The wave propagation of an infinite functionally graded plate in thermal environments is studied using the higher-order shear deformation plate theory. The thermal effects and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Considering the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, the governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are derived by using the Hamiltons principle. The analytic dispersion relation of the functionally graded plate is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples show that the characteristics of wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are relates to the volume fraction index and thermal environment of the functionally graded plate. The influences of the volume fraction distributions and temperature on wave propagation of functionally graded plate are discussed in detail. The results carried out can be used in the ultrasonic inspection techniques and structural health monitoring.
Related JoVE Video
TRAPPC4-ERK2 interaction activates ERK1/2, modulates its nuclear localization and regulates proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The trafficking protein particle complex 4 (TRAPPC4) is implicated in vesicle-mediated transport, but its association with disease has rarely been reported. We explored its potential interaction with ERK2, part of the ERK1/2 complex in the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase/ Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (ERK-MAPK) pathway, by a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down. Further investigation found that when TRAPPC4 was depleted, activated ERK1/2 specifically decreased in the nucleus, which was accompanied with cell growth suppression and apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Overexpression of TRAPPC4 promoted cell viability and caused activated ERK1/2 to increase overall, but especially in the nucleus. TRAPPC4 was expressed more highly in the nucleus of CRC cells than in normal colonic epithelium or adenoma which corresponded with nuclear staining of pERK1/2. We demonstrate here that TRAPPC4 may regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in CRC by interaction with ERK2 and subsequently phosphorylating ERK1/2 as well as modulating the subcellular location of pERK1/2 to activate the relevant signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study identifies two new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis in the Chinese Han population.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing form of inflammatory skin disorder that is affected by genetic and environmental factors. We performed a genome-wide association study of atopic dermatitis in a Chinese Han population using 1,012 affected individuals (cases) and 1,362 controls followed by a replication study in an additional 3,624 cases and 12,197 controls of Chinese Han ethnicity, as well as 1,806 cases and 3,256 controls from Germany. We identified previously undescribed susceptibility loci at 5q22.1 (TMEM232 and SLC25A46, rs7701890, P(combined) = 3.15 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.24) and 20q13.33 (TNFRSF6B and ZGPAT, rs6010620, P(combined) = 3.0 × 10(-8), OR = 1.17) and replicated another previously reported locus at 1q21.3 (FLG, rs3126085, P(combined) = 5.90 × 10(-12), OR = 0.82) in the Chinese sample. The 20q13.33 locus also showed evidence for association in the German sample (rs6010620, P = 2.87 × 10(-5), OR = 1.25). Our study identifies new genetic susceptibility factors and suggests previously unidentified biological pathways in atopic dermatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Spatial pattern analysis of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils based on spatial autocorrelation statistics.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study explored the spatial pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Morans I statistic of spatial autocorrelation. The global Morans I result showed that the spatial dependence of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different spatial weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global spatial correlations based on distance weight. The spatial dependence of the four metals was scale-dependent on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal spatial positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and spatial outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high spatial clusters, Low-high, or even High-low spatial outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had strongly changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase.
Related JoVE Video
Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among preclinical medical students: epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between May 2008 and October 2009, a total of 2103 interns were randomly tested for nasal colonization of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The prevalence of S. aureus among staphylococci specimens was 23.1%, and among the total S. aureus the MRSA prevalence was 9.4%. MRSA isolates were further subtyped using genetic element staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) band pattern, and multilocus sequence typing. SCCmec type IVa was the most prevalent strain, at 45.4 %. Eleven PFGE patterns were identified in MRSA strains, with 1 predominant (pulsotype A, 45.5%). Eight strains which belonged to clonal complex 78 carried type IVa SCCmec and produced type 3 coagulase. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes (lukS and F-PV) were identified in 10 (45.4%) MRSA strains; these predominately carried ?Sa2958type and ?Sa108PVL-like type PVL phages. After inducing prophages, 8 strains infected other S. aureus isolates and could generate novel PVL-positive strains of S. aureus. The present study demonstrates that interns can carry certain MRSA strains asymptomatically and contribute to the spread of MRSA between the community and hospital.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of TNF-? on ICAM-1 and LFA-1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with febrile seizures].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the effects of TNF-? on ICAM-1 and LFA-1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of children with febrile seizures (FS).
Related JoVE Video
Diethyl 2-{4-diethyl-amino-2-[(dimethyl-carbamothio-yl)-oxy]benzyl-idene}malonate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the title compound, C(21)H(30)N(2)O(5)S, the plane of the dimeth-yl-thio-carbamic group makes a dihedral angle of 78.41?(7)° with the central benzene ring. One of the carbonyl groups in the ?,?-unsaturated malonate side chain makes a dihedral angle of 8.73?(10)° with the central benzene ring, while the other carbonyl group makes a dihedral angle of 81.52?(8)°.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of valsartan on vasoconstriction induced by the chronic injury of the adventitia in the rat collared carotid artery].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vasoconstriction and vascular hypersensitivity to serotonin were previously shown in animal models of adventitia injury. We investigated the contribution of angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptors and oxidative stress to vascular contractility and reactivity in this model.
Related JoVE Video
Psoriasis regression analysis of MHC loci identifies shared genetic variants with vitiligo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with genetic components of both immune system and the epidermis. PSOR1 locus (6q21) has been strongly associated with psoriasis; however, it is difficult to identify additional independent association due to strong linkage disequilibrium in the MHC region. We performed stepwise regression analyses of more than 3,000 SNPs in the MHC region genotyped using Human 610-Quad (Illumina) in 1,139 cases with psoriasis and 1,132 controls of Han Chinese population to search for additional independent association. With four regression models obtained, two SNPs rs9468925 in HLA-C/HLA-B and rs2858881 in HLA-DQA2 were repeatedly selected in all models, suggesting that multiple loci outside PSOR1 locus were associated with psoriasis. More importantly we find that rs9468925 in HLA-C/HLA-B is associated with both psoriasis and vitiligo, providing first important evidence that two major skin diseases share a common genetic locus in the MHC, and a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanism of skin disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava in a rat model of chronic pulmonary hypertension.
Lab. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the changes of the Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava (SVC) in a rat model of chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty-two rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT) to establish a model of chronic PH. Eight rats from the control group had a sham operation by injecting Dulbeccos phosphate-buffered solution. Serial echocardiographic parameters of the SVC were analysed four weeks after treating with MCT or placebo, and the relationship was analysed between the Doppler flow spectra of SVC and the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP). PH models were successfully established in 29 rats. The right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and PASP in the PH group were significantly higher than those in the sham group at 28 days (P < 0.001). The ratios of SVC maximum reverse peak flow velocity/maximum systolic peak flow velocity (VAr/VS) and maximum reverse peak velocity time integral/maximum systolic peak velocity time integral (VTIAr/VTIS) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after MCT injection. These results demonstrate that echocardiography can be used to monitor the haemodynamic changes in SVC in MCT-induced chronic PH rat models. The ratios of VAr/VS and VTIAr/VTIS may be sensitive indices for evaluating PH.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.